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Kultur Mikroalga untuk

Produksi Bahan Bakar


Hayati
Microalgae for Biofuels

Apa itu Biofuel?

Biofuel merupakan Bahan

Bakar berbentuk padat, cair


atau gas yg berasal dari
organisme terutama
tumbuhan yang
berfotosintesis (mampu
menangkap energi matahari)

Hukum Termodinamika I
*Energi tdk dapat diciptakan dan
dimusnahkan, hanya dapat dirubah dari
satu bentuk ke lainnya

Fotosintesis :
Energi cahaya mth menjadi energi kimia

*First law of thermodynamics

Biofuels merupakan hasil perubahan energi


chy math menjadi energi kimia

Karbohidrat

Hidrokarbon
Protein

yak bumi (alga) dan bt bara (tumb) merp Biofuel fosil sedhn

Alasan Mengembangkan/Menggunakan
Biofuels
Developed countries :
Greenhouse (CO2) gas emission abatement.
Developing countries :
Energy security
Improving balance of payment.
Jobs creation.
Poverty alleviation.

Counterpart biofuels of petroleum fuels


Petroleum fuel
Petroleum diesel fuels
Gasoline
Kerosene

Counterpart biofuel
Biodiesel fuels
Bioethanol
- Biogas
- Biokerosene

Plant-based (hydrocarbon) oils having combustion/burning


characteristics nearly similar to kerosene.

Biofuels Generation

Source: Karp, Rothamsted Research, 2007

Our Goal

Oil
Algal
Biomass

Biodies
el

Potensi Mikroalga
Crop

Oil yield (L/ha)

Corn

172

Soybean

446

Canola

1190

Jatropha

1892

Coconut

2689

Oil palm

5950

Microalgae (30%)

58,700

Microalgae (70%)

136,900

(Chisti, 2007)

Kondisi pertumbuhan optimum


30C, CO2: 1 to 2%; pH: 6.5-7.5 and light 1.2 Klux

Schematic of the
Transesterification process

Completed Photobioreactor

Stres dan Metabolisme Lipid


Sel dengan stres

Sel tanpa stres


Banyak Nitrogen
Fotosintesis

Kurang Nitrogen
cahay
a

Fotosintesis

CO2

Karbs

Lipid
a
Minyak sdikit

Lipida

Tumb cepat
Minyak byk

Karb
s
Tumb lambat

Proses Algae menjadi minyak


mentah

tumbuh

panen

Ekstraksi

Konsentrat

CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES


1.Teknologinya sudah ada, perlu
dikaji kelayakan ekonominya
2.Pencarian spesies yang banyak
oilnya
3.Cultivation (medium, faktor
lingkungan)
4.Pemanenan yang cocok
5.Ektraksi yang tepat

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Mauna_Loa_Carbon_Dioxide.png

Metode
pindahkan CO2
Biofiksasi CO2 oleh organisme
fotosintesis

Mengapa
Mikroalga?
Prtumb lambat
tumb tgkt tinggi
tumb tgkt tinggi
perlu air bersih
Lahan mahal
untuk
menumbuhhkan
tumb tgkt tinggi
Tdk kompetisi dg
pasokan mkn

Spesies yg Berpotensi
Banyak spesies dari laut & air
tawar
Fotosintesis,
Produktivitas Lipida yg tinggi
Laju pertumb tinggi (45-180
kali dr canola)

Potensi Mikroalga
HARVEST
HARVEST
Algae
Algae
Harvested
Harvested from
from
Bioreactor
Bioreactor

OIL
OIL
SEPERATION
SEPERATION

DRYING
DRYING

ANIMAL
ANIMAL FEED
FEED

High
High in
in Omega
Omega 3
3
Fatty
Acids
Fatty Acids (High
(High
Value)
Value)

Co-Fired
Co-Fired for
for

BURNER
BURNER FUEL
FUEL
(Low
(Low Value)
Value)

Digest
Digest Biomass
Biomass

BIOGAS
BIOGAS

Competing
Competing with
with Gas
Gas
(Low
(Low Value)
Value)

Ferment
Ferment Biomass
Biomass
for
for ETHANOL
ETHANOL
(Equivalent
(Equivalent Value
Value to
to
Animal
Animal Feed)
Feed)

Protein
Protein Meal
Meal
ANIMAL
ANIMAL FEED
FEED
denatured
denatured by
by
heat
heat (Low
(Low
Value)
Value)

Manufacture
Manufacture

BIODIESEL
BIODIESEL
(High
(High Value)
Value)

Tujuan
Identifikasi spesies yg cocok dg kultur
Optimasi pertumbuhan
Optimasi fiksasi C
Analisis ekonomi kultur skala
besar
Tingkatkan skala kultur

Perbandingan produktivitas
mikroalga
Closed photobioreactors

Open ponds

Pembatas produktivitas
Mikroalga
Faktor fisika seperti cahaya (kualitas dan kuantitas),

temperatur, nutrien, pH, O2 dan CO2


Faktor biotik meliputi patogen, predasi dan kompetisi

oleh alga lain, dan


Faktor operational seperti: berkurangnya produsi

oleh frekuensi pencampuran, laju pelarutan,


kedalaman dan panen.

Biaya Mikroalga

Pengurangan CO2
Emisi ke teknologi Biofuel harus murah
Ton pengurangan CO2
per tahun / Hektar

Pengurangan karbon-Dioksida ($ / ton)


50
700
40

High
Sunlight

600

30

500
Kyoto
Cost

20

Low
Sunlight

400
300

10

Possible
Cost in
Aust

Geoseqestration

Potential
Trading /
Penalty

GreenFuel

200
100
Forest Sequestration

GreenFuel
Sequestration

Siklus tertutup manajeman Biomass


Carbon
Fuel Carbon
(100%)

on
b
ar )
C
%
ue 00
l
F (1

Open Cycle Carbon

Clean
Gases

Fuel Carbon
(60%)

Algae Biomass as Fuel Source (40% Fuel Carbon)

Siklus tertutup
manajemen karbon

http://news.cnet.com/i/bto/20080620/Seambiotic_Ponds_540x354.jpg

US produces 54 billion cubic meter of waste water and 200 million tons of manure (dry mass, human and animal).
39 If all
were used to produce algae and all waste was converted, it would be equivalent to 6.5 billion tons of crude oil. US
consumed 1.2 billion tons of crude oil in 2006.

Algae pilot plant in U.K.

Algae pilot by
UIUC students

Algae pilot plant


in Netherland

http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/200710/biofuels/clarkphotography.html

40

UIUC Sustainability Committee- Algal Biofuels


Demonstration Project at Abbott Power Plant

Project Construction and Algal Culturing- Summer


2009
First Phase Deployment- Fall 2009
Partner with UIUC Biodiesel Initiative for biofuel
conversion
Educational-Extensional Website
41
http://algae.illinois.edu/

Harvested Algae Biofuel Energy Model

42

42

Harvest Methods
Drag Net

Screw Pump

Traveling Screen
Floatation

43

43

Chlorella for Biofuel and Aquaculture Feed

Chlorella cell
Chlorella raceway in Arizona

44

Several species of Chlorella with varied

production characteristics
Some species and strains can produce 60,000
100,000 liters per hectare of algae biomass
40% of this biomass can be oil
Oil (long chain fatty acids) can be easily
converted to diesel fuel

Chlorella from a raceway culture in


Arizona
Chlorella strains and species in cold
storage

45

Photobioreactor Design
Scale Up
Investigations:
Flow Velocity
Sparging Rate
Mixing Rate
Initial Density
Light Levels
Nutrients
CO2

Photobioreactor Design
Heigth/Depth
ratios
Flow Velocity
Bubble Size
Mixing Rate
Initial Density
Light Levels

Photobioreactor Designs

Bioreactor
with
Chlorella in
Beijing
Raceways in
Jeddah,
Saudi Arabia
with
Chlorella

Chlorella raceways in ArizonaAlgae tanks at ERLab,


Tucson

Raceways in
Puerto Peasco, 50

Chlorella for Biofuel and Aquaculture Feed

Chlorella culture in greenhouse bioreactor, Beijing

Production problems
Contamination with non-target algae
Introduction of grazers
Self shading or limiting nutrients

54

What Type of Algae


Botryococcus

braunii
Converts 61% of its

biomass into oil


Drops to only 31%
oil under stress
Grows best between
22-25oC (71-77oF)

www.kluyvercentre.nl/content/ documents/Verslag2biodieselBaarnschLyceum.pdf -

Algae
biomass

Algae
oil

Greenhouse

The use of CO2 for


growing algae

Horizontal mode

Vertical mode