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LAB EXERCISE NO.

5
ENVIRONMENTAL ELEMENTS AND THEIR EFFECT ON
FARMING SYSTEM
(BATANGAS CITY)

INTRODUCTION:

The City of Batangas are known


as theIndustrial Port City of
CALABARZONand
classified
as one of the most competitive
cities in the country today.
It was proclaimed as a City on
July 23,1969 which became the
accelerating point of trading,
commercial
and
industrial
activities in the locality.

This capital city is one of


the nations top revenue
earning cities and the
site of one of the biggest
refineries
in
the
Philippines. The city is
also hosting the first
three power plants using
natural
gas
with
a
combined capacity of
2,700MW.

The City of Batangas is a coastal city


lying in a cove-like shape at the southeastern portion of Batangas Province .
It is bounded on the northwest by the
municipality of San Pascual; on the
north by the municipality of San Jose;
on the east by the municipalities of
Ibaan, Taysan and Lobo; and on the
south by the Batangas Bay.Batangas
City, the capital of Batangas Province
has a total land area of more or less
28,541.44 hectares. It is about 112.00
kilometres away from Manila.

BATANGAS PROFILE

A. Environmental
requirement
Solar radiation

Parameters
Optimu
Maximu Minimu
m
m
m
-

Temperature

22-26

Rainfall distribution

1705
mm

Rainfall distribution

1705
mm

Relative humidity

85%

Relative humidity

85%

Remarks

Temperature in Batangas ranges in - in


month
and ininmonth of
JanuaryoftoDecember
April , theJanuary
driest months
May
Batangas City with the average monthly
rainfall of less than 50 mm per month.
January
to April , the driest months in

Batangas
City with the
average
monthly
June to September.
Maximum
rain
occurs
rainfall of less than 50 mm per month.
with the average monthly rainfall of 275 mm

per month.
June to September. Maximum rain occurs

with the average monthly rainfall of 275 mm


The northeast monsoon amihan prevails
per
month.
starting
from November up to April and by
the end of October. However, the months from
The
northeast
monsoon
prevails
October
to December
areamihan
not characterized
starting
from November
up totoApril
and by
by dry weather
as compared
the months
the end of October. However, the months from
from January to April.
October
to December are not characterized

by dry weather as compared to the months


from January to April.

Soil/land types
Sandy loam, Clay loam, Loam
TYPES OF SOIL
Taal Sandy Loam

LOCATION
Sta. Rita Karsada, Sta. Rita Aplaya, Sta.
Clara and Cuta
Calicanto and Wawa
Libjo, Poblacion and Pallocan
Pinamucan, Mahabang Dahilig, Malalim,
Sirang Lupa, Conde, Talumpok
Kanluran/Silangan, Sto. Nio, Tulo,
Paharang

AGRICULTURAL POTENTIALS
corn, citrus, sugar cane, fruit trees

Ibaan Loam

Balete, Concepcion, Bucal, Mahabang


Parang, Sorosoro, Tingga, Banaba,
Balagtas, Alangilan, Bolbok, Kumintang,
San Pedro, Dumantay, Dalig, Gulod,
Sampaga, San Isidro, Ambulong and
Tabangao Aplaya

sugar cane, upland rice, corn,


vegetables, coffee and bananas

Ibaan Loam (Gravely


Phase)

Talumpok Kanluran/Silangan, Conde,


San Miguel, Sto. Nio, Tabangao Dao,
Haligue, Talahib Payapa, Talahib
Pandayan, Mabacong, Ilijan and Dela
Paz

coconut, atis, cacao and coffee

Sibul

Isla Verde

rice, peanuts, tomatoes and


vegetables

Hydrosoil
Calumpang Clay Loam
Ibaan Clay Loam

saltbeds and fishponds


Sugar Cane
sugar cane, upland crops, rice and
intercrops

Ph
N

6 - 7.3

Medium to high

P(kg/ha)
K(kg/ha)

Very high
Medium to high

Soiltopography
Slope

Elevation

Slope in Batangas ranges in 0-30%


968m above sea level

C. Latitude/Longitude

Batangas, Philippines is located at coordinates 13 45 25.96 s


North latitude and 121 3 29.2 s East longitude

Sourceofwater

Irrigation facilities are also in place, although as of 2001, only about


44 percent of the potential area (8,222 hectares) had been developed
for irrigation. Irrigation facilities are mostly pumps and services
provided by the Communal Irrigation System and National
Irrigation System

MAJORCROPS

Crops
String beans

Area Planted
(ha)
229

Volume of
production(mt)
1,499.96

Legumes
Fruit tree

Coffee

3, 897

666.55

Sugar
crop
Root crop

Sugarcane

28, 272

1,647,016.01

Ginger

61

931.98

Bulb crop

Onion

50

187.50

Vegetable

Bitter gourd

1, 640

5,262.50

Stringbeans
A. Environmental
requirement
Solar radiation

Temperature

Rainfall
distribution

Relative humidity

B. SOIL
PARAMETERS
Soil/land types
Texture

Parameters

Optimum
Maximu Minimum
Remarks
m

8.5 MJ
m2 per
day
Extreme temperatures result in poor flower
development and poor pod set. Also high
temperatures increase the fibre content in
the pod.

Beans require moderate well distributed


rainfall (300-400mm per crop cycle).
Common bean grows well in areas with
medium rainfall, but the crop is not suited to
the humid, wet tropics

Very high relative humidity favours the


development of aerial diseases, hinders
fertilization and increases the possibility of
non-fertilized flowers. It is important to avoid
excessive fluctuations in humidity and
temperature because the flowers may fall off.
Sandy and silty

Grow best in well-drained, sandy loam, silt


loams soils
loam or clay loam soils, rich in organic
Silt, silt loam,
content, but are sensitive to concentrations
loam, sandy
of Al, B, Mn, and Na.

Soilchemicalproperties

Ph

N(kg/ha)
P(kg/ha)
K(kg/ha)

6-7.5
145kg/ha
205kg/ha
20-90kg/ha

The optimum soil pH is 6.5 to 7.5, but the beans can


tolerate a low pH of up to 4.5.
-Can be grown in many kind of soil and is more
tolerant to acid soils than mungbean and soybean.
-Use rhizobium inoculants to reduce fertilizer rate

Soiltopography
Slope
Altitude

Wateravailability

600-1950m

Thrive well in lower and higher areas.


-Water requirements for maximum production of a 60
to 120-day crop vary between 300 and 500 mm
depending on climate. The water requirements during
the ripening period depend very much on whether the
pod is harvested wet or dry.
-Severe water deficit during the vegetative period
generally retards plant development and causes non
uniform growth.

Ang pagtatanim ng sitaw sa Batangas ay akma sa pangangailangan ng halaman. Gaya na


lamang sa Batangas, ang temperatura ng lugar ay naglalaro sa 22-26 samantalang ang
sitaw ay nangangalaingan lamang ng 15-22 na optimum temperature hanggang 27 .
Ang mataas na temperatura ay maaring magdulot ng hindi maayos na pagdebelop ng
bulakalak at maari ding magresulta ng mahiblang bunga nito. Ang sitaw ay maaring itanim sa
kahit na anung uri ng lupa, lalo na kung may mataas na organikong material gaya ng dumi ng
hayop, mga nabubulok na halaman bagamat iwasang itanim ito sa malagkit na lupa dahil sa
maliliit na particle ito maaring magkaroon ng waterlogged na makakaapekto sa paglaki ng
halaman .
Halos wala naman itong problema pagdating sa ph dahil kaya nitong mabuhay sa maasim na
lupa ng hindi babab sa 4.5 ph. Pagdating naman sa pataba maaring gumamit ng inoculant na
ihahalo sa buto para mabawasan ang dami na patabang N na gagamitin dahil ang sitaw ay
isang uri ng legumbre na may nudola at may kakayahng mgfix ng nutrihino mula sa hangin.
Maari din itong itanim sa mataas o mababang lugar. Kinakailangan ng supplemental irrigation
sa buwan ng Enero hanggang Abril dahil hindi sapat ang tubig-ulan sa panahong ito.

Coffee
A. Environmenta
l
Requirement
Optimum

Solar Radiation

Parameters

Remarks

Minimum

Maximum

Temperature

21C by
night
26C by day

Rainfall
distribution

Between
1500 mm2000mm
70-85 %

Light
is
necessary
for
photosynthesis and flower
bud flower.
The optimum temperature
should be 21C by night and
26C by day. Moderate soil
temperature is vital for root
growth.

Soil
moisture
must
be
adequate during maximum

Relative
humidity
A. Soil
Parameters
Soil moisture
condition

15C

29C

SoilChemicalproperties Between5.5to
6.5
Ph

N(kg/ha)

4.5

6.5

Non-fruiting trees:
120

Fruiting-bearing
trees: 120

P(kg/ha)

Non-fruiting trees:
120
Fruiting-bearing
trees: 60

Important for the growth and


development of coffee branches,
leaves and fruits.
Lack of nitrogen can result to the
yellowing and shedding of the leaves,
slow growth of branches and trees and
sparse flowering.
Excessive nitrogen can lead to the
softening of the cell walls which
makes the plant prone to disease.
Important for root development,
photosynthesis and respiration.
Lack of phosphorous result to slow
growth which may lead to abnormal
root development and reddening of the
leaves.

K (kg/ha)

Non-fruiting
trees: 60
Fruiting-bearing
trees: 120

Soil type

Needed by the plant to fight


diseases.
Important for the growth of coffee
plants especially during the hot
and dry season.
Vital for increasing the yield and
improving berry quality.

Loamy, clayey

Ang coffee ang pangunahing tinatanim na fruit tree sa Batangas. Ang

environmental requirements ng coffee ay akma sa lugar. Halos lahat ng


parte ng Batangas ay maaring taniman base na rin sa soil type na loamy
soil. Ang loamy soil ay may kakayahang maghold ng water capacity na
angkop sa coffee. Sa temperature akma rin na may malaking gagampanan
sa root growth.

Walang masyadong problema dahil halos magkatulad ang environment

requirement sa environment condition sa Batangas. Kaya na ito ay naging


Coffee Capital ng Bansa. Upang maging mas produktibo ang pananim na
Coffee maglagay ng organikong materyal na makakatulong upang maging
mataas ang water holding capacity ng lupa at maging high fertility sa
pagdevelop ng bunga.

Sugarcane

A. Environmental
Requirement

Optimum
SolarRadiation
18- 36 MJ/m2

Temperature

Germination: 32 to 38 C
Ripening: 12C to 14 C

Rainfalldistribution Between 1100 and 1500 mm

Parameters
Minimum

Remarks
Maximum

Sugarcane thrives best in tropical hot sunny areas because


being a C4 plant, sugarcane is capable of high
photosynthetic rates. High light intensity and long duration
promote tillering while cloudy and short days affect it
adversely. Stalk growth increases when daylight is within
the range 10-14 hours.
25 C

37 C

During germination it slows down below 25 C, and


practically stops when the temperature is above 38 C and at
ripening higher temperatures reversion of sucrose into
fructose and glucose may occur besides enhancement of
photorespiration thus leading to less accumulation of sugar
During vegetative growth rainfall encourages rapid cane
growth, cane elongation and internode formation but
during ripening period high rainfall is not desirable
because it leads to poor juice quality, encourages
vegetative growth, formation of water shoots and increase
in the tissue moisture.

Relative humidity Growth period:


80-85%
Ripening phase:
45-65%

High humidity during growth period favours


rapid cane elongation and during ripening phase
moderate value of 45-65% coupled with limited
water supply is favorable.

Wind velocity

High wind velocities exceeding 60 km/ hour are


harmful to grownup sugarcanes, since they
cause lodging and cane breakage. Also, winds
enhance moisture loss from the plants that will
lead to moisture stress.

A. Soil
Parameters
Ph

6.5

8.5

Liming is required if pH is less than 5.0 or


gypsum application if pH is more than 9.5
Sugarcane requires very large quantites of
nutrients for growth and yield, accounting for 20
to 25 % of the total cost of the production.

N(kg/ha)

135-200

P(kg/ha)

62

K(kg/ha)

112

Soiltype

Vital for plant metabolism and photosynthesis, promotes tillering, canopy and stalk
development.
Phosphorus deficiency causes poor tillering and reduction in intermodal length, delay
canopy closure and reduction root surface
Potassium promotes sugar synthesis and its translocation to storage tissue, resistance against
pests and diseases attack and lodging.
Excess Potassium affects the crystallization of sugar and higher sugar losses in molasses
Deficiency of K affects growth by reducing intermodal length, sugar synthesis and recovery
Sugarcane does not require any specific type of soil as it can be successfully raised on
diverse soil types ranging from sandy soils to clay loams and heavy clays

Soiltopography 1 - 3
Altitude

Nitrogen influences growth, yield and quality. Adequate and timely supply promotes
tillering, canopy development, stalk formation and stalk growth.
Deficiency of N causes chlorosis, early leaf senescence, thinner and shorter stalk and longer
and thinner roots.
Excess N prolongs vegetative growth, delays maturity and ripening, makes crop susceptible
to lodging and pest and disease attack

36.7 N and 31.0 N

Ang

environmental
requirements
ng
tubo
(rainfall,relative
humidity,temperatura) ay akma sa Batangas City.Ang tubo rin ay angkop
itanim sa kahit anong uri ng lupa, maaring sandy soils, clay loams o heavy
soil. Maging ang soil ph na 6.5 ay mayroon ang Batangas, na kailangan ng
tubo. Sa pagpapataba naman hindi na maromroblema ang mga magsasaka
sapagkat ang Nitrogen at phosphorus ay medium to high at ang
phosphorus ay mataas sa batangas.Ang pinakamagandang pagtatanim ng
tubo ay sa panahong mainit, mababa ang humidity, bright sunshine hours,
malamig sa gabi at may kaunting ulan. Kayat ang mga magsasaka sa
Batangas ay tuwing Oktubre hanggang Mayo ang pag tutubo dahil mas
maraming naproproduce na sugar kapag walang masyadong ulan at mas
matamis ito.

Ginger
Environmental
requirement
Solarradiation

Parameters
Optimum
Minimum
-

Temperature

28 to 35C

20C

Rainfalldistribution

1500 to
2000 mm

Relativehumidity

80%

Remarks
Maximum
-

Tropical locations it does quite well in partial


shade.
It grows well even with 25-40% shading.
Ginger is not frost tolerant and low
temperature induce dormancy. Cool and dry
climate is best for rhizome development.

3,000 mm For successful cultivation of the crop, a


moderate rainfall at sowing time till the
rhizomes sprout,fairly heavy and well
distributed rainfall; during the growing period
and dry weather for month before harvesting
is ideal for good yield
Ginger loves humidity. If you have problems
with dry air then regular spraying and misting
might help. Dry air can cause problems with
spider mites.

B.SoilParameters
Soilmoisturecondition

Soilchemicalproperties

Ph

N(kg/ha)

6.8-7.0

5.5

7.1

60kg

180 kg

Ginger needs a lot of moisture while actively


growing. The soil should never dry out. Don't
overwater, though, because the water that drains
away will take nutrients with it.
Lower the soil pH by applying composted manure, or
increase the pH with calcium carbonate or dolomite
to achieve optimal pH
A hectare of ginger requires 11.5 bags 14-14-14 and 4
bags 0-0-60 in addition to 5 t/ha chicken or animal
manure. Incorporate manure during furrow
preparation and apply inorganic fertilizers as side
dress at 30 and 60 days after planting.

P(kg/ha)

25kg

180kg

45kg

255kg

K(kg/ha)
Soilphysicalproperties
Soiltype

Soiltopography
c.Altitude
Sourceofwater

300-900 m

Ginger grows best on sandy loam, clay


loam and porous deep soils. Soil must be
well drained, friable and rich in organic
matter.

1500 m above sea


level
Rainfed or irrigated. Ginger requires light
but frequent irrigation during the vegetative
stage, if rainfall is not evenly distributed.
Depending on soil type and seasonal
rainfall, irrigation varies from 4 to 7 days.

Ang luya ( Zingeber officinale ) ay akma sa tatlong environmental


condition ng Batangas ito ay ang temperature, relative humidity at rainfall
distribution. Ang luya rin ay angkop sa lupa sa Batangas, ito ay ang sandy
loam o clay loam na nakakatulong sa pagpapalaki ng luya at pagpapanatili
ng moisture. Maaaaring gumamit ng mulch o mag apply ng organikong
pataba upang maging prodaktibo pa ang lupang tinatamnan. Sa pataba
naman ng lupa dahil sa mataas ang rekomendasyon ng potassium
kinakailangang mag apply ng Muriate of Potash ng maabot ang
rekomendasyon

Onion

Environmenta
l requirement

Parameters
Optimum
Minimu Maximu
m
m

Solar
radiation

Temperature

Seedling growth
18C
20 25 C,
vegetative growth
13 24 C, before
bulbing 15 21 C
and for bulb
development 20
25 C
350 to 550 mm

650-750 mm
60 to 70%

Rainfall
distribution
Relative
humidity

27C

1,000
mm

Remarks
Full sun is required for optimal
growth; avoid planting adjacent
to other crops that will shade
them.
Cooler weather during the early
stages of growth and a dry
atmosphere
with
high
temperature when they mature.

B.SOIL
PARAMETERS
Soil/landtypes
Soilchemical
properties

Ph

6.0 6.8

5.8

N(kg/ha)

60kg

100kg

P(kg/ha)

45kg

120kg

K(kg/ha)

45kg

80kg

Soilphysicalproperties
Soiltype

Soiltopography
c.Altitude

300-900 m

1500 m

Fertile, light, deep friable well drained fine sandy, loamy and alluvial

Ang sibuyas ( Allium cepa ) ay hindi masyadong itinatanim sa Batangas

ngunit mapapansin natin ang mga environmental requirements ay akma sa


pagtatanim nito. Ngunit pagdating sa uri ng lupa ito ay hindi angkop sa
lupa sa Batangas, nangangailangan ito ng buhaghag na lupa upang hindi
manatili ang tubig. Ang pH nito ay akma lang sa pagtatanim ng sibuyas.
Maaaring magdagdag ng organikong pataba upang maging buhaghag ang
lupa at madagdagan ang nutrisyon ng lupa.

Bittergourd
A. Environment
al
Requirement
Solar Radiation

Parameters
Optimum
Minimum Maximu
m
-

Remarks

Temperature

25 C and 30C
20 C
(germination)

18 C

Rainfall
Distribution
Relative
Humidity

480mm to
4100mm
70-80 %

480 mm

Bitter gourd prefers hot or warm weather, so make sure


you have a place where your plant can enjoy a lot of
warmth from the sun for better growth.
at least 6 hours of sunshine
Bitter gourd a warm season crop, thrives well in all
types of climates but high yield can be obtained during
the cooler months because of more flower setting and
bigger fruits.
The most profitable growing seasons are from October
to December and from May to July because most of the
areas are being planted to rice during these periods.

Adequate rainfall is required for bitter gourd for purposes of


ensuring good yield.
High humidity and excess rainfall late in the season can
result in disease problems and harvesting losses due to
delayed maturity.

B. SOIL PARAMETERS
Soil / land types

Ph

5.5 to 6.5

N (kg/ha)

200 kg/ha

The best medium for the seeds is a


fertile, well drained soil with a pH
ranging from 5.5 to 6.5, enriched with
organic matter, such as compost or
dried manure.

P (kg/ha)

100 kg/ha

K (kg/ha)

100 kg/ha

Soil Physical
Properties
Soil type

sandy loam or
silt loam soils

Bitter gourd performed in well drained


sandy loam makes for higher yield.

Ang temperature ng Batangas ay akma lamang sa kailangang temperatura

ng ampalaya, bagaman ang ampalaya ay mas akma sa mababang


temperatura, ang malamig na temperatura ay maaaring makaapekto sa
paglaki ng halaman. Maaaring isagawa ang pagtatanim ng buto ng
ampalaya sa hapon upang ito ay hindi direktang matamaan ng init ng araw,
dahil maaaring bumaba ang porsyento ng mabubuhay na buto. Ang
ampalaya ay maaaring itinamin sa kahit anong uri ng lupa pero mas akma
ito sa sandy loam soil na mayaman sa organikong material para sa mas
mataas na ani. Na ang sandy loam ay kabilang sa uri ng lupa sa Batangas.
Ang pH ng Batangas ay akma pa din sa kailangang pH ng ampalaya, pero
mas angkop kung magdadagdag tayp ng organikong pataba bago
magtanim. Ang high humidity ay maaaring magdulot ng sakit sa ampalaya.