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Graphene

Graphene physically acts as a 2-Dimensional material. This leads to many properties that are electrially beneficial, such as high electron moblity and lowered power usage. Graphene is currently in its infant stages and is undergoing many applications and studies.

Jared Johnson & Jason Peltier April 30th

Introduction

What is Graphene Discovery Electrical Properties Mechanical Strength Optical Properties Applications Devices

What is Graphene

2-dimensional, crystalline allotrope of carbon

Allotrope: property of chemical elements to exist in two or more forms

Single layer of graphite

Honeycomb (hexagonal) lattice

What is Graphene • 2-dimensional, crystalline allotrope of carbon • Allotrope: property of chemical elements to

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9e/Graphen.jpg/750px-Graphen.jpg

Graphene vs Other Allotropes

Graphene - Top Left

Graphite - Top Right

Nanotube - Bottom Left

Fullerene - Bottom Right

Graphene vs Other Allotropes • Graphene - Top Left • Graphite - Top Right • Nanotube

http://graphene.nus.edu.sg/content/graphene

Discovery

Studies on graphite layers for past hundred years

Graphene theory first explored by P.R. Wallce

(1947)

Andre Geim & Kontantin Novoselov Nobel Peace Prize (2010)

Physics observed using TEM

Discovery • Studies on graphite layers for past hundred years • Graphene theory first explored by

http://powerlisting.wikia.com/wiki/File:Graphit

e.jpg

Discovery • Studies on graphite layers for past hundred years • Graphene theory first explored by

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/8043355/Nobel-

Prize-for-Physics-won-by-Andre-Geim-and-Konstantin-Novoselov.html

Electronic Structure

First Brillouin Zone (red)

Second Brillouin Zone (yellow)

Six corners of first Brillouin zone called Dirac points (also called K points)

Electrons and holes called Dirac fermions

Electronic Structure • First Brillouin Zone (red) • Second Brillouin Zone (yellow) • Six corners of

http://www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/brillouin_zones/zone_construction.php

Electronic Structure

Dirac Points are the transition between the valence band and the conduction band

The six Dirac points can be divided into to two in-equivalent sets of

three (K and K'), represented by the black and white dots on part (a)

The points within each set are all equivalent because they can reach each other by reciprocal lattice vectors

Electronic Structure • Dirac Points are the transition between the valence band and the conduction band

http://ej.iop.org/images/0034-4885/75/5/056501/Full/rpp342429f06_online.jpg

Part (b) shows that the dispersion relation close to the K points looks like the energy spectrum of massless Dirac particles

Electrical Properties

The Fermi level can be changed by doping to create a material that is better at conducting electricity

Experimental graphene's electron mobility is 15,000 cm2/(V*s) and theoretically potential limits of 200,000 cm2/(V*s)

Graphene electrons are like photons in mobility due to lack of effective electron and hole mass

These charge carriers are able to travel sub-micrometer distances without scattering

Electrical Properties • The Fermi level can be changed by doping to create a material that

Mechanical Strengths

Bond length is .142 nm long = very strong bond

Strongest material ever discovered

ultimate tensile strength of 130 gigapascals compared to 400 megapascals for structural steel

Very light at 0.77 milligrams per square metre, paper is 1000 times heavier

Single sheet of graphene can cover a whole football field while weighing under 1 gram

Also, graphene is very flexible, yet brittle (preventing structural use)

Optical Properties

Absorbs 2.3% white light

Optical electronics absorb <10% white light

Highly conductive

Strong and flexible

Optical Properties • Absorbs 2.3% white light • Optical electronics absorb <10% white light • Highly

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Graphene_visible.jpg

Photograph of graphene in transmitted light.

Other Applications

OLED Techonologies

Body Armour

Lightweight Aircraft/vehicles

Photovoltaics

Superconductor/battery

Filtration

http://www.graphenea.com/pages/graphene-uses-

applications#.U1c1hFVdV8E

Devices

Devices ://www.tgdaily.com/general-sciences-features/61058-team-uses-graphene-film-to-distil-vodka http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OLED http://www.simplifysimple.com/index.php?news&nid=15_The-new-look-of-phones

://www.tgdaily.com/general-sciences-features/61058-team-uses-graphene-film-to-distil-vodka

Devices ://www.tgdaily.com/general-sciences-features/61058-team-uses-graphene-film-to-distil-vodka http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OLED http://www.simplifysimple.com/index.php?news&nid=15_The-new-look-of-phones

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OLED

Devices ://www.tgdaily.com/general-sciences-features/61058-team-uses-graphene-film-to-distil-vodka http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OLED http://www.simplifysimple.com/index.php?news&nid=15_The-new-look-of-phones

http://www.simplifysimple.com/index.php?news&nid=15_The-new-look-of-phones

Summary & Conclusion

Graphene, a singular layer of graphite, has been discovered to have unique properties. The high mobility and ability to travel short distances without scattering makes it one of the best materials for electrical applications. Graphene's mechanical and optical properties also allow its use to go beyond electrical applications.

References

  • 1. "Allotrope." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 16 Apr. 2014. Web. 17 Apr. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allotrope>.

  • 2. Cooper, Daniel R. "Experimental Review of Graphene." Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 3 Nov. 2011. Web. 16 Apr. 2014. <http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2012/501686/>.

  • 3. De La Fuente, Jesus. "Graphene." Graphenea. Web. 26 Apr. 2014. <http://www.graphenea.com/pages/graphene#.U1xxufldWSo>.

  • 4. Geim, Andre. "Nobel Lecture." Nobel Prize, 8 Dec. 2010. Web. 18 Apr. 2014. <http://www.nobelprize.org/mediaplayer/index.php?id=1418>.

  • 5. "Graphene." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 16 Apr. 2014. Web. 17 Apr. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/graphene>.

  • 6. Neamen, Donald A. Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2012. Print.

  • 7. Roos, Michael. "Intermolecular vs Molecule–substrate Interactions." Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 2012.2, 365-73. Web. 15 Apr. 2014. <http://www.beilstein-

journals.org/bjnano/single/articleFullText.htm?publicId=2190-4286-2-42>.

Last Slide

Graphite had been studied for over a hundred years but Geim and Novoselov found how to isolate it to be graphene and some applications for its use

The reason graphene is such a beneficial material is due to its 2D like nature and short/strong bonds

It has a super high conductivity and an electron mobility

of

15,000 cm2/(V*s)

It is the strongest material ever discovered, however its brittle nature cannot be used structurally (only to help reinforce)

One of the most common current uses of graphene is in OLEDs