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# FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD

## FOR 2-D HEAT EQUATION

SONAKSHI SINGH
SHIVAM KUMAR
THOTA KARTHIK

FINITE DIFFERENCE
Common definitions of the derivative of f(x):

f ( x dx) f ( x)
x f lim
dx0
dx
f ( x) f ( x dx)
x f lim
dx0
dx
f ( x dx) f ( x dx)
x f lim
dx0
2dx

## FINITE DIFFERENCE CONTINUATION

The equivalent approximations of the derivatives are:

f ( x dx) f ( x)
x f
dx

f ( x) f ( x dx)
x f
dx

f ( x dx) f ( x dx)
x f
2dx

forward difference

backward difference

centered difference

## FINITE DIFFERENCE CONTINUATION

The equivalent approximations of the
derivatives are:

f ( x dx) f ( x)
x f
dx

f ( x) f ( x dx)
x f
dx
f ( x dx) f ( x dx)
x f
2dx

forward difference
backward difference

centered difference

TAYLOR SERIES
Taylor series are expansions of a function f(x) for some
finite distance dx to f (x + dx)
2
3
4
dx
dx
dx
f ( x dx) f ( x) dxf ' ( x)
f '' ( x )
f ''' ( x )
f '''' ( x) ...
2!
3!
4!

f ( x dx) f ( x)
x f
dx

## TAYLOR SERIES CONTINUATION

f ( x dx ) f ( x )
1
dx 2 ''
dx 3 '''
'

dx
f
(
x
)

f
(
x
)

f
(
x
)

...

dx
dx
2!
3!

f ' ( x) O ( dx )

## The error of the first derivative using the forward

formulation is of order dx.

## TAYLOR SERIES CONTINUATION

f ( x dx / 2) f ( x dx / 2) 1
dx 3 '''
'

f ( x ) ...
dxf ( x )
dx
dx
3!

f ' ( x) O(dx 2 )
The error of the first derivative using the centered
approximation is of order dx2.

## The centered scheme is more accurate!

PROBLEM
HEAT CONDUCTION IN A 2-D PLATE (a x b)
GIVEN :
Initial temperature
Boundary Conditions
OBJECTIVE :
Model the way thermal energy moves

## through the plate. (Temperature vs. time

and location)

ut = (uxx + uyy) + Q

ASSUMPTIONS

## No heat loss( Q=0 )

Uniform density
Uniform specific heat
Perfect insulation

INITIAL CONDITIONS

## the initial condition.

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

DIRICHLET
Prescribed temperature boundary conditions
correspond to holding the temperature along the edges

of the plate at 0

NEUMANN
Prescribed heat flux boundary conditions
Heat flux reduces to 0 since Q is 0.

DISCRETISATION
Converting continuous to discrete intervals

(finite difference)

METHODS OF SOLVING
- IMPLICIT vs. EXPLICIT

EXPLICI
T

## The temperature at time n+1 depends

explicitly on temperature at time n.

Computationally simple
Relatively fast

DRAWBACK :

## Stability condition needs to be checked to

avoid unstable and highly oscillatory
solutions

METHODS OF SOLVING
- IMPLICIT vs. EXPLICIT

IMPLICI
T

## Instead of an explicit relation between

temperature at time n+1 and temperature
at time n, a system of linear equations has
to be solved.

## Spatial derivatives evaluated at the new timestep.

No restrictions on the timestep.

CONDITIONS USED

## Every boundary is fixed at a temperature

100 .
The initial temperature of the plate is 0.

CODE IN MATLAB

CODE IN MATLAB

## VARIATION OF TEMPERATURE OF SURFACE WITH

TIME AT DIFFERENT POINTS