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Intermolecular

Forces

A phase is a homogeneous part of the system in contact


with other parts of the system but separated from them
by a well-defined boundary.
2 Phases
Solid phase - ice
Liquid phase - water

11.1

Intermolecular Forces
Intermolecular forces are attractive forces between molecules.
Intramolecular forces hold atoms together in a molecule.
Intermolecular vs Intramolecular

41 kJ to vaporize 1 mole of water (inter)

930 kJ to break all O-H bonds in 1 mole of water (intra)

Generally,
intermolecular
forces are much
weaker than
intramolecular
forces.

Measure of intermolecular force


boiling point
melting point
Hvap
Hfus
Hsub

11.2

Gaya antarmolekul menentukan keberadaan


materi terkondensasi-cairan dan padatan.
Umumnya gaya antarmolekul jauh lebih lemah
daripada gaya intramolekul. Jadi biasanya
diperlukan energi yang lebih kecil untuk
menguapkan
cairan
daripada
untuk
memutuskan ikatan dalam molekul cairan.
Misalnya H-O-H H-O-H , ikatan antar H2O
lebih mudah putus daripada ikatan antara H
dan O didalam 1 molekul H2O

Gaya tarik di antara molekul-molekul


gaya antarmolekul (intermolecular
forces)

Bagaimana proses terbentuknya embun


???
Gaya ini menentukan keberadaan materi terkondensasi-cairan dan
padatan.
Ketika suhu gas turun energi kinetik rata-rata molekulnya turun
Akhirnya pada suhu yang cukup rendah molekul-molekul itu tidak
lagi memiliki cukup energi untuk memisahkan diri dari tarikan molekul
lainnya.
Pada titik ini, molekul-molekul mengelompok membentuk tetes-tetes
cairan yang kecil perubahan dari wujud gas menjadi cair
(pengembunan)

Intermolecular Forces;
Explaining Liquid Properties
The term van der Waals forces is
a general term including dipoledipole and London forces.

Van der Waals forces are the weak


attractive forces in a large number of
substances.
Hydrogen bonding occurs in substances
containing hydrogen atoms bonded to
certain very electronegative atoms.
Ion-dipole force occur between ions and
polar molecules

Types of Intermolecular Forces


A.

Van der Waals Forces

1. Dipole-Dipole Forces
Attractive forces between polar molecules
Orientation of Polar Molecules in a Solid

11.2

Figure 11.21: Alignment of polar


molecules of HCI.

2. London Forces/Dispersion Force

London forces are the weak attractive


forces resulting from instantaneous
dipoles that occur due to the
distortion of the electron cloud
surrounding a molecule.
London forces increase with molecular
weight. The larger a molecule, the more
easily it can be distorted to give an
instantaneous dipole.
All covalent molecules exhibit some
London force.

Dispersion Forces Continued


Polarizability is the ease with which the electron distribution in the
atom or molecule can be distorted.
Polarizability increases with:

greater number of electrons

more diffuse electron cloud

Dispersion forces
usually increase
with molar mass.

11.2

Mengapa isomer-isomer pentana


berikut memiliki titik didih yang
berbeda ?
CH3

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH3

T.d = 36,1 oC

CH3
CH3

CH

CH2

CH3

T.d = 28,1 oC

CH3
CH3

C CH3

T.d = 9,5 oC

CH3
12

Types of Intermolecular Forces

B. Hydrogen Bond (strongest)


The hydrogen bond is a special dipole-dipole interaction between the
hydrogen atom in a polar N-H, O-H, or F-H bond and an electronegative
O, N, or F atom. IT IS NOT A BOND.
or
HB
HA
A
A
A & B are N, O, or F

11.2

Hydrogen Bond

11.2

Why is the hydrogen bond considered a


special dipole-dipole interaction?

Decreasing molar mass


Decreasing boiling point

11.2

Types of Intermolecular Forces

C. Ion-Dipole Forces
Attractive forces between an ion and a polar molecule

Ion-Dipole Interaction

11.2

11.2

What type(s) of intermolecular forces exist between each of the


following molecules?

HBr
HBr is a polar molecule: dipole-dipole forces. There are also
dispersion forces between HBr molecules.

CH4
CH4 is nonpolar: dispersion forces.
S

SO2

SO2 is a polar molecule: dipole-dipole forces. There are also


dispersion forces between SO2 molecules.

11.2

Van der Waals Forces and the


Properties of Liquids
In summary, intermolecular forces
play a large role in many of the
physical properties of liquids and
gases. These include:

vapor pressure
boiling point
surface tension
viscosity

Van der Waals Forces and the


Properties of Liquids
The vapor pressure of a liquid
depends on intermolecular forces.
When the intermolecular forces in a
liquid are strong, you expect the
vapor pressure to be low.
Table 11.3 illustrates this concept. As
intermolecular forces increase, vapor
pressures decrease.

Van der Waals Forces and the


Properties of Liquids
The normal boiling point is related
to vapor pressure and is lowest for
liquids with the weakest
intermolecular forces.
When intermolecular forces are
weak, little energy is required to
overcome them. Consequently,
boiling points are low for such
compounds.

Properties of Liquids
Surface tension is the amount of energy required to stretch or
increase the surface of a liquid by a unit area.

Strong
intermolecular
forces

High surface
tension

11.3

Properties of Liquids
Viscosity is a measure of a fluids resistance to flow.

Strong
intermolecular
forces

High
viscosity

11.3

Water is a Unique Substance

Maximum Density
40C
Density of Water

Ice is less dense than water

11.3