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BIOTEKNOLOGI: DASAR-DASAR

REKAYASA GENETIKA

Pelaksanaan Perkuliahan
Perkuliahan : 60%
Presentasi hasil studi literatur : 40%
Mencari 2 jurnal sesuai bidang tugas
Ditelaah, dan dipresentasikan dan dibuat abstrak untuk
dibagikan ke peserta kuliah
Jurnal hasil 5 tahun terakhir

Evaluasi :

Kehadiran 80% dari total waktu perkuliahan


Nilai UTS : 30%
Nilai Presentasi : 40%
Nilai UAS : 30%

Referensi Perkuliahan:
Lewin, B. (2000), Gene VII, New York: Oxford University
Press.
Brown, T.A.(1995), Gene Cloning, New York: Chapman & Hall
Lehninger, A.L., Nelson D.L and Cox.,M.M. (2004). Principles
of Biochemistry, New York: Worth Publishers.
Watson, J.D. et all. (1992), Recombinant DNA, New York:
Scientific American Books.
Prentis, S. (1990)a.b. Maggy Thenawidjaya, Bioteknologi,
Suatu Revolusi Industri yang Baru, Jakarta Penerbit Erlangga.
Mathews, C.K. and Van Holde,K.E(1996), Biochemistry,
California: The Benyamin/Cummings Publishing Co.
Mc Kane,L. andd Kandell,J. (1996). Microbiology, Essential
and Applications, New York: McGraw Hill Inc.
Journal of Biotechnology 5 tahun terakhir.

DASAR-DASAR REKAYASA GENETIKA


KI 704 : 2 SKS
No.

Tanggal

Materi

1.

1 Februari 2016

Pengertian, pentingnya dan perkembangan dari bioteknologi

2.

8 Februari 2016

Peranan mikroorganisme dalam bioteknologi

3.

15 Februari 2016

Alat-alat penelitian mikroorganisme

4.

22 Februari 2016

Sel, organel dan struktur nukleotida

5.

29 Februari 2016

Pembentukan DNA rekombinan

6.

14 Maret 2016

Skrining, sekuensing dan ekspresi gen hasil kloning

7.

21 Maret 2016

Ekstraksi dan pemurnian protein rekombinan dan analisisnya.

8.

28 Maret 2016

UTS

9.

4 April 2016

Bioteknologi dalam industri makanan

10.

11 April 2016

Bioteknologi dalam industri obat-obatan

11.

18 April 2016

Bioteknologi dalam industri pertanian

12.

25 April 2016

Bioteknologi dalam industri rekayasa genetika

13.

2 Mei 2016

Bioteknologi dalam industri zat kimia

14.

9 Mei 2016

Bioteknologi dalam pengolahan lingkungan

15.

16 Mei 2016

UAS

Pertemuan 1

Pengertian, pentingnya dan


Perkembangan bioteknologi

Pengertian Bioteknologi
Istilah bioteknologi dikenalkan
pertama kali pada tahun 1919
oleh Krol (Karl) Ereky (seorang
insinyur pertanian berkebangsaan
Hungaria) untuk mendeskripsikan
produksi babi dalam skala besar
dengan menggunakan bit gula
sebagai sumber pakannya

Pengertian Bioteknologi
Teknik pendayagunaan organisme hidup atau bagian
organisme untuk membuat atau memodifikasi suatu
produk dan meningkatkan/memperbaiki sifat tanaman
atau hewan atau mengembangkan mikroorganisme
untuk penggunaan khusus (OTA-US, 1982).
Eksploitasi komersial organisme hidup atau
komponennya seperti; enzim (Primrose ,1987).
Perpaduan ilmu pengetahuan alam dan ilmu
rekayasa yang bertujuan meningkatkan aplikasi
organisme hidup, sel, bagian dari organisme hidup,
dan/atau analog molekuler untuk menghasilkan
produk dan jasa (European Federation of
Biotechnology).

Pengertian bioteknologi secara terminologi

Bioteknologi :
merupakan penerapan berbagai bidang
(disiplin) ilmu (interdisipliner). Oleh karena itu,
tidak ada seorangpun yang dapat menguasai
seluruh
aspek
bioteknologi
(berbasis
pengetahuan keahlian).
Kooperatif
Bukan ilmu terapan yang baru, tetapi telah
dikembangkan sejak lama

Bioteknologi (lama vs baru)


Bioteknologi tradisional vs Bioteknologi modern
Fermentasi pada
pembuatan bir
dan roti.

Memanfaatkan mikroba, proses


biokimia, dan proses genetik
alami

Tanaman kapas
tahan hama hasil
rekayasa
genetika, dan
kloning

Didasarkan pada
manipulasi/rekayasa
DNA

Pentingnya bioteknologi

Perkembangan bioteknologi
No.

Temuan

Tahun Penemuan

1.

Ragi : Anggur, Bir dan Roti

400 SM

2.

Ganggang

Sebelum 1521

3.

Penambangan Cu dengan mikroba

Sebelum 1670

4.

Penemuan Mikroskop : Penyelidikan Mikroba

1680 s/d 1876

5.

Penggunaan Mikroorganisme : alkohol, aseton dll

1890 s/d 1914 (PD I)

6.

Penemuan dan Produksi penisilin (Fleming) : Antibiotik

1928 s/d 1944 (PD II)

7.

Penemuan struktur DNA : Bahan essential

1953

8.

Percobaan Rekayasa Genetika

1973

9.

Penemuan Antibodi monoklonal

1975

10.

Aturan Dep.Kes USA tentang rekayasa genetika

1976

11.

Mikroba hasil rekayasa genetika dipatenkan

1980

12.

Antibodi monoklonal untuk diagnosis

1981

13.

Insulin hasil rekgen untuk diabetes melitus

1982

14.

Interferon untuk penyakit ternak

1984

15.

Penemuan terkait bidang farmasi: Hormon, vaksin, Ab

1980 (pertengahan)

16.

Penemuan terkait bidang industri kimia

1980

17.

Penemuan Plastik, interferon, zat kimia

1980 (akhir)

18.

Penemuan terkait bidang pertanian

1990

19.

Penemuan terkait bidang pertambangan dan energi

1990

Evolusi revolusi
bioteknologi

Perkembangan bioteknologi
Tahun

Temuan

8000-4000 SM

Kentang pertama kali digunakan sebagai sumber


makanan

2000 SM

Penggunaan ragi untuk pembuatan roti, anggur, dan


bir

500 SM

antibiotik dari dadih kedelai berjamur digunakan


pertama kali untuk pengobatan

100 M

Penemuan insektisida

1797

Edward Jenner: vaksin pertama untuk penyakit cacar

1880

Protein pertama kali ditemukan

1883

Isolat enzim

1857

Mikroorganisme terlibat dalam proses fermentasi


(Louis Pasteur)

8000-4000 B.C.E.
Humans domesticate crops
and livestock.
Potatoes first are cultivated
for food.

Biotechnology Timeline
2000 B.C.E.
Biotechnology is used for the first time
when the Egyptians use yeast to leaven
bread and ferment beer
Production of cheese, fermentation
of wine occur in Sumeria, China,
Egypt

Biotechnology Timeline
500 B.C.E.
Chinese use the first antibiotic: Moldy soybean
curds for treating boils

Biotechnology Timeline
100 C.E.
First insecticide:
powdered
chrysanthemums
(China)

Biotechnology Timeline
1797
First vaccination
Edward Jenner inoculates a
child with a vial vaccine to
protect him from smallpox

Biotechnology Timeline
1830-1833
1830 Proteins are discovered.

Model of a 5-peptide protein.

1833 First enzyme is


discovered and isolated.

Biotechnology Timeline
1857
Louis Pasteur proposes
that microbes cause
fermentation. He later
conducts experiments
that support
the germ theory of disease.

Biotechnology Timeline
1859
Charles Darwin publishes
the theory of evolution
by natural selection.

Biotechnology Timeline
1865
The science of genetics begins
when Austrian monk Gregor
Mendel studies flowers in his
garden to develop the basic
laws of heredity

Biotechnology Timeline
1868

The existence of DNA is


discovered.

Biotechnology Timeline
1915
Phages viruses
that only infect bacteria
are discovered.

Biotechnology Timeline
1919
The word
biotechnology is
used in print for
the first time.
Image listed as creative commons taken from
http://www.berkeleyside.com/2012/01/30/love-books-help-give-away-1-million-of-them/

Biotechnology Timeline
1927
Herman Muller discovers
that radiation causes
defects in chromosomes
(mutations).

1928
Sir Alexander Fleming discovers
the antibiotic penicillin by chance
when he realizes that
Penicillium
mold kills
bacteria.
He shared the 1945 Nobel Prize in Medicine with Ernst Boris Chain
and Sir Howard Walter Florey.

Biotechnology Timeline
1944
DNA is proven to carry
genetic information
by Oswald Avery,
Colin MacLeod and
Maclyn McCarty.
DNA model made out of LEGOs

Biotechnology Timeline
1953
James Watson
and Francis Crick describe
the double helical
structure of DNA. They shared
the 1962 Nobel Prize in
Medicine or Physiology with
Maurice Wilkins.

Biotechnology Timeline

3D model of insulin

Biotechnology Timeline
1958
DNA is made in a test tube for the first time.
Sickle cell disease is
shown to occur due to a
change in one amino acid.

Biotechnology Timeline
1966
The genetic code for DNA is cracked,
demonstrating that a sequence of three
nucleotide bases (a codon) determines each of
20 amino acids.
Three scientists shared the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
for the discovery.

Marshall Nirenberg

Robert Holley

Har Gobind Khorana

Biotechnology Timeline
1969

An enzyme is synthesized
in vitro for the first time.

Biotechnology Timeline
1970
Restriction enzymes
that cut and splice
genetic material are
discovered, opening
the way for gene
cloning.

Biotechnology Timeline
1971
The first complete synthesis of a gene occurs.

Biotechnology Timeline
1973
Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer perfect genetic
engineering techniques to cut and paste DNA
using restriction enzymes.
(1977 sees the first expression of a human gene in bacteria.)

Stanley Cohen

Herbert Boyer and a recombinant bacterium

Cohen won a Nobel Prize in 1986 for an unrelated discovery!

Biotechnology Timeline
1975
Georges Kohler and Cesar Milstein
develop the technology to produce
monoclonal antibodies highly specific,
purified antibodies derived from only
one clone of cells that recognize
only one antigen. They later would
share the 1984 Nobel Prize in
Physiology or Medicine with Neils Jerne.

Biotechnology Timeline
1977
Genetic engineering is done for the first time, when the first
expression of a human gene in bacteria occurs.

Biotechnology Timeline
1981
The first transgenic animals
are produced by
transferring genes from
other animals into mice.
The first patent for a
genetically modified organism
is granted for bacteria that can
break down crude oil.

Biotechnology Timeline
1983
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique,
which makes unlimited copies of genes and
gene fragments, is conceived.
Kary Mullis, who was born in Lenoir, N.C.,
later would win the 1993 Nobel Prize in
Chemistry for the discovery. He became
interested in science as a child when he
received a chemistry set for Christmas.

Biotechnology Timeline
1986
First recombinant vaccine is approved
for human use: hepatitis B.

First anti-cancer drug is produced


through biotech: interferon.

Biotechnology Timeline
1987
First field tests of genetically modified
food plants are approved, for virus
resistant tomatoes.

Biotechnology Timeline
1990
The Human Genome Project an international
effort to maps all of the genes in the human
genome is launched.

Francis Collins, M.D., Ph.D.


Director, Human Genome Project

Biotechnology Timeline
1994
Genetically modified tomatoes are sold for the first
time in the United States.

Biotechnology Timeline
1996
Sequencing of the bakers yeast genome is
completed.

Biotechnology Timeline
1997
Scientists report the birth of Dolly, the first animal
cloned from an adult cell.

Dolly (1996-2003) as an adult

Dolly and her surrogate mother

Biotechnology Timeline
1998
Human embryonic stem cell lines are established.
They offer hope to many
because they may be
able to replace diseased
or dysfunctional cells.

Biotechnology Timeline
2002
Draft version of the complete map of the human
genome is published.

Biotechnology Timeline
2003
The SARS (severe acute respiratory
syndrome) virus is sequenced
three weeks after its discovery.

SARS, which began in China,


spreads quickly and
spreads fear throughout the
Far East and the world. The
last reported cases occurred
in 2004 and resulted from
laboratory-acquired infections.

Biotechnology Timeline
2003
A far more precise version of
the human genomeone
that is 99.999%accurateis
published.

Biotechnology Timeline
2004
The first cloned
pet a kitten is
delivered to its
owner.

She is called CopyCat (or Cc for short).

Biotechnology Timeline
2004

Avastin, a recombinant
monoclonal antibody, is the
first targeted biological
therapy of its kind to receive
FDA approval

Biotechnology Timeline
2006
A vaccine against the human papillomavirus, which causes cancer of the
cervix, receives FDA approval. The vaccine is made via recombinant
DNA technology by inserting of the viral genes into the DNA of bakers
yeast.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) grants Dow AgroSciences the
first regulatory approval for a plant-made vaccine.
The Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, in Winston-Salem,
N.C., creates the first laboratory-grown organs by successfully
transplanting bladders grown from a patients own cells. This method
greatly reduces the risk of organ rejection.

Biotechnology Timeline
2007
Scientists discover how to use human skin cells to
create embryonic stem cells.

Biotechnology Timeline
2008
Japanese scientists create the first DNA molecule
made almost entirely of artificial parts. This
advances the field of gene therapy and brings
scientists one step closer to creating an artificial
organism.

Biotechnology Timeline
2009
U.S. Congress frees up federal funding for broader
embryonic stem cell research.
Canadian-owned Medicago produces the first
plant-based influenza vaccine, in tobacco
leaves. Medicago has built a manufacturing
facility in Durham, N.C., to scale up production.

Biotechnology Timeline
2010

Researchers at the J. Craig


Venter Institute create the
first synthetic cell.

Biotechnology Timeline
2011
A trachea derived from stem cells is transplanted into a
human recipient.
Advances in 3D printing technology lead to skin printing.
European scientists begin clinical trials for an anti-HIV
biotech medicine produced using genetically modified
tobacco. This increases the potential for cost-effective
HIV/AIDS therapy in the developing world.

Biotechnology Timeline
2012
The FDA issues draft guidelines for biosimilar
drugs (follow-on biologics) as a growing
percentage of biopharmaceuticals reach the end
of patent protection.
Novartis, which has a manufacturing facility in
Holly Springs, N.C., receives FDA approval for
Flucelvax, the first cell-culture derived vaccine in
the United States.

Biotechnology Timeline
2013
The U.S. Supreme
Court rules that
naturally occurring
genes cannot be
patented.