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Chapter 22

Exile in

Exile in Dapitan, under the

missionary jurisdiction, for 4




Practiced medicine
Pursued scientific studies
Continued his artistic and
literary works
Widened his knowledge of
Established a school for boys
Promoted community
development projects
Invented a wooden machine
for making bricks
Engaged in farming and

When Rizal landed

Dapitan on July
17, 1892

Beginning of Exile in Dapitan

Cebu steamer which brought
Rizal to Dapitan

Father Pablo Pastells

Father Antonio

Rizal could live at parish

convent on the ff. conditions
That Rizal publically retract his errors

concerning religion and make statements

that were clearly pro-Spanish against
That he perform the church rites and

make a general confession of his past life.

That henceforth he conduct himself in an

exemplary manner as a Spanish Subject

Home of Commandant
Casa Real

Don Ricardo Carcinero

Beginning of Exile in Dapitan

A Don Ricardo Carnicero
poem which Rizal wrote for

Captain Carnicero on the

birthday August 26,1892


Butuan mail boat which brought

the news about Rizals winning in

the lottery

Lottery Ticket No. 9736

P20,000 lottery prize
P6,200 of it was givento Rizal
P2,000 of his share he gave to his father

P200 to Basa in Hong Kong,
the rest heinvested thru purchasing
agricultural lands from the coast of
Talisay about kilameter away from

Wins in Manila Lottery


(3) pesetas amount Rizal

allotted forlottery tickets every month

Wins in Manila Lottery

This was his

first Vice
Wenceslao E.
Retana, his first
biographer and
former enemy

on Religion
Father Pablo Pastells

Jose Rizal

The debate started

when Pastells sent Rizal
a book by Sarda along
with an advice that Rizal
should desist from his
majaderas (foolishness)
in viewing religion from
the perspective of
individual judgement
and self-esteem

Father Pablo

Jose Rizal

The debate can be read in four (4) letters.

Rizal was bitter against the friars because they commit

abuses under the cloak of religion.

Father Pastells tried to bring back to Catholicism Rizal by
telling him that human intelligence is limited, thus he
needs the guidance of God

Behind the debate, Pastells and Rizal

were friends as evidently pictured
1. Pastells gave Rizal a copy
of Imitacion de Cristo by Fr. Thomas
a Kempis
2. Rizal gave Pastells a bust
of St. Paul which he had
made Rizal continued to hear
mass and celebrate religious

IV. Rizal Challenges

a Frenchman to a

French business purchased

many logs (some of the logs
were of poor quality)

Mr. Juan Lardet

- Rizal Flared up in anger and

confronted Lardet and
challenged him for a duel

Rizal and Father

In his aspiration to reconcile Rizal with

theChurch, Father Pastells sent to

1.Father Obach, Cura of Dapitan
2.Fr.Jose Vilaclara, Cura ofDipolog
3.Fr. Francisco Paula de Sanchez, Rizals

favorite teacher at Ateneo de Manila

Rizal's favorite teacher at the Ateneo de


Francisco De
Paula Sanchez

He was the only Spanish priest to
defend Rizal's Noli Me Tangere in public.
They argued theologically in a
friendly manner but all the efforts of
Sanchez were in vain.
Fr. Sanchez enjoyed the latters company
and he even assisted Rizal in beautifying
the town plaza
Manuscript entitled Estudios Sobre La
Lengua Tagala (Studies on the Tagalog

Estudios sobre la lengua

manuscript which Rizal gave to
Sanchez on his birthday
(study of the tagalog

VI. Idyllic Life in Dapitan

His family who used to visit


His mother
Casa Redonda
Sisters: Trinidad, Maria, Narcisa
Nephews: Estanislao, Mauricio

and Prudencio

Casa Octagonal


Idyllic Life in Dapitan

Rizal built a

house by the
seashore of
surrounded by
fruit trees, a
school for
boys, and a
hospital for
his patients.

VII. Rizals
Encounter with
Friars Spy
Pablo Mercado assumed name of the spy

who visited Rizal at his house and pretended

to be a relative by showing a photo of Rizal
and a pair ofbuttons with the initials P.M. as
evidence ofkinship.
The spy offered to be Rizals courier
ofletters forthe patriots in Manila. Rizal
became suspicious and wanted to throw the
spy outside butconsidering his values and
late hour of the night, he offered the spy to

Rizals Encounter with the

Friars Spy
The spy stayed in Dapitan and spread

talks among the people that he was a

relative to Rizal.
Rizal went to the comandancia and
reported thei mpostor to Captain Juan
Sitges (successor ofCarnicero)
Sitges ordered Pablo Mercados arrest
and told Anastacio Adriatico to
investigate him immediately.

Rizals Encounter with the

Friars Spy

Florencio Namanan - a.k.a

Pablo Mercado, singleand

about 30 years old who
washired by the Recollect
friars to spyon Rizals

Rizals Encounter with the

Friars Spy

The secret mission of

Pablo Mercado was

notan assassination
attempt but espionage

VIII. As Physician in
He gave free medicine
Rich patients who paid

him for his surgical

He operated his
mothers eye.
Now I understand
very well why a
physician should not
treat the members
of his family

As Physician in
Dona Teodora and Maria lived

with Rizal for a year and a half. It

is here when Rizal operated his
mothers right eye. Though the
operation was successful, his
mother had a wound infection
afterignoring Rizals instruction
of not removing thebandages.
However, the infectionwas

As Physician in Dapitan

Don Ignacio Tumarong-Rizals patient

who was able to see again after his

operation; he paid Rizal P3,000

Don Florencio Azcarraga- rich
haciendero ofAklan who was
cured of eye ailment, in turn he
gave Rizal a cargo of sugar.
Rizal prescribed medicinal plants
to his poorpatients.

IX. Water System for Dapitan

As a perito agrimensor
(expert surveyor),
Rizalapplied his
engineering knowledgeby
constructinga system of
waterworks to furnish clean
water tothe townspeople
Mr. H.F. Cameron
American engineer who
praised Rizal for his
engineering ingenuity.

Community Projects for Dapitan

Rizal had
1.Drained the marshes to getrid of

malaria that was infesting Dapitan

2.Equipped the town with lighting
system using P500 one of his patients
paid him. The lighting system consisted
of: a.Coconut oillamps
3.Beautified the town of Dapitanby
remodeling the town plaza and making

Rizal as Teacher
Rizal established in Dapitan a

school.It began with 3 pupils who

increased to 16 and eventually 21.
16 of his pupils did not pay
tuition. Instead ofcharging them
fees, Rizal made them work in his
gardens and construction projects.

Map of Mindanao
made by Rizal and
the company

XI. Rizal as a Teacher

Formal classes were

between 2:00 p.m. and

4:00p.m. He also applied
the emperor system like
that of Ateneo
He had 21 students. Rizal
taught his boys reading,
writing, languages
(Spanish and English),
geography, history,
mathematics (arithmetic
and geometry), industrial

Rizal as Teacher
During recess, pupils built fires

to drive awayinsects, pruned fruit

trees and manured thesoil.
Outside class hours, students

had gymnastics,boxing,
wrestling, stone-throwing,
swimming,arnis and boating

Contributions to Science

conducted his
school in a
He wrote,
Himno a

Contributions to Science
Rizal sent

specimens he
found to the
museum ofEurope
especially the
Dresden Museum.
In turn, he
received scientific
books and surgical

Contributions to Science
He had
1.Built upa rich collection of concology

(consisting of 346 shells of 203 species)

2.Discovered rarespecimenslike:
a.Draco rizali(a flying dragon)
b.Apogonia rizali(a small beetle)
c.Rhacophorus rizali(a rare frog)

3.Conducted anthropological,

ethnographical, archaeological, geological

and geographical studies.

XII. Linguistic Studies

In Dapitan, he learned Bisayan,

Subanun and Malay languages.he

knew 22 languages, as follows:


and Russian

Artistic Works in
To pursue his artistic activities, Rizal
1.Contributed paintings to the

Sisters ofCharity who were

preparing the sanctuary of the Holy
2.Madesketches of persons and
things that attracted him in Dapitan

Artistic Works in
3.Modeled a statuette called The

Mothers Revenge to stress the moral

of the incident where a puppy of his
dog, Syria, was eatenby a crocodile
4.Constructed a statue of a girlcalled
The Dapitan Girl, a woodcarving of
Josephine Bracken (Rizals wife)
5.Made a bust of St. Paul for Father

Fishes Caught in

"The Mothers Revenge

Bust of Fr. Guerrico

The Dapitan Girl

Josephine Bracken

Bust of St. Paul

Rizal as Farmer
Rizal acquired total land holdings of 70

hectares where 6,000 hemp plants, 1,000

coconut trees and numerous fruit trees,
sugarcane, corn, coffee and cacao were
He planned to establish an agricultural colony
in Sitio Ponot because it was ideal for raising
cacao, coffee, coconuts and cattle. However,
this did not materialize due to lack of
supportfrom the government.
He encouraged Dapitan farmers to adopt the
modern agricultural methods

Rizal as Businessman
Ramon Carreon Rizals

business partner in Dapitan

Rizal made profitable business
ventures in fishing,copra and
hemp industries.
Hemp industry Rizals most
profitable business

Rizal as Businessman
Once he shipped 150 bales of hemp to

Manila. Hepurchased hemp in Dapitan

at P7 and 4 reales perpicul and he
sold it toManila at P10 and 4 reales.
Rizal also engaged in lime
manufacturing. Theirlime burner had a
monthly capacity of more than400
bags of lime

XVI. Rizals Inventive Ability


1.Cigarette lighter which

he sent as a gift to
Blumentritt called

During his exile in

Dapitan, he invited a
machine for making


My Retreat
Upon restoring her eyesight,

Dona Teodora returned to

Manila. Seeing how busy Rizal
is, she regretted neglecting
her muses. She requested
Rizal to write poetry. As a
response, Rizal wrote Mi
Retiro relating his serene life

Rizal and Josephine Bracken

the death of Leonor Rivera left a

poignant void in Rizals heart. In his

loneliness, he met Josephine.
James Bracken and Elizabeth Jane
MacBride Josephines parents who
are both Irish in citizenship
Mr. George Taufer man who adopted
Josephine after her mother died of

Rizal and Josephine Bracken

Mr. Taufer became blind so he

sought for an ophthalmic

specialist. This is how
Josephine and Rizal met.
Manuela Orlac Filipina
companion who accompanied
Josephine Bracken to Dapitan.

Rizal and Josephine Bracken

Rizal and Josephine Bracken decided to

get married but Father Obach refused to

marry them without the permission of
Bishop of Cebu.
Hearing of the planned marriage and
unable to endure the thought of losing
Josephine, Mr. Taufertried to commit
suicide by cutting off his throat with a
razor but Rizal was able to prevent this.

Rizal and Josephine Bracken

To avoid a tragedy, Josephine

accompanied Mr. Taufer back to

Manila. Mr. Taufer returned to
Hong Kong alone while Josephine
stayed with the Rizals in Manila.
Having no priests to marry them,
Rizal and Josephine married
themselves before the eyes

Because they could not be married in a

church, Rizal and Josephine Bracken
exchanged vows on this rock. Rizal and
Josephine fell in love with each other at
first sight.


Rizal and Josephine Bracken

The two were happy for

theywere expecting for ababy.

However, Rizal played a prank on
Josephine making her give birth
to an eight-month baby boy. The
baby lived for only three hours.
He was named Francisco in
honor of Rizals father.

Rizal and the

Pio Valenzuela emissary to

Dapitan in order to inform

Rizal of the plan ofKatipunan
during the meeting at a little
river called Bitukang Manok.
Venus steamer Valenzuela
boarded to reach Dapitan

Rizal and the

Raymundo Mata blind man who came

withValenzuela to camouflage his mission

Rizal objected Bonifacios project because:
1.The people are not ready for a

2.Arms andfunds must first be
collectedbefore raising the cry of

Volunteers as Military Doctor in

When Cuba was under revolution and

raging yellow fever epidemic, Rizal wrote

to GovernorGeneral Ramon Blanco
offering his services as military doctor.
Governor Blanco later notified Rizal of
the acceptance of the offer. The
notification came along with an
instruction of acquiring first a pass for
Manila from thepolitico-military
commanderof Dapitan.

The Song of the Traveler

Upon receiving

the acceptance of
his offer to go to
Europe then to
Cuba to help in
the curing
suffering yellow
fever, he wrote a
poem El Canto
del Viajero

XXII. Adios, Dapitan

I have been in that district for four years,

thirteen days, and dew hours.

Adios, Dapitan
Espaa steamer which brought Rizal

to Manila from Dapitan

Rizal was accompanied by Josephine,
Narcisa, Angelica (Narcisas daughter),
his three nephews and six pupils.
As farewell, the town brass of Dapitan
played the dolorous Funeral March of

Minat Terkait