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Electromagnetic

Waves
TEKNIK TENAGA
LISTRIK

Nama Kelompok :
Ach. Syarifudin Hidayatullah
(2031510003)
Dwi Ira Puspita Sari
(2031510020)
Dyah Ayu Wulandari
(2031510021)
Lukmila Ayani
(2031510033)
Viky Bi Haqqi Priyono

Electromagnetic
waves

Electromagnetic waves (EW) is a wave


that occurs as a result of interaction / blend
between magnetic and electric field. Magnetic
fields
and
electric
fields
propagate
perpendicular

The characteristics of
1. Does not require
the propagation medium
GEM
2. Propagating by a straight line
3. Do not deviate in a magnetic field and electric field
4. Propagating in all directions at the same speed
5. Speed of electromagnetic waves in empty space
defined by
the equation,

c = 3 x 108 m/s as the rapid propagation of GEM


o = 4 x 107 Wb/Am permeabilitas vacuum
o = permittivity of free space (vacuum) = 8.85 x 10 -12
C2/Nm2
6. Experiencing reflection, refraction, blend, bending,
and polarization.

Energi dalam GEM


Hubungan antara
magnetik :

kuat

medan

listrik

dengan

medan

Em E
c
Bm m

Dimana :

E y Em cos (kx - t)
Bx Bm cos (kx - t)

Dengan :
Em
= nilai maksimum amplitudo medan listrik (N/C)
Bm = nilai maksimum amplitudo medan magnetik (T)
c = cepat rambat cahaya (3 x 108 m/s)
k = bilangan gelombang (2 /)
= kecepatan sudut (2 /f)
t = waktu (s)

Rapat
Energi
Magnetik

Listrik

dan

Rapat energi listrik dan magnetik dinyatakan dengan :

ue 0 E
1
2

B2
uB
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Dengan :
Ue = rapat energi listrik (J/m3)
0 = permitivitas vakum (8,85 x 10-12 C2 N-1m-2 )
E = kuat medan listrik (N/C)
uB = rapat energi magnetik (J/m3)
B = kuat medan magnetik (Wb/m2)
0 = permeabilitas vakum (4 x 10-7 Wb/Am)

Intensitas GEM
Intensitas GEM atau laju energi yang
dipindahkan melalui GEM disebut pointing (S).
2
1
E
B
cos
(kx t )
EB
m m
S
ExB
S

Dengan intensitas rata-rata :

Em Bm
S
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Hubungan Intensitas
Gelombang dengan
Energi Rata-rata
E
B
Dengan menggunakan hubungan
c
dan

1
0 0

rapat energi
magnetik
adalah
2
2
2
2
B
E /c
E 0 0 1
uB

0 E 2 ue
20
20
20
2
Maka rapat energi2 total adalah
B
u u B ue 2u B

Rapat energi total rata-rata adalah

Em Bm
u
20c
Intensitas gelombang (laju energi rata2 per m 2) yang
dipindahkan melalui GEM sama dengan rapat energi
rata-rata dikalikan dengan cepat rambat cahaya.

S cu

Em
cBm
P Em Bm
S I

A
20
20c 20

Dengan :
I = intensitas radiasi (W/m2)
S = intensitas gelombang = laju energi rata2 per m 2
(W/m2)
P = daya radiasi (W)
A= luas permukaan (m2)

What happens when


electric and magnetic
fields
change?
A changing
magnetic field creates
changing electric field.

One example of this is a transformer which


transfers electric energy from one circuit to
another circuit.
In the main coil changing electric current
produces a changing magnetic field. Which
then creates a changing electric field in
another coil producing an electric current. The
reverse is also true.

10

Making Electromagnetic

Waves
When an electric charge vibrates, the electric
field around it changes creating a changing
magnetic field.

11

What is the speed of EM


waves?
All EM waves travel
300,000 km/sec in
space. (speed of lightnatures limit)
EM
waves
usually
travel slowest in solids
and fastest in gases.

Material

Speed
(km/s)

Vacuum

300,000

Air

<300,000

Water

226,000

Glass

200,000

Diamond

124,000

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What is the wavelength


& frequency of an EM
wave?
Wavelength
= distance from crest to crest.
Frequency
= number of wavelengths that
pass a given point in 1 s.
As frequency increases, wavelength becomes
smaller.

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As wavelength decreases,
frequency increases

14

Devices detect other


frequencies
Antennae of a radio detects radio waves.
Radio waves are low frequency EM waves
with wavelengths 1 mm 10.000 km.
These waves must be turned into sound
waves by a radio before you can hear them.

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What are microwaves?


Microwaves
are
radio
waves
with
wavelengths less than 30 cm and higher
frequency & shorter wavelength.
Cell phones and satellites use microwaves
between for communication.
In microwave ovens, a vibrating electric field
causes water molecules to rotate billions of
times per second causing friction, creating TE
which heats the food.

16

How does radar work?


Radio Detecting And Ranging or radar is
used to find position and speed of objects by
bouncing radio waves off the object. EM with
wavelengths 1010 Hz

17

What is magnetic
resonance imaging?
MRI was developed in the 1980s to use
radio waves to diagnose illnesses with a strong
magnet and a radio wave emitter and a
receiver. Protons in H atoms of the body act
like magnets lining up with the field. This
releases energy which the receiver detects and
creates a map of the bodys tissues.

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Infrared Waves
EM with wavelengths 0,001mm 1 mm
Used daily in remote controls, to read CDROMs
Every objects gives off infrared waves; hotter
objects give off more than cooler ones.
Satellites can ID types of plants growing in a
region with infrared detectors

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Visible Light
Range of EM humans can see from 400 nm
720 nm
You see different wavelengths as colors.
Blue has shortest
Red is the longest
Light looks white if all colors are present

20

Ultraviolet Waves
EM waves with wavelengths from about 10
nm -400 nm
Have enough energy to enter skin cells
Longer wavelengths UVA
Shorter wavelengths UVB rays
Both can cause skin cancer

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THANKS
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pertanyaan
1. Apakah semua gelombang bisa di rubah?
2. Apakah microwave bisa diaplikasikan untuk yang lain ?
Jelaskan prinsip kerjanya!
3. Kenapa di pesawat tidak boleh memakai hp . Apa
hubungan
gelombang hp dengan gelombang
pesawat?

Jawaban
1. Gelombang dapat berubah sesuai dengan media yang
digunakan dan panjang gelombang yang dipakai.
Seperti gelombang tv dapat menjadi gambar dan
suara.
2. Microwave dapat juga digunakan sebagai pendeteksi
atau sebagai pengobatan kanker.
3. Karena akan mengganggu sinyal komunikasi yang
digunakan oleh ATC

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