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Crime and

Juvenile
Delinquency

HISTORY
Delinquency problems began to
receive public attention particularly
since the establishment of justice
for juvenile delinquents (juvenile
court) in 1899 in Illinois , USA.

Definition of Terms

Juvenile- refers to a young person who


is not yet an adult.
Delinquent- a young person who
regularly does illegal or immoral
things. Showing or characterized by a
tendency to commit crime,
particularly minor crime.

Crime- is the commission or


omission of an act which is
either in violation of a law
prohibiting it or in violation of
law ordering it.
Child- an individual below
twenty-one years of age.

JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

Juvenile Delinquency is
participation in illegal
behaviours by minors.
An individual under the
age of 18 who fails to
abide by the laws.

THEORIES OF JUVINILE DELINQUENCY

Anomie Theory- first written by Robert


Merton in 1940s.-Juvenile Delinquency
occurs because the juveniles do not
have means to make themselves
happy.
Ex: To steals money to purchase

Subculture Theory- Albert Cohen


developed the subculture theory
in 1955.
Juveniles that do not meet the
sub standards seek validation
from a subculture.

Differential Opportunity Theorydeveloped by Richard Cloward and Lloyd


Ohlin, in 1960.
If students have more opportunities to
succeed then they would be less likely to
turn to subculture groups for validation

Classifications of Delinquency

Social delinquents
Neurotic Delinquents
Asocial Delinquents
Accidental Delinquents

SOCIAL DELINQUENTS

Youths who hate the authority


specially those who have control of
their behavior. They are always in
conflict with what is right and does it
with friends.

NEUROTIC DELINQUENTS
A youth who always acts alone by
internalizing his or her own conflicts
and is largely preoccupied with his or
her own feelings. He/she suffers
insecurity in life.

ASOCIAL DELINQUENTS

A youth who acts as cold,


brutal and vicious quality
for which s/he does not feel
anything.

ACCIDENTAL DELINQUENTS
A youth who has an identifiable
in character but happens to be
at the wrong place and time to
commit delinquency.

Three categories ofJuvenile


Delinquency
delinquency, crimes committed by minors,
which are dealt with by the juvenile courtsand
justice system;
criminal behavior,crimes dealt with by
thecriminal justice system;
Status Offenses- offenses that are only
classified as such because one is a minor, such
astruancy, also dealt with by the juvenile
courts

CAUSES OF
JUVENILE
DELINQUENCY

Causes of Juvenile Delinquency

Biological causes
Family Environment
Friend group influence
gender descrimination
violence on TV, radio
Personal Reasons

The causes of juvenile delinquency


may be classified under two major
factors:
a)Social Factor.
b)Personality Factor.

a) Social Factor favoring juvenile


delinquency:
Broken homes.
Poverty.
Delinquency areas.
Companion & Gangs.
Begging.

b) Personal or Individual factors:


Mental deficiency in delinquency
It has been observed that good
number of delinquents are mentally
deficient.

Emotional problems of individuals.


Mental troubles and emotional maladjustments
are strong factor in delinquency. Delinquents
are not born so, but they become so due to
social circumstances and personal deficiencies.
Thus it may be said that juvenile delinquency is
the result of both social or environmental and
personal or individual factors.

BIOLOGICAL CAUSES

Heredity defects
and glandular
problems
XYY type of
chromosomal
defects

Poverty
general scarcity,
dearth, or the state of
one who lacks a
certain amount of
material possessions
or money.

Gender discrimination

This great gap


between the crimes
reinforce the
connotations of
traditionalmasculinity
to be the center of
violence, aggression,
and competition.

Individual Risk Factors


Individual psychological
orbehavioralrisk factors that
may make offending more
likely include
lowintelligence,impulsivenes
sor the inability to
delaygratification,aggression
, lack ofempathy,
andrestlessness

Family Environment
Family factors that may have an
influence on offending include: the
level ofparental supervision, the
way parentsdisciplinea child,
particularly harshpunishment,
parental conflict orseparation,
criminal parents or
siblings,parental abuse or neglect,
and the quality of the parent-child
relationship

Society

Mimicking those
what a person
sees and observe
from the society

Peer group influence


friends commit crime
adolescents often learn
to do it
Peer group rejection
Abusive behaviour

Personal Reasons

The negative
feelings make the
person commit crime
even if he belongs to
a good family.

YOUTH AND
CRIME

Explanations of Crime
Biological explanations
view crime as arising
from peoples physical
constitution or genetic
makeup.

Psychological
explanations view crime
as being linked to
personality disorders or
maladjustments, often
developing during
childhood.

Crimes and behaviors youth


may be arrested for:
Violent Crimes:
Aggravated assault;
Homicide;
Rape;
Robbery;
GANG
Pornography and Violence

Aggravated assault;

An attempt to cause serious


bodily injury to another or to
cause serious bodily injury
purposely, knowingly or
recklessly, with an extreme
indifference to the value of
human life.

Homicide

occurs when
personcauses the
death of another
person

Rape
is a type ofsexual
assaultusually involvingsexual
intercourse or other forms
ofsexual penetration
perpetrated against a person
without that person'sconsent.

Robbery
the crime of taking or
attempting to take anything
of value by force or threat of
force or by putting the victim
in fear.

Gang
A group of recurrently associating
individuals or close friends or family
with identifiable leadership and
internal organization, identifying
with or claiming control over
territory in a community, and
engaging either individually or
collectively in violent or illegal
behavior.

PORNOGRAPHY

printed or visual material containing


the explicit description or display of
sexual organs or activity, intended to
stimulate erotic rather than aesthetic
or emotional feelings.

LEGISLATIVE
MEASURES

Republic Act No. 9344

AN ACT ESTABLISHING A COMPREHENSIVE


JUVENILE JUSTICE AND WELFARE SYSTEM,
CREATING THE JUVENILE JUSTICE AND
WELFARE COUNCIL UNDER THE DEPARTMENT
OF JUSTICE, APPROPRIATING FUNDS
THEREFOR AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

SEC. 5. Rights of the Child in Conflict with the Law. - Every


child in conflict with the law shall have the following
rights, including but not limited to:

(a) the right not to be subjected to torture or other cruel,


inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment;
(b) the right not to be imposed a sentence of capital punishment
or life imprisonment, without the possibility of release;
(c) the right not to be deprived, unlawfully or arbitrarily, of
his/her liberty; detention or imprisonment being a disposition of
last resort, and which shall be for the shortest appropriate
period of time.

A child
fifteen (15) years of age or under at the time of the
commission of the offense shall be exempt from criminal
liability. However, the child shall be subjected to an
intervention program pursuant to Section 20 of this Act.

SEC. 6.Minimum Age of Criminal Responsibility.-

SEC. 7.Determination of Age.- The child in conflict with the law

shall enjoy the presumption of minority. He/She shall enjoy all the
rights of a child in conflict with the law until he/she is proven to
be eighteen (18) years old or older. The age of a child may be
determined from the child's birth certificate, baptismal certificate
or any other pertinent documents. In the absence of these
documents, age may be based on information from the child
himself/herself, testimonies of other persons, the physical
appearance of the child and other relevant evidence. In case of
doubt as to the age of the child, it shall be resolved in his/her
favor.

Remedies for
Juvenile
Delinquency:

Remedies for Juvenile Delinquency:


Two methods have been suggested to deal with
this problems:
a)Preventive method.
b) rehabilitative method.

Preventive Measures.
In order to prevent the juvenile delinquency following
measures may be suggested.
Creating a team at government as well as private level
for the prevention.
Giving proper training to the members and staff of all
organizations concerned with delinquency control.

Establishing child guidance clinics or give


appropriate treatment to the distributed and
maladjusted children.
Educate to the families to realize the importance
of giving proper attention to the needs of their
young children.
Improving the social environment, slum areas,
busy markets places etc.

Rehabilitative method.
Legislative measures.
Borstal schools.

Prevention:
Education
Recreation
Community involvement
Creation of special
programs

PREVENTION

Education
Recreation
Community involvement
Creation of special programs

Parent-Child Interaction
Training Program
Bullying Prevention Program

Education
Teach children about the
effects of drugs, gangs, sex,
and weapons
This is particularly important
where youth are barraged
with sexual and violent
images.
Educational programs have
the underlying intent of
encouraging hope and
opening up opportunities for
young people

RECREATION
Recreation programs allow
youths to connect with
other adults and children in
the community
sports, dancing, music, rock
climbing, drama, karate,
bowling, art, and other
activities.

Community involvement
Involvement in community groups
provide youth with an opportunity to
interact in a safe social environment
Girl scouts, boy scouts, church youth
groups, and volunteer groups all
involve within a community

Parent-Child Interaction Training


Program
A therapist guides the
parents, educating them on
how best to respond to their
child's behaviour whether
positive or negative.

Bullying Prevention Program

Bullying is unwanted,
aggressive behavior among
school aged children that
involves a real or perceived
power imbalance
place in elementary and junior
high school settings

Prevention Programs within the Juvenile Justice


System

Drug rehabilitation assistance,


counselling, and educational
opportunities
provide them with job training, give
them the experience of living in a safe,
stable environment, and provide them
with assistance to break harmful habits

Functional Family Therapy (FFT

Program assists youth on parole by helping them and their families


communicate in more effective, positive ways.

CONTROL MEASURES OF JUVENILE


DELINQUENCY

Accept the delinquent as a person in his own right, and give affection
and security.

Watch for the signs of maladjustment; early treatment may prevent this
maladjusted.

Providing the child with a variety of experiences like music and dance,
art and craft, etc. can serve the purpose

Change the conditions of home, school and community that seem to


give rise to such behavior.

CHILD GUIDANCE CLINIC

The first child guidance clinic was started in Chicago in 1909.

To prevent children from the possibility of becoming neurotics and


psychotics in later life.

a team work job, the comprising of a psychiatrist, clinical psychologist,


educational psychologist, psychiatric social workers, public health
nurses, paediatrician, speech therapist, occupational therapist, and
neurologist.

Specialized Programs Provided at Child


Guidance Clinic

Early Intervention

Intensive Family Support

Play therapy

Juvenile Fire setter Intervention Program

Assessment and Treatment of Sexual Behavior Problems

CHILD PLACEMENT
Orphanages: Children who have no
home, or who for some reason could
not be cared for by their parents are
placed in orphanages.
Remand homes: The child is placed
under the care of doctors,
psychiatrists, and other trained
personnel