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KONSEP DASAR

TEKNOLOGI

Konsep Dasar Teknologi


Evolusi Teknologi:
Teori Perubahan Masyarakat,
Tingkat Perkembangan Teknologi

Definisi Teknologi
Siklus Hidup Teknologi
Tingkat Teknologi
Jenis Teknologi
Klasifikasi Teknologi

Teori Perubahan Masyarakat


Masyarakat tradisional, persiapan lepas
landas, lepas landas, dorongan kearah
kedewasaan, konsumsi masa tinggi
(Rostow).
Berkembang, lepas landas, industri, postindustri (Farmer, 1969).
Masyarakat pertanian, masyarakat
industri, masyarakat informasi (Toffler).

Teori Perubahan Masyarakat


(TOFFLER) (1)

Masyarakat Pertanian (8000 SM 1700)


Gelombang pembaharuan manusia menentukan &
menerapkan teknologi pertanian
Manusia yang semula berpindah-pindah menjadi suka untuk
tinggal menetap (desa)
Manusia menggunakan energi dari alam (otot binatang,
matahari, angin & air)
Masyarakat produsen & sekaligus menjadi konsumen

Teori Perubahan Masyarakat


(TOFFLER) (2)

Masyarakat Industri (1700 1970)


Revolusi Industri ditandai dengan penggunaan mesin (melipat
gandakan kekuatan fisik manusia)
Manusia menggunakan energi: minyak, batu bara & gas
Pemisahan antara masyarakat produsen dengan masyarakat
konsumen (spesialisasi)
Terjadi perusakan alam akibat eksploitasi sumber daya
Penetrasi pasar internasional

Teori Perubahan Masyarakat


(TOFFLER) (3)

Masyarakat Informasi (1970 > 2000)

Penggunaan teknologi komunikasi dalam peradaban manusia


Penggunaan komputer & mikro elektronik sebagai teknologi inti
Pelipatgandaan kekuatan pikir manusia
Energi alternatif, energi baru, rekayasa genetik,bioteknologi

MATA RANTAI PERUBAHAN TEKNOLOGI

Kemajuan teknologi mempengaruhi ilmu pengetahuan; merubah


pola hidup manusia dan struktur sosial secara keseluruhan

TEKNOLOGI & MASYARAKAT

Definisi Teknologi (1)


TEKHNOLOGIA (Greek)
Techn = art or skill
Logos = science or study

Sekumpulan pengetahuan ilmiah, mesin, perkakas serta


kemampuan organisasi produksi yang dikelola secara
sistematik dan efektif (JUDET & PERRIN, 1971)
Technology is the totality of goods, tools, processes,
methods, techniques, procedures and service that are
invented and put into some practical use (BAYRAKTAR,
1992)

Definisi Teknologi (2)


Teknologi: suatu input produksi yang penting & dapat
diperjual-belikan di pasar dunia sebagai suatu komoditi.
(UNCTAD)
a) Barang modal (investasi).
b) Tenaga kerja manusia (tenaga terampil spesialisasi sangat
tinggi).
c) Informasi (sifat teknis atau komersial: pasar, hak cipta, dijual)

Definisi Teknologi (3)


Suatu pengaturan yang berisikan atas tiga
elemen atau komponen teknologi (paket)
(SANDRETT)
Elemen material : mesin, peralatan, bahan baku, bahan
setengah jadi, dll.
Elemen informasi : pengetahuan tentang prosedur, keterampilan
individu & kolektif
Elemen organisasi : organisasi produksi, jabatan, situasi kerja &
koordinasi

Definisi Teknologi (4)

Definisi Teknologi (5)


Pengelompokan Konsep Teknologi dari perspektif sosioekonomi

Definisi Teknologi (6)


Technology includes whatever it takes to convert
resources into products and services (GAYNOR, 1992)
All the knowledge, products, processes, tools, methods
& system employed in the creation of goods or in
providing services (KHALIL, 2002)

Definisi Teknologi (7)


Komponen teknologi (TECHNOLOGY ALTAS
PROJECT, 1989):
Technoware peralatan manual, mesin otomatis, fasilitas
terintegrasi
Humanware kemampuan: operasional, memproduksi,
memperbaiki, adaptasi, inovasi
Inforware menilai, menjelaskan, menggunakan fakta,
melakukan klasifikasi
Orgaware individual, kelompok, organisasi, industri, nasional

Definisi Teknologi (8)


Komponen teknologi (ZELENY, 1986):
Hardware: the physical structure & logical layout of the
equipment or machinery that is to be used to carry out the
required tasks
Software: The knowledge of how to use the hardware in order to
carry out the required tasks
Brainware: The reasons for using the technology in particular
way

Komponen Teknologi

Technology, Science & Engineering


BETZ (1993)
Science is the discovery & explanation of nature
Technology is the knowledge of the manipulation of nature for
human purposes
Engineering is the understanding & manipulation of nature for
human purposes

Siklus Hidup Teknologi (1)


Technology development: basic technology
Technology application: technology + application
Application launch: technology + application + product
launch
Application growth: technology + application + product
sales
Technology maturity: technology + application + fall in
product sales
Degraded technology: minimal product sales + loss of
application + alternative technology

Siklus Hidup Teknologi (2)

TIPE TEKNOLOGI
Materials Technology
Production Technology
Transport Technology
Testing Technology
Process Technology
Machining Technology

Klasifikasi Teknologi (UNIDO)


a. Teknologi yang terkandung dalam peralatan
b. Teknologi yang terkandung dalam produk
c. Teknologi yang terkandung dalam proses
d. Teknologi yang terkandung dalam operasi

Klasifikasi Teknologi (Kahlil) (1)


New technology: new introducted or implemented technology
(explicit impact on the way a company produces products or
provides services)

Emerging technology: not yet fully commercialed but will


become so within about five year

High technology: refers to advanced or sophisticated


technologies

Klasifikasi Teknologi (Kahlil) (2)


Low technology: refers to technologies that have permated
large segments of human society

Medium technology: refers to mature technologies


Appropriate technology: used to indicate a good match
between the technology utilized and the resources required for its
optimal use

Klasifikasi Teknologi
Berdasarkan Unsur

Unsur: proses-proses teknis yang tidak


terdapat secara khusus pada sesuatu bidang.

Lima Unsur Teknologi:


1.
2.
3.
4.

Technology of energy conversion and utilization


Technology of tools & machines
Technology of measurement, observation & control
Technology involved in the extraction & conversion
of industrial raw materials
5. Technology of industrial production processes

Klasifikasi Teknologi
Berdasarkan Unsur (1)
Technology of energy conversion and utilization:

Major types of energy useful to man


Devices & techniques for the utilization of energy
Devices for energy conversion
Devices for energy concentration & control
Devices for unlimited production of energy

Klasifikasi Teknologi
Berdasarkan Unsur (2)
Technology of tools & machines
Hand tools
Machines & machine components
Machine tools: stationary power-driven machines for
shaping & forming parts made of metal or other
materials

Klasifikasi Teknologi
Berdasarkan Unsur (3)
Technology of measurement, observation & control
Theory of measurement
Units & standards of measurement
Principles & processes by which instruments of measurement
operate
Common types of measuring instruments
Special instrument & apparatus used in scientific research
Major systems of measurement & observation
Instrumentation & control systems

Klasifikasi Teknologi
Berdasarkan Unsur (4)
Technology involved in the extraction &
conversion of industrial raw materials
The worlds physical & biological resources
Technology of the extraction industries
Primary conversion of raw materials

Klasifikasi Teknologi
Berdasarkan Unsur (5)
Technology of industrial production processes
Materials processing: the operations that are used to
transform industrial materials from a raw-material
state into finished parts or products
Metallurgy
Materials handling in the production process
Technology of packaging

Klasifikasi Teknologi
Berdasarkan Bidang
Bidang: berbagai kebutuhan manusia, tujuan, barang &
jasa yang mendatangkan kemajuan teknologi
Delapan bidang pokok teknologi:

Construction technology
Technology of major industries
Technology of agriculture & food production
Transportation technology
Technology of information processing & of communications
systems
Technology of the urban community
Military technology
Technology of earth & space exploration

Klasifikasi Teknologi
Berdasarkan Bidang (1)
Construction technology
General building construction
Construction of civil engineering works
Prefabrication & shop fabrication

Klasifikasi Teknologi
Berdasarkan Bidang (2)
Technology of major industries

Principles of organization of work & production


Manufacturing industries
The fabrication industries
The process industries
The construction industries
The service industries
The merchandising & marketing of consumer goods
Industrial research & marketing of consumer goods
Industrial research & development
Technology of industrial safety

Klasifikasi Teknologi
Berdasarkan Bidang (3)
Technology of agriculture & food production

Technology of agriculture
Crop farming, Flock & stock farming
Technology of hunting & fishing
Food processing, Food preservation
Techniques for controlling the quality of food
Food sources & new product development
The history of agriculture

Klasifikasi Teknologi
Berdasarkan Bidang (4)
Transportation technology
Roads & highways & their construction
Vehicles & devices for transportation across country & roads &
highways
Rail transportation
Stationary conveyance systems
Water transportation
Air transportation
Air - cushion machines

Klasifikasi Teknologi
Berdasarkan Bidang (5)
Technology of information processing & of
communications systems

Communication & information theory


Calculating devices, Office machines, Computers
General information recording devices
Sound recording & reproducing devices
Information recording by the production of visual image: the
technology of photography
Information processing
Major systems of communication
Major system of detection & remote sensing
Electronic component & techniques used in communications

Klasifikasi Teknologi
Berdasarkan Bidang (6)
Technology of the urban community

Basic engineering services of the city


Technology of the basic social services of the city
Technological responses to new urban problems
History of city engineering

Klasifikasi Teknologi
Berdasarkan Bidang (7)
Military technology
Offensive & defensive delivery & payload systems
Logistic systems
Purely defensive equipment & systems

Klasifikasi Teknologi
Berdasarkan Bidang (8)
Technology of earth & space exploration
Techniques & equipment of surface & underground
exploration
Techniques & equipment of space exploration
Techniques & equipment & space exploration

Parker (1982): 6 tingkat teknologi yang berhubungan


dengan pengembangan produk baru.
Tingkat 1: repetitive, simple & general (craftsmen)
Tingkat 6: formulasi unambiguous highly technological goals,
new knowledge, complex systems, sophisticated tools of
measurement, analysis of abstract thinking.

Lowe (1995): 5 tingkat teknologi.