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Definitio

ns

Atom

Group 0 or 8 are
UNREACTIVE
They have a full outer
shell of electrons

Particles that make up all substances.

Element
A substance made up of only one kind of
atom.

Compound

Periodic table
arranges elements
by
ATOMIC
NUMBER (proton
number/the small
one)

A substance made of different types of atoms


joined together.
Mixture
A substance existing of atoms that can be
easily separated as they are not joined
together.

No
charge

Max 2 electrons

The number of outer shell electrons match the group the element is
found in.
E.g. Lithium 2,1 is a group 1 element.

Max 8 electrons Protons and


neutrons both have
a mass of 1

E.g. 2,8,8 (Argon)


The number of electrons
an atom has effect the
way it reacts

Covalent Bonding
Non-metals sharing
elections

IONS

harged particles

H
H

H
C

H Ionic
Bonding
Lose or gain an
electron
Get a charge +/Attract one
another!

Used for
building

LIMESTONE

Calcium Carbonate

Limewater
The test for CO2
Ca(OH)2

CaCO3

Ca

Balanced Equations

s
atee
n
o
s

rb ompo

t ed
c
De n hea CO 2
e
+
d
wh xide
aci r
h
O
te
=
wit
ct + wa
a
Re alt
2
= S + CO

HEAT
(thermal
decomposition)
=
CaO
Or Calcium Hydroxide
Calcium Oxide
comes from adding water to
Limestone is heated in a
CaOG
Rotary Lime Kiln
ood
: Mo
You
then have Cement or
re jo
bs
Bad QUARR
Mortar
by adding water and
: De
stroy YING
sand.
hab
Wou
If you add crushed rocks you
ld yo Landsca itats and
pe
u wa
get Concrete
nt t o
Metals Very useful
one? live nex
t to

TRANSITI
ON
METALS

Each side should also


weigh the same. Nothing is
lost and nothing extra is
made.

e.g. Copper wires


conduct well
Most need to be
ALLOYED
to make them harder

A balanced equation has the same


number of atoms of each element on
both sides
Using Molecules: In this equation, the
large number in front of the chemical
symbol tells use the molecules needed.
e.g. 1 CH4 molecule reacts with 2 O2
Metals which aremolecules
un-reactive are

found in their NATIVE STATE e.g.


GOLD
More reactive metals are found as
METALS ORES and need to be
EXTRACTED

C1

IRON
VEGETABLE OIL
Can be HARDENED by adding HYDROGEN
To harden you
will need:
Pure iron is too soft to be
Are extracted by
making them solid at room temperature for
Nickel
Catalyst
things
like
spreads
and
margarines
pressing or distillation
useful.
60 C
Gives a different flavour, texture
Adding small amounts of other Are high in energy
High Boiling Point and loads more energy (too much
Hydrogen to be
will make you obese)
elements can improve its
added and break
Can be used as fuels
So useful for cooking
double bonds
properties.
(frying instead of boiling)
Are UNSATURATED
Unsaturated fats are better for you than Saturated fats
e.g.This
Moreis
easily
shaped, harder,
ALLOYING.
resistant to corrosion
Non-Biodegradable plastics are
You can make
HYDROCARBONS
IRON + otherCRACKING
elements
You can make
ETHANOL
BAD!
RECYCLING
+
CO
ETHANOL
using ETHENE
STEEL
They
dont
rot away.
Make big molecules into small ones!
and STEAM OR using YEAST
o

Saves energy
Saves natural
Reactivity
recourses
This helps you decide how
to extract
a metal from its Less pollution
Series

Products: Alkanes (used for fuel) +


Alkenes (used for plastics,
medicines, dyes and explosives)

Test for double bonds:

CARBON NEUTRAL

Bromine water (iodine water will also work)

Lose farming land

Small molecules (monomers) added together


make new long molecules (polymers)

Disruption of habitats

Alkenes (with double bonds) go CLEAR!

Scientist are
using bacteria
and plants to
remove
copper
Cu 2+
from ores where
its too small to
mine.
Impurities: include gold and
BIOLEACHING
silver (can be sold)
or
Electrolysis can be
expensive but will help PHYTOMINING
extract Copper,
Aluminium and Titanium
Very useful and NONCORROSIVE
(wont rust away)

Making Plastics:

Made from vegetable oils


Less harmful to environment

Impure
copper
(copper
ore)

Biodegradable plastics will


decompose = less rubbish!

(from plants)

(from crude oil)

ORE.
If its below CARBON it can CRUDE OIL
A mixture of hydrocarbon compounds
be reduced in a BLAST
i t!
st
Furnace.
Te
If its a metal above it
Hydrogen
Extracting
and
CARBON
cannot reactive
help
FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION
Carbon
metals
extract
it.
ONLY!
Size effects BOILING POINT
You might need to smelt or roast
the ore and then use
electrolysis to make it pure
Getting clever!
Pure
copper

enzymes.

with a catalyst

-heat them with steam and a catalyst

RENEWABLE ENERGY
e.g. ethanol from sugar

Make it useful
New polymers are designed to work for
specific jobs. SMART POLYMERS can
change in different temperatures and
light.

Carbon Dioxide made from burning fuels


is a GREEN HOUSE GAS adding to
GLOBAL WARMING

We are also able to recycle plastics to


find more uses for them.

Filters and CATALYTIS


CONVERTERS can be fitted to
factories and cars to reduce
pollution
Sulfur impurities also burnt cause
Alkanes Saturated hydrocarbons.
No double bonds, Maximum
Hydrogen, Formula: CnH2n+2
Alkenes Unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Double bonds, Less Hydrogen
Formula: CnH2n

High temperatures in
engines can also
cause the nitrogen
from the air to form
acids too.

You can also get


PARTICULATES
or Soot!

Bad for you and


the environment
(Global Dimming)

Burning fuels in plenty of oxygen gives CO2 + H2O

COMPLETE COMBUSTION
Burning without enough oxygen gives CO (carbon monoxide) + H2O

OIL DOES NOT DISSOLVE IN WATER

Wegeners Big Idea

But they can be spread out in


each other to make an

EMULSION
Adding an EMULSIFIER stops the oil
and water separating it will also
Food
e.g. Mayonnaise, salad dressings
creams
improve texture
Death&&ice
Decay

Emulsions are used in:

Cosmetics

Yummy!

Paints

Experimental Variables
Independent Variable the one

Alfred Wegener
suggested the idea
of continental drift
(moving plates) but
people found it hard
to believe, they
couldnt see it and
had other ideas like
land bridges, sinking
continents and the
crust shrinking. Also
he couldnt explain
HOW it worked.
It took fossils and
rocks evidence to
convince people.

Earth Structure
(Solid)

All our resources come


from the crust, oceans
and atmosphere.

Earths Early Atmosphere

I CHANGE
Dependent Variable the one you
RECORD

Formed by volcanoes added CO2,


Water and Nitrogen

Control Variables the ones you KEEP


CONSTANT (the same)

Which cooled and condensed into


oceans

Calculating an average

Plants then appeared and changes


CO2 to oxygen! (photosynthesis)

Just a
reminder!

Add up all your results


(except any anomalies you are leaving out)
10 + 11 + 12 + 14 = 47

Divide your answer by the number of values you added together.


Here 4 values were used..
So 47
4 = 11.75

The Primordial soup experiment suggested that life started with a


lightening spark, others suggested a meteorite or the deep ocean
event. Without a time machine we just dont know what started life
on earth!

The Carbon Death &


Decay
Cycle

Takes a very
long time!

The
Problem
area

Death &
Decay
Respiration
Respiration of
microorganisms

Food chain...

Carbon in the
atmosphere
has
increased
because we
now burn
more fossil
fuels!

Mostly
oxygen and
nitrogen
20%

Photosynthe
sis
Respiration

Returning Carbon to the

The Carbon
cycle: Shows
the movement
of carbon in
and out of the
atmosphere

When tectonic
plates meet and
collide or rub
against one another
we get natural
disasters

We dont know when this will happen so


we cannot predict these events
Answering Evaluation questions
You must give a balanced
argument if you can!
2 reasons why you might agree or
think something is good.
2 reasons why you might disagree
or think something is bad.

Burning
Fossil Fuels

Is very quick!
Respiration

Radiation in the mantle causes


CONVECTION CURRENTS which
move the plates

Earths Atmosphere Now

Formation of
Fossil Fuels

The crust is made up of


tectonic plates which
are always moving..
Very very very .. Slowly.

Gases in the
air can be
separated by
fractional
distillation for
use in industry

And a conclusive statement.


80%

(your end opinion

ALWAYS read the information you


have been given. Sometimes the
answer is hidden in the question.

e.g.
Water,
Cl2, H2,
HCl CH4,
O2

Diamon
d

Delocalised electrons

Giant Covalent Structure

Simple molecules

High melting and boiling


Low melting and boiling
points, hard
points
Graphite
Strong covalent
bondsonly:
Weak intermolecular
Conducts electricity, soft
Covalent Bonding
No charge
and slippery between
forces
Non-metals sharing layers.
Does not conduct
-it has delocalised
elections
electricity
electrons-

Pure
copper

Oxidation is lose (of

Cu

electrons)

Max 8 electrons Protons and Reduction is gain (of


electrons)
neutrons both have
a mass of 1

Remember: Atoms like to end up with full outer shells.

Group 1 and 7 elements make good ionic partners, so do group 2 and 6!

Ionic
Bonding

Group 1

Lose or gain an
electron
Get a charge +/Attract one
another!

+ carbon electrodes
need replacing as the
corrode into CO2

E.g. 2,8,8 (Argon)

Add cryolite to lower melting


point.

Impurities: include
gold and silver (can
be sold)

Electrolysis:

Splitting up a
substance using
electricity
Electrolysis needs:

2+

Describe
this!
Copper
purificatio
n

The number of outer shell electrons


match the group the element is
found in.
E.g. Lithium 2,1 is a group 1 element.

Half
equations

When there are 2


2 electrodes
possible products
An electrolyte
The less reactive
(Ionic or molten substance)
forms at the
A power supply
electrode

Ions move toward oppositely charged


Used for: electrodes
Disinfectants, bleach and
plastics

Group 7

Giant Lattice Structure


Always metals with nonmetals
+ ION and ION attracted

Impure
copper
(copper ore)

Is the
negative
electrode

Brin
e:
Salt
wate
r

Metallic
Bonding

are s
t

Max 2 electrons

OIL RIG

Periodic table arranges elements


by ATOMIC NUMBER (proton
number/the small one)

rong
meta er then
pure
ls
a

C2 Chemistry

Used for: Margarine and


HCl

Electroly
sis of
Used for:
Brine
Bleach,
paper and
soap

As a solid: High melting and Boiling Point


Conducts electricity when melted or
dissolved:

Alloy
s

An atom:
Number of Protons = Number of
Electrons
Mass number = Protons +
Neutrons

Sea of
delocalise
d
electrons
Can carry
a charge
so metals
conduct
electricity

Metal ions only arranged in


layers
ELECTROSTATIC
ATTRACTION between
+IONS and DELOCALISED
Metal
ions slide over one
ELECTRONS
another making them
MALLEABLE

Metals conduct HEAT well

NANO-

Means REALLY REALLY REALLY

Other techniques: Gas chromatography for separation, Mass Spectroscopy for identifying and finding molecular mass.

Experimental Analysis

-Identifying whats in a mixture.


Paper chromatography

Molecular ion peak =


peak with the largest mass

Relative formula
Mass

ISOTOPES

Why use a machine?

are atoms of the same


element with different
numbers of neutrons

Additives improve appearance, taste and make food last longer!

Id love to tell you a good


chemistry joke but all the
good ones Argon

Add the mass of each atom


in the formula together
e.g. CaCO3

40 + 12 + 16 + 16 +
Moles 16 = 100

Plastics

We compare the
mass of any atom to
Carbon 12

1 mole of any substance


contains the same number of
Mass of element
23
particles.
(6.02x10
)
h
e
of
os hen n't m
erm y w do
Relative atomic mass or
Total mass of compound
Th easil g
n
i
lt
t
e
et
m mos
formula
mass
in
grams
is
r
e
x 100 =
Th
equal
to
one
mole.
Cool packs use exothermic reactions
Percentage
e.g. 12g of carbon is one
Good for sport injuries!
+ 12 =
Mass
rbon (12
All the ca
mole of carbon
)
24
When a reaction formsToo removed a solid (s) e.g. % mass of carbon
(12) in ethane C2H6
a reaction you
a SOILD(s) its called a from
Exothermic reactions give out
(30)
FILTER it out !
If you reaction gives
heat to the surroundings(get
e.g. Respiration &
PRECIPITATE
24 / 30 x 100 = 80%
you a dissolved
Combustion
hotter)
Catalysts - speed up reactions without being product (aq) instead,
used
up
Increasing the rate
Endothermic reactions take in
of a reaction
can save money!
Different reactions need different catalysts!
e.g.
you EVAPOURATE it
heat from the surroundings
Catalysts are often metals
Photosynthesis
(if they escape they might harm the environment)
out We
! can measure the rate of
(get colder)
Hand warmers and self heating cans
use exothermic reactions.
Mixing two chemicals to produce heat
(single use) or the formation of crystals
in a supersaturated solution (reusable).

Using different monomers and conditions


will change the type of polymer you
produce.
in g ted
ten ea lt !

ill b be
ard qual
e
that's not a
y w r will forw Anything
a
at
w
r
m
e
e
u
e
h yst
c metal on its own is a
t
n
c
o
o
O he
s
n
d
o
t
se acti
base
clo
re
tes
and

Acid +raMetal
Salt +
Hydrogen
Acid &
+ Base
Salt +
Acids
Bases
Water
+
In a ward
k
bac

(Alkalis)
Acids
H
Alkalis
Bases NEUTRALISE
OHacids

Acid

Salt

Hydrochlo
ric Acid

Chloride

Sulfuric
Acid

Sulfate

Nitric Acid

Nitrate

pH
Find the pH using
Universal Indicator
Scale

rate of a reaction
is speed up by
increasing the:
Temperature
Surface area
Concentration
Or by adding a
Increase in pressure
CATALYSIS
is the same as
increase in
concentration

ep
Ste

f
e=
lin

n
tio
ac
t re
as

e=
t lin
Fla

c
ea
Ar

t
ns
tio

!
ed
pp
sto
ts
ha

An increase of 10oC
doubles the rate of a
reaction

IMPORTANT

le
sib
r
e
ic
Rev actiodnotherhmermic
Re e en exot andFor this:

a reaction by looking at how


fast solid reactants are
used up, how quickly gas is
produced or how quickly
light is blocked (the
When we increase the
disappearing cross)
concentration/surface area we
increase the frequency of
particles colliding and reacting.
Speeding up the reaction.
When we increase the
temperature the particles move
faster, they are more likely to
collide and do so with sufficient
energy
to react.
Speeding
For a reaction
to take
place up
we the
have
reaction.
to have the
minimum amount of
energy needed

Collision Theory

e.g. Sulfuric Acid + Magnesium -> Magnesium


sulfate+
Hydrogen
e.g. Nitric
Acid + Copper Oxide -> Copper
nitrate + Water
The

Molecular Formula &


Empirical Formula

Balanced Equations

Molecular Formula : The actual number of


atoms of each element in an individual
molecule
Empirical Formula : The simplest whole
number ratio of the elements in the
molecule

Calculating the Empirical Formula

Percentage Yield
This is used to compare our actual yield
with our theoretical yield.
Amount of product actually produced
Maximum possible yield (Theoretical
Rem
em b
e
yield) x 100
r
:
was
Lo

ts o f
te r
reso
urce educes
s
extra and ca
us
pollu
tion. e

A balanced equation has the same


number of atoms for each element on
both sides

e.g. 200
275 x

100 =

72.73 %

1) Use the same table and method given for


Its rare to get 100% yield
calculating reacting masses but remove the
This
is
because
some products can be left
We can use this to find the ratio of
ratio row.
in
apparatus
or
separating products from
moles that are needed to react with
The question will either provide the grams
reactants
is difficult.
one another
of each element or the percentage. Assume
Sometimes
its
not
everything
reacts to
Working
out
chemical
e.g. 1 CH4 molecule reacts with 2 O2
percentages are the same figure in grams.
begin
with.
When doing an
Question: A substance
molecules This is useful if we
formula
e.g. 12% = 12g
experiment if we know
want to calculate When
1:2 ratio
you need
to work
out the ionic
contains 24% carbon and
Use your
data
sheet!
formula of a substance you will always
the
grams
used
and
the
how
much
g
64% hydrogen. Calculate
need something from the positive ion
Molecular/Formula Mass
product we would
column and something from the
the its empirical formula.
Gra
negative ion column.
we can calculate the
get from a specific
Chemic
Hydrog
moles
amount of
ms
Carbon
The charges should always cancel out!
al
en
e.g. What is the formula for silver oxide?
e.g. In 24 g of carbon
reactant
n
Mr THEORETICAL 1) First identify the two ions you+ need. (one 2-from each column)
Grams
24
64
which has an Mr of 12
Ag and O
Molecular/
YIELD
2) Balance the charges. Oxygen has 2 minus charges but silver only
there would be 2 Mol
Mr
12
16
Formula
has a single positive charge.
moles of carbon.
es
Mass
This means youll need two silvers to cancel out the one oxygen.
Moles
2
4
Calculating
24/12 = 2 Theoretical yield
( + + ) Ag+ Ag+ = O2- ( - - )
What if you need
that
Question: How much CO2 would be produced by burning 3) Write the formula. When you know how Ag2O something
2) To get the simplest
already has a
many of each ion you need use this in the
small number?
ratio divide all moles
100g of
Put the whole
formula and ignore the charges.
ion in brackets!
by the smallest
Methane (CH4) ?
Try to work out: Magnesium oxide and Calcium chloride
Cu (NO )
Chemi
calculated value
CH
CO
4)
Now
you
have
1) Put in the things
3 2

This gives you the


number of each
element present and
the empirical formula

CH

If you were told the compound had a


mass of 28 you could2 calculate the
molecular formula
The Mr of CH2 is 14
28 /14 = 2
Therefore the molecular formula must

cal
the Mr and the
you already know.
You were given
moles of CO2 you
Ratio
1
1
the grams of
can use the
methane in the
triangle to
Grams
100
?
question. And can
calculate the
calculate the Mr
Mr
16
44
grams that will be
using the periodic
produced.
Moles
6.25
6.25
table.
3) Use the ratio from balanced equation to
44 x 6..25 =
provide the moles of CO2
2) Use the
1:1

6.25 : 6.25

275

Answers: MgO CaCl 2

2/2 =
4/2 =
1 : 2

All figures in
example calculations
refer to the burning
of methane in
oxygen as shown in
the balanced
equation

4 molecules
molecules

ill b be
ard
ua l
y w r will forw at eq
a
w
r
m
e
u
e
e
h
On e ot d syst on occ
th lose acti s
d
n
c
re rate
a In a
rd
a

Brick
Re d

Used for
Fertilisers,
Explosives &
RemDyes
ember:

Endothermic reactions take in heat from the surroundings


(get colder)

a
entr
conc

lk
or a

Acid of known
concentration:
you can use the
stop clock to add
exactly the right
amount
by drop
Add drop you go
as
swirling

Pipette used
to measure 25ml
of unknown alkali

Measure
from the
meniscus

Moles

Conc. of
Unknown
Alkali

Concentrati
on
(mol/dm3)

0.5

0.025/0.025
=1

Volume
(dm3)
-to convert-

50/1000 =

25/1000 =

0.05

0.025

IV

cm3 / 1000
The reaction
is finished
when the
indicator
changes
colour.

3
A titration uses 50cm0.5
of a x
known
acid (0.5 mol/dm3) to
0.05
Moles
(n) 25cm3 of an unknown alkali.
0.025
neutralise
=
0.025
-First work out moles in known acid.
-Use equation to work out ratio of moles and apply.

(here 1:1 has been used so the number of moles is the same)

-Next use the volume and moles to calculate the


concentration of unknown alkali.
- The unknown alkali has a concentration of 1 mol/dm3

Acids and alkalis neutralise each


other You can use an indicator to
show when this has happened. This is
-When alcohol burns with oxygen it form carbon
the END POINT.
ith
w
dioxide and water.
ns
Repeat three times until you can
tio hol: -Alcohols will also react with sodium, fizzing and
c
a o
make an average.
making hydrogen gas.
Re alc
-It you boil alcohol with
Acid Strength?
potassium dichromate it will
Two acids that are the same concentration can still be
different strengths.
oxidise to a carboxylic acid.
Strong acids disassociate (lose) there H+ ions completely.
Going a green colour.
Weak acids do not completely disassociate, not losing all
-Microbes will also oxidise
+
their H ions
alcohol like this.
HCl is an example
of a strong acid.
Carboxylic acids are
weak acids.

Homologous series a group of compounds

which share a functional group giving them


similar properties.
All alcohols have the
Ethanol
functional group -OH

The res t
of the na
from how
me come
long the
s
carbon ch
ain
is.

Yellow

Lilac

-Add NaOH to sample


-Check to see what coloured precipitate (solid) forms.
-Check to see if adding more NaOH will make it
dissolve
Will
Unknown
dissolve
White
solution +
with more
Green
precipitate
NaOH
NaOH

Na+

3) Halide ions Cl- Br- l-

Light blue
precipitate

Cu2+

Wont
dissolve
with more
NaOH

Al3+

Calculation
Known
Acid

Co
nc
.

you
hen

-for wtion of acid

o
ud
yo
elp s
l h ion
wil ulat
le
lc
ng ca
tria tion
is
Th titra

C3 Chemistry

Fe3+

Ca2+

Increasing
are too low
pressure
willa
reaction the
will
increase
be on
too
slow.
yield
the
side
with less
molecules.
BUT
High pressures
Make
sure you can
are expensive.
explain this in
reverse!

Exothermic reactions give out heat to the


surroundings(get hotter)

Reddish
brown
Precipitate

Li+

reaction will
too slow.
If be
temperature

Reactions with NaOH

-Dip wire in sample


-Hold loop in flame
-Use the colour of the
flame to identify the
metal in the compound
n
Crimso
/Bright
Red

Conditions
:

450oC
200
atmospheres
Separate
out
Ammonia
Iron
Catalyst
using its boiling point (it
condenses)

ible
s
r
e
ic
Rev actiodnotherhmermic
Re e en exot and

kw
bac

s
tion now the ve...
a
r
t
i
T
't k
u ha
don
li yo

Chemical analysis can be used


to ID individuals at crime
scenes, pollution in rivers and
matching transplant patients to
donors in medicine

Remember ethanol is also used in alcohol and biofuel.


This means it can be abused but could also help solve
our fossil fuel problems.

All carboxylic acids have the


functional group -COOH
Ethanoic acid

Methyl ethanoate

Carboxylic acids but a pH less than 7. They will react


slowly with carbonates releasing CO 2.

All esters have the functional


group -COO-

They are often used as flavourings and perfumes.


Esters are made by reacting an alcohol with a

by
ples
sam
tifies bands
n
e
sis id atching
analy
rm
DNA oking fo
lo

You have to have known samples to compare your unknowns with

AC
om
pro
mis
e

Un-reacted gases
recycled

exothermic
endothermic

Low
temperatures
will increase
the yield of
exothermic
reactions.
High
temperatures
will decrease
the yield
of
If
exothermic
temperatures
are
too low a
reactions.

Remember: wash all the equipment with distilled water

Nitrogen from the air


Hydrogen from natural
gases

e
lum
Vo

The Haber
Process
Making
Ammonia

Light green
carboxylic acid. Sulfuric acid is often a catalysts.
Here the alcohol used was ethanol so this will
precipitate that
become Ethyl in the esters name.
Mg2+ Ca2+
starts to go
The acid is ethonoic acid so this will be ethanoate
in the esters name.
2+ brown
Naming esters starts with the alcohol
Fe
Giving the name Ethyl ethanoate.
then the acid.
K+
Ba2+
1) Carbonate ions CO32Add acid
Look for bubbles and test with Limewater (CO2 is made)
Forensic gel electrophoresis
2) Sulfates ions SO42Add acid
Add Barium chloride
Look for white precipitate
Colours: Chloride ions = white Bromide ions = cream Iodide ions = pale yellow
Add Nitric acid
Add Silver Nitrate
Look for coloured precipitate

a
gs
kes
t ta
par
r
ene
gy)

b on
g old
eakin onds.
r
b
e
volv
wb
ions in making ne
React

ds an

(swapping bad ions for sodium ions)

k
Do you thin
ould be
people sh
ey are
asked if th
ok with this?

hing
Soda
m ca
rb

ng c a
lciu

term

onate

s)

o n yo

ur

(-) Negative value


e
valu een
Overall energy has
ive
osit y has b
P
)
escaped
g
r
(+
d
ene
rall bsorbe
Ove
a

Mass of
Water

VChange in

Temp
y of
apacit
Heat c = 4.2J
water e given

ill b
(you w is)
th

Check pH

g
dro
Hy

You can
either
break the
bonds in
hydrogen
or burn it
to create
energy

Harmless water is made. No Pollution!


Equation: 100 x 4.3 x 9 = 3870J

Divide by 1000 to get KJ = 3.87KJ

Example question: How much energy is released when


100cm3 of water heated by 9oC?
(Take the numbers from the question and put them in the equation)

Measuring Energy Burning Fuels

el
Fuel of the
lC
e
u
Future n F
e

-The further away


from the nucleus
the elections is the
easier it is to lose it.
-If there are lots of
shells in the way its
also harder to hold
onto the electron.

Reactions with water:


All of group 1 (X)do it the same

2X + 2H2O

2XOH + H2
e.g.

2Na + 2H2O

2NaOH + H2

Kill
Bacteria

Because this
reaction make
OH- ions the
solution will be
alkali and
make an
indictor blue

.
round
r way
e othe
n so
o
th
ti
s
c
it
n ele
n
up 7
gain a nucleus ca
In gro
ant to
e
.
They w ller mean th more easily
a
n
sm
ctio
being
xtra ele
e
n
a
pull in

Daltons Triads

I shall put elements in


order of mass and
by adding
Chlorine
groups of three where
u
they are similar
ater yo
w
When putting the
e
r
u
p
r
e
p
elements in order of
tils!o is Newlands Idea
For su ve to dis
mass I can see every
ha takes heat .and
8th element show
is
ive
th
s
t
n
e
u
B
exp
similar properties,
much like musical
These
octaves (notes)
work by

But storing hydrogen is


dangerous as its explosive!

energy
released

Take Out The Dirt

(is it safe?)

The ions also


reactive soap..
Making SCUM.
Wasting your
precious soap.

e.g. if I burnt 0.2 moles I would


have to multiple the answer by 5
to get the energy release by 1

If you want to compare 2 fuels you will need to know how much of each was
burnt. Calculate how much energy you get per gram or per mole.

removing
ions and
bacteria.
Temporary

This didnt really work. New elements

How the Periodic table changes over time.

Energy Level
Diagrams

Scale m
akes
heating
inefficie
nt

Water Treatment

ers
Riv

Catalysts Lower Activation Energy

(without enough oxygen)

Was

ow n

Issues with this


equipment
Without the draught
shield or lid heat
energy escapes.
The water might to be
heated evenly.
The fuel might not
burn completely

Fluoride is
d to
also adde
drinking
lp
water to he
give us
eth.
healthy te

Ion-exchange column

Group 1 all want to


lose 1 electron and
become +1 ions

Costs
you
money!

Hard water is good for


your teeth, bones and
prevents heart disease.

Water
Soften Hard

(m aki

If you know the value of


each bond you break
And
The value of each bond
you make..
You can work out the
overall energy difference
between the two.

These ions can form


Limescale (limestone) in
appliances.
Having stone forming in
pipes, kettles and heaters is
bad!

BUT

How to

d then

Added as
water goes
over rocks

pip
es

oint de
creas
e

thin

You will be
given the
bond values

Contain Ca2+ and Mg2+

Reactivity depends on how easily atoms can gain or


lose electrons so they end up with a full outer shell

and b
oiling
p

ling

have to
Remember: You
dothermic)
break bonds. (en
en you make
wh
d
se
ea
Energy is rel
bonds. (exothermic)

Hard Water

Sc
ale
blo
ck
s

Melting

l
(pu

new ones, overall the


So
you get out from the
cost you more then
If breaking all bonds
c.
g the old ones then
reaction is endothermi
n you spent breakin
e you more energy the
giv
ds
bon
new
king
If ma
be exothermic.
overall reaction will
put energy in to

were found and there was no room. The


Hard
patterns also broke down quickly.
Chemistry like music? Thats just Crazy!
Water can be
soften by heat. Mendeleevs Periodic Table
Permanent Hard
I have left gaps in my
water can not.
table for elements

T:
FAC table is
dic
perio ged by
e
h
T
ER
arran
now C NUMB
MI
ATO

that havent been


discovered yet!

Because elements appear in groups with similar properties


I can predict what missing elements will be like.