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Prenatal Development, Part 1

This section covers:


Important issues in development
Prenatal development
Risks during prenatal development

DEVELOPMENT

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The Biopsychosocial Framework


Human development is a result of interacting
forces

Prenatal Development

2016 Cengage Learning.

Nature and Nurture


Genes can be turned on or shut off by events and
items in the environment.

Prenatal Development

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Important Issues in Development


Continuity and discontinuity
Universal and ecological

Prenatal Development

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Prenatal Development, Part 2


Zygote, embryo, and fetus
Ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm

Prenatal Development

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Atypical Development Genetic Influences

Prenatal Development

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Atypical Development Teratogens


DRUG
Alcohol

Aspirin
Caffeine
Cocaine and
heroin
Marijuana
Nicotine
Prenatal Development

POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES
Fetal alcohol syndrome, cognitive
deficits, heart damage, developmental
delays
Deficits in intelligence, attention, and
motor skills
Low birth weight, decreased muscle
tone
Developmental delays, irritability in
newborns
Low birth weight, reduced motor
control
Developmental delays, possible
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cognitive impairments

Teratogens: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Prenatal Development

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Infant Mortality
Infant Mortality Rates by Country
140
120
100
80
60
Deaths/1000 Live Births

40
20
0

Prenatal Development

2016 Cengage Learning.

Infancy and Childhood


This section covers
infancy and early
childhood in terms of:
Behavior
Physical development
Cognitive development
Social and emotional
development

DEVELOPMENT

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Infant Behavior
Activity
Sensory function

Infancy and Childhood

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Infant Reflexes
Reflex
name

Action

Possible purpose

Babinski

Stroking the babys foot causes


toes to spread out.

Unknown; disappears as
nervous system matures

Blink

Eye closes in response to


strong stimuli.

Protects eyes

Moro

If the babys head falls


backward, the arms first
spread out and then hug.

A possible evolutionary
remnant allowing primates to
cling to an adult.

Palmar

Placing an object in the hand


produces reflexive grasping.

A possible evolutionary
remnant allowing primates to
cling to an adults fur

Rooting

Stroking a babys cheek results


in the baby turning toward the
touch and opening the mouth.

Helps the baby nurse

Stepping

Placing the babys feet on a


flat surface initiates stepping.

Possible precursor to walking

Sucking

The baby sucks anything that


touches the roof of the mouth.
Infancy and Childhood

Helps the baby nurse.


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Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood

Infancy and Childhood

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Motor Milestones in Infancy and Childhood

Infancy and Childhood

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Cognitive Development: Piaget and the


Discontinuity Approach
Schemas
Assimilation and accommodation

Infancy and Childhood

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Cognitive Development: Piagets Stages, Part 1


Sensorimotor stage (Birth2)
Object permanence

Preoperational stage (ages 26)


Egocentrism
Conservation
Animism

Infancy and Childhood

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Cognitive Development: Piagets Stages, Part 2


Concrete operations (ages 612)
Formal operations (after age 12)

Infancy and Childhood

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Cognitive Development: Piagets Stages


Summary
Stage

Approximate Highlights
age

Sensorimot
or stage

Birth to age 2

Here and now rather than past and


future. Exploration through moving
and sensing. Object permanence.

Preoperatio
nal stage

2 to 6 years

Language acquisition. Egocentrism.


Illogical reasoning.

Concrete
operational
stage

6 to 12 years

Logical reasoning. Mastery of


conservation problems. Learning by
doing.

Formal
operational
stage

12 years and
older

Abstract reasoning. Idealism.


Improved problem solving.

Infancy and Childhood

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Cognitive Development: Vygotskys Theory

Infancy and Childhood

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Other Approaches to Cognitive Development


Information processing
Nave theories
Theory of mind

Infancy and Childhood

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Gender
Gender roles
Gender permanence
Gender schema

Infancy and Childhood

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Temperament
Surgency or extroversion
Negative affect or mood
Effortful control
Environmental
interactions

Infancy and Childhood

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Attachment
Separation and stranger anxiety
Secure and insecure attachment styles
Avoidant, anxious-ambivalent, and disorganized

Infancy and Childhood

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Parenting Styles
Authoritative
Authoritarian
Permissive
Uninvolved

Infancy and Childhood

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Parenting Styles and Child Outcomes


2.8

Uninvolved

2.6
2.4

Permissiv
e

2.2
2
1.8
Antisocial Behavior Score 1.6
1.4

Authoritari
an

1.2
1

Authoritativ
e

0.8
0.6
0.4
0

10

12

14

Grade
Infancy and Childhood

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Sociocultural Influences on Development


Divorce and remarriage
Birth order and siblings
Abuse and maltreatment
Peers, popularity, and
bullying
Electronic media
Perspective taking

Infancy and Childhood

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Adolescence
This section covers:
Physical development
Cognitive and moral development
Social and emotional development

DEVELOPMENT

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Defining Adolescence
The transition from childhood to adulthood
Has become longer over time
Earlier onset of puberty
Extended education and training

Adolescence

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Physical Development: Puberty


AGE
MALES
10 Empty Cell
11 Testes enlarge
12 Pubic hair appears
Penis enlarges
13
14

15

First ejaculation
Underarm & facial hair
appears
Voice deepens
Penis reaches adult size
Pubic hair matures

Adolescence

FEMALES
Breasts buds appear
Pubic hair appears
Underarm hair
appears
First menstruation
Empty cell
Pubic hair matures

Breasts mature
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Physical Development: The Brain

Adolescence

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Cognition
Abstract thought
Idealism of youth
Return to
egocentrism
Imaginary audience
Personal fable

Adolescence

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Moral Reasoning
Kohlberg
Preconventional
Conventional
Postconventional

Gilligan
Gender
perspective

Adolescence

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Eriksons Psychosocial Stages Childhood and


Adolescence
Age
Birth to 18
months
18 months to
3 years
3 to 6 years
6 to 12 years
Adolescence

Adolescence

Stage
Trust vs.
mistrust
Autonomy
vs. shame &
doubt
Initiative vs.
guilt
Industry vs.
inferiority
Identity vs.
role
confusion

Description
The child views the world as a
safe, dependable place.
The child begins to explore.

The child begins to act on the


world.
The child develops selfconfidence.
Teens ask Who am I? Failure
to achieve an identity leads to
role confusion and subsequent
problems.
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Social and Emotional Development


Identity formation
Group identity

Family relationships

Adolescence

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Adulthood
This section covers:
Emerging adulthood
Midlife
Late adulthood

DEVELOPMENT

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Eriksons Psychosocial Stages Adulthood


Age
Young
adulthood

Stage
Intimacy vs.
isolation

Middle
adulthood

Generativity
vs.
stagnation

Late
adulthood

Integrity vs.
despair

Adolescence

Description
People with clear identities
form stable, intimate
relationships, while others
experience feelings of
loneliness and isolation.
Midlife adults who find value
in their lives, even if they
havent met their goals,
experience generativity. They
are likely to put back energy
into family, work, and
community.
Toward the end of life, adults
who feel that they have lived
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Learning.
fully have a sense
of Cengage
integrity

Emerging and Early Adulthood


Physical status
Postformal
thought
Relationships

Adulthood

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Middle Adulthood
Physical and cognitive changes
Social changes

Adulthood

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Late Adulthood, Part 1


Physical changes
Cognition

Adulthood

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Late Adulthood, Part 2


Social and emotional matters

Adulthood

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Death and Dying


Grief
Bereavement
Reactions to
confronting death

Adulthood

2016 Cengage Learning.