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# Physics 111: Lecture 28

Todays Agenda

## Description of Fluids at Rest

Pressure vs Depth

Fluids

## What do we mean by fluids?

Fluids are substances that flow. substances that
take the shape of the container
Atoms and molecules are free to move .. No long range
correlation between positions.
What parameters do we use to describe fluids?
Density

Pressure

m
V

F
A

## Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 2

p
Density & Pressure are related by the Bulk Modulus B
( V / V )
LIQUID: incompressible (density almost constant)
GAS: compressible (density depends a lot on pressure)

Gas (STP)

Pb

H2O

Steel

## Bulk modulus (Pa=N/m2)

Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 3

## Pressure vs. Depth

Incompressible Fluids (liquids)

## Due to gravity, the pressure

depends on depth in a fluid

y1

## Consider an imaginary fluid volume (a

cube, each face having area A)
The sum of all the forces on this volume
must be ZERO as it is in equilibrium.
There are three vertical forces:
The weight (mg)
The upward force from the pressure
on the bottom surface (F2)

F1
y2
A
p

mg F

F2 - F1 =mg

## The downward force from the

pressure on the top surface (F1)

F2 F1 p2 A p1 A
mg ( y2 y1 ) Ag

p2 p1 g ( y2 y1 )
Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 4

## Pressure vs. Depth (2)

For a fluid in an open container:
pressure same at a given depth
independent of the container

y
p(y)

## fluid level is the same everywhere in a

connected container (assuming no surface
forces)
Why is this so? Why, in equilibrium,
does the pressure below the surface
depend only on depth?

Imagine a tube that would connect two regions at the same depth.

## If the pressures were different, fluid would flow in the tube!

However, if fluid did flow, then the system was NOT in equilibrium,
since no equilibrium system will spontaneously leave equilibrium.

## What happens with two different fluids??

Consider a U tube containing liquids of density
1 and 2 as shown:

dI

## Compare the densities of the liquids:

A)

1 < 2

B)

1 = 2

C)

I
1 > 2

If we use the same liquids in a U tube of twice the crosssectional area as the first, compare the distances between
the levels in the two cases (depth of liquid 2 same in both
cases).
A) dI < dII

B) dI = dII

C) dI > dII

2 dII
1

II

d2

dI
1

## At the depth of the interface, the pressures in each side must be

equal.
Since theres more liquid above this depth on the left side, that
liquid must be less dense!

C)

1 > 2

## The pressure depends ONLY on the depth and the

density of the fluid.
p
e.g. consider case I: d p
d

2
1
g 2
g1

d d 2 d1

p 1
1

g 2 1

2 dII
1

II
B) dI = dII
Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 7

d1

W2?

W1

Archimedes Principle
Suppose we weigh an object in air and
in water.

## Since the pressure at the bottom of the object is

greater than that at the top of the object, the water
exerts a net upward force, the buoyant force, on the
object.

## The buoyant force is equal to the difference in

the pressures times the area.
FB ( p2 p1) A g(y 2 - y1)A

y1

y2

A
p

## Therefore, the buoyant force is equal to

the weight of the fluid displaced.
Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 8

Sink or Float?

## The buoyant force is equal to the weight of

the liquid that is displaced.
If the buoyant force is larger than the weight
of the object, it will float; otherwise it will sink.

Objects in water

y
FB mg

## We can calculate how much of a floating object will

be submerged in the liquid:
Object is in equilibrium

FB mg

## Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 9

Sink of Float?
Object is in equilibrium

FB mg

FB mg

Vdispl.
Vobject

object

liquid

Vwater displ.
Vice

ice
917 kg/m3

90%
3
water 1024 kg/m

Pb

styrofoam

## A lead weight is fastened to a large

styrofoam block and the combination floats
on water with the water level with the top of
the styrofoam block as shown.
If you turn the styrofoam+Pb upside
down, what happens?

A)

It sinks

B)

styrofoam
Pb

C)

styrofoam
Pb

## Lecture 28, ACT 2

C)

Pb
styrofoam

styrofoam
Pb

If the object floats right-side up, then it also must float upside-down.
However, when it is upside-down, the Pb displaces some water.
Therefore the styrofoam must displace less water than it did when it
was right-side up (when the Pb displaced no water).

## Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 12

Example Problems
At what depth is the water pressure two atmospheres? It is one atmosphere at the
surface. What is the pressure at the bottom of the deepest oceanic trench (about
104 meters)?

Solution:
d is the depth.

P2 = P1 + gd
2.02105 Pa = 1.01105 Pa
+ 103 kg/m3*9.8m/s2*d
d = 10.3 m

For d = 104 m:

## The pressure increases one

atmosphere for every 10 meters.

## P2 = 1.01105 Pa + 103 kg/m3*9.8m/s2*104 m This assumes that water is

= 9.8110 Pa = 971 Atm

incompressible.

If water were compressible, would the pressure at the bottom of the ocean be
greater or smaller than the result of this calculation?
Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 13

## Example Problems (2)

Have you ever tried to submerge a beach ball (r = 50 cm) in a swimming pool? Its
difficult. How big a downward force must you exert to get it completely underwater?

Solution:
F = g4r3/3 = 5131 N
= 523 kg*g

## Im ignoring the weight of the beach ball.

The force is the weight of a 523 kg object.

## Two cups are filled to the same level with

water. One of the two cups has plastic
balls floating in it. Which cup weighs
more?

Cup I

Cup II

## Archimedes principle tells us that the cups weigh the same.

Each plastic ball displaces an amount of water that is exactly
equal to its own weight.

## A plastic ball floats in a cup of water with half of its volume

submerged. Oil (oil < ball <water) is slowly added to the
container until it just covers the ball.
Relative to the water level, the ball moves up. Why?
water

For oil to cover the ball, the ball must have displaced some oil.
Therefore, the buoyant force on the ball increases.
Therefore, the ball moves up (relative to the water).
Note that we assume the bouyant force of the air on the ball is
negligible (it is!); the bouyant force of the oil is not.
Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 16

Pascals Principle

## So far we have discovered (using Newtons Laws):

Pressure depends on depth: p = gy
Since pressure depends on depth, an object in a liquid
experiences an upward buoyant force: FB = Wliquid displaced

## Pascals Principle addresses how a change in pressure is

transmitted through a fluid.
F1

F2

d2
d1

A1

A2

## Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 17

Pascals Principle:
Hydraulic jack

## Any change in the pressure applied to an enclosed

fluid is transmitted to every portion of the fluid and
to the walls of the containing vessel.

## Pascals Principle is most often applied to incompressible fluids

(liquids):
Increasing p at any depth (including the surface) gives the same
increase in p at any other depth
The change in pressure vs. depth depends only on g and the mass
density .

Hydraulic lifts
Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 18

## Consider the system shown:

A downward force F1 is applied to
the piston of area A1.
This force is transmitted through
the liquid to create an upward
force F2.

F1

F2

d2
d1

A1

A2

## Pascals Principle says that

increased pressure from F1
(F1/A1) is transmitted throughout
A2
F2
the liquid. F1
F

2
1
A1
A1
A2

## Check that Fd is the same on both sides.

Energy is conserved!
Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 19

dA

## Consider the systems shown to the

right.
In each case, a block of mass M
is placed on the piston of the
large cylinder, resulting in a
difference di between the liquid
levels.
If A2 = 2A1, compare dA and
dB.

A) dA = (1/2)dB

B) dA = dB

A1

A10

dB

A2

A10

C) dA = 2dB
Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 20

Solution
B) dA =

dB

dA

A1

## The change in pressure (Mg/A10) is

transmitted to the small cylinder.
This change in pressure determines
the change in levels. The area of the
small cylinder plays no role.

A10

dB

A2

A10

## Top of tube evacuated (p=0)

Bottom of tube submerged into pool of mercury
open to atmosphere (p=p0)
p
Pressure dependence on depth:
h 0
g

## Measure pressure of volume (p1) relative to the

atmospheric pressure ( gauge pressure )
The height difference (h) measures the gauge
pressure:
( p p0 )
h 1
g
1 atm = 760 mm (29.9 in) Hg

vacuum

p=0

Barometer
atmosphere

p=p

Manometer

p1

## = 10.3 m (33.8 ft) H20

Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 22

p0

BERNOULLI'S EQUATION

## Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 23

v2

A2

Continuity equation

v2t
v1

A1
v1t

## Continuity equation is a mathematical statement of conservation of mass; the net rate of

flow of mass inward across any closed surface is equal to the rate of increase of the mass
within the surface.
For an incompressible fluid in steady flow, the equation takes the following form:

A1v1t = A2v2t

where:
= the incompressible fluid density = const.
A1&A2 = the cross-sectional area at section 1&2
v1&v2 = the fluid velocity at section 1&2

respectively.
respectively.

t = a time interval
So,the above equation can be rewritten as follows:

A1v1= A2v2

So, the product Av = constant at any given tube of flow. It follows that when the cross section of a
flow decreases, the velocity of flow increases.

## Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 24

Bernoullis Equation

## When an incompressible fluid flows along a horizontal flow tube

of varying cross section area, its velocity must change, continuity
equation. A force is required to produce this acceleration, and for
this force to be caused by the fluid surrounding a particular
element of fluid, the pressure must be different in different
regions.

If the pressure were the same everywhere, the net force on any
fluid element would be zero. Thus when the cross section of a
flow tube varies, the pressure must vary along the tube, even
when there is no difference in elevation. If the elevation is also
changes, there is an additional pressure difference.

## Bernoullis equation is a general expression that relates the

pressure difference between two points in a flow tube to both
velocity changes and elevation changes.
Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 25

## To derive the Bernoullis equation, we apply the work-energy theorem

to the fluid in a section of a flow tube, that is, the net work done by the
element during a small displacement s [W = (p1 p2)V] is equal to
the net change in kinetic energy [KE = 1/2V(v22 v12)] and the net
change in potential energy [PE = Vg(y2 y1)].

## Then the Bernoullis equation is

(p1 p2)V = 1/2V(v22 v12) + Vg(y2 y1)
v2

p2

p1

v1
A1

A2
v2t
y2

y1 v1t
Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 26

Or (p1

## in this form, Bernoullis equation represents the

equality of the work per unit volume (p1 p2) to
the sum of the changes in kinetic and potential
energies per unit volume that occur during the flow.

w
lf o

v2

p2

A2
t
v
2
=
s 2

v1
p1
y1

y2

A1
s1 = v1t

## The above equation can be rewritten as follows:

P1 + gy1+ 1/2 v12 = P2 + gy2+ 1/2 v22
and since the subscripts 1 & 2 refer to any two points
along the tube of flow, Bernoullis equation may also be
written:
P + gy+ 1/2 v2 = constant
Note carefully that p is the absolute not gauge pressure.
Example: Water enters a house through a pipe 2 cm in
diameter, at an absolute pressure of 4105 pa. The pipe
leading to the second-floor bathroom 5 m above and 1
cm in diameter. If the flow velocity at the inlet pipe is 4
m/s, find the flow velocity and pressure in the bathroom.

## Exercise: a method or determining the velocity of a fluid in a pipe s

the venturi meter, illustrated below. Two pressure gauges G1&G2
measure the pressure in the pipe and a contraction inserted in it.
Obtain the velocity v1 in term of pressure difference p1 p2.

p1

G1

G2
p2
v1

flow

A1

v2

A2
Venturi meter
Physics 111: Lecture 28, Pg 29