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Judul Asli: Lecture 10

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jpg)

Titan Quest screenshot, just after escaping a monster

that ate a slow-footed companion.

have to be faster than the

monsters you just have to be

faster than your slowest

companion.

FS2013 Exam 1 grade distribution (regrades not

included)

10:10 am 11:00 am

11:10 am 12:00 noon

free lunch after, if you want it

also need help 1:15-2:30 pm; same idea, different group

Todays agenda:

Electric Current.

You must know the definition of current, and be able to use it in solving

problems.

Current Density.

You must understand the difference between current and current density, and

be able to use current density in solving problems.

You must be able to use Ohms Law and electrical resistance in solving circuit

problems.

Resistivity.

You must understand the relationship between resistance and resistivity, and be

able to calculate resistivity and associated quantities.

You must be able to use the temperature coefficient of resistivity to solve

problems involving changing temperatures.

Electric Current

Definition of Electric Current

The average current that passes any point in a

conductor during a time t is defined as

Q

Iav

t

where Q is the amount of charge passing the point.

dQ

The instantaneous current Iis

=

.

dt

1C

1A= .

One ampere of current is one coulomb per second:

1s

milliamp range: 1 mA = 10-3 A.

m for millianother abbreviation to

remember!

+current

The current is in the direction of flow of positive

charge

opposite to the flow of electrons, which are usually

the charge carriers.

+-

current

electrons

conventional current as a proton flowing from + to -.

Conventional refers to our convention, which is

always to consider the effect of + charges (for example,

electric field direction is defined relative to + charges).

dont electrons flow like this?

+-

current

Good question.

electrons

+-

current

electrons

Chemical reactions (or whatever energy mechanism the

battery uses) force electrons to the negative terminal.

The battery wont let electrons flow the wrong way

inside it. So electrons pick the easiest paththrough

the external wires towards the + terminal.

Of course, real electrons dont want anything.

Note!

Current is a scalar quantity, and it has a sign associated

with it.

In diagrams, assume that a current indicated

by a symbol and an arrow is the conventional

current.

I1

current, that means the conventional current actually

flows opposite to the direction indicated by the arrow.

wire in 4 minutes. What was the average current?

Q Ne

Iav

t

t

Iav

21

19

3.8

10

1.6

10

4 60

Iav 2.53A

Todays agenda:

Electric Current.

You must know the definition of current, and be able to use it in solving

problems.

Current Density.

You must understand the difference between current and current density, and

be able to use current density in solving problems.

You must be able to use Ohms Law and electrical resistance in solving circuit

problems.

Resistivity.

You must understand the relationship between resistance and resistivity, and be

able to use calculate resistivity and associated quantities.

You must be able to use the temperature coefficient of resistivity to solve

problems involving changing temperatures.

Current Density

When we study details of charge transport, we use the

concept of current density.

Current density is the amount of charge that flows

across a unit of area in a unit of time.

dA produces an infinitesimal current dI.

dA

J

r r

dI J dA

Its direction is the direction of

the velocity of positive charge

carriers.

surface

r r

J dA

No OSEs on this

page.

Simpler, less-general

OSE on next page.

J

A

If J is constant and parallel to dA (like in a wire), then

surface

r r

J dA J

dA JA

surface

I

J

A

calculate J.

If n is the number of charges

vt

per volume, then the

v

number of charges that pass

A

q

through a surface A in a time

t

is

number

volume

volume n vt A

number of charges times the charge of each.

vt

q

Q nqvt A

Q

I

nqv A

t

and by A to get J:

J nqv .

r

r

J nqv

Not quite

official

yet.

r

r

Je n e v.

Not quite

official

yet.

electrons is antiparallel to the conventional current

direction.

Currents in Materials

Metals are conductors because they have free

electrons, which are not bound to metal atoms.

In a cubic meter of a typical conductor there roughly

1028 free electrons, moving with typical speeds of

1,000,000 m/s.

is no net flow of charge, until you apply an electric

field...

inside a

conducto

r

just one

electron

shown, for

simplicity

electron collides with a scattering center. Then the

electrons velocity is randomized and the acceleration

begins again.

Some predictions based on this model are off by a

factor or 10 or so, but with the inclusion of some

quantum mechanics it becomes accurate. The

scattering idea is useful.

A greatly oversimplified model, but the idea is useful.

slide are wrong, it points us in the right direction, and

works when you take quantum mechanics into account.

In particular, the velocity that should be used in

r

r

J n q v.

example).

Instead, we should the use net velocity of the collection

of electrons, the net velocity caused by the electric

Quantum mechanics shows us how to

field.

deal correctly with the collection of

electrons.

parachutist; we call it the drift velocity.

r

r

J n q vd .

for current and current density in conductors:

r

r

J n q vd

I nqv d A

I

vd

nqA

cross-sectional area of 3.31x10-6 m2 and carries a

current of 10 A. The conduction electron density in

copper is 8.49x1028 electrons/m3. Calculate the drift

speed of the electrons.

I

vd

nqA

I

vd

neA

10 C/s

vd

(8.49 1028 m -3 )(1.60 10 19 C)(3.3110 6 m 2 )

v d 2.22 104 m/s

Quiz time

practice!)

Todays agenda:

Electric Current.

You must know the definition of current, and be able to use it in solving

problems.

Current Density.

You must understand the difference between current and current density, and

be able to use current density in solving problems.

You must be able to use Ohms Law and electrical resistance in solving circuit

problems.

Resistivity.

You must understand the relationship between resistance and resistivity, and be

able to use calculate resistivity and associated quantities.

You must be able to use the temperature coefficient of resistivity to solve

problems involving changing temperatures.

Resistance

The resistance of a material is a measure of how easily

a charge flows through it.

Resistance: how much push is

needed to get a given current to flow.

V

R

I

1V

1

.

The unit of resistance is the ohm:

1A

Resistances of kilohms and megohms are common:

1 k 103 , 1 M=106.

This is the symbol we use for a resistor:

carrying a current, we want a wire having a low

resistance. In idealized problems, we will consider wire

resistance to be zero.

Lamps, batteries, and other devices in circuits have

resistance.

used in circuits. The picture shows

a strip of five resistors (you tear off

the paper and solder the resistors

into circuits).

The little bands of color on the resistors have meaning.

Here are a couple of handy web links:

http://www.dannyg.com/examples/res2/resistor.htm

http://xtronics.com/kits/rcode.htm

Ohms Law

In some materials, the resistance is constant over a

wide range of voltages.

For such materials, we write

V IR,

equation Ohms Law.

Newtons Laws

and in advanced classes you will write something

other than V=IR when you write Ohms Law.

called ohmic materials, and have

linear I vs. V graphs.

Law are called nonohmic materials,

and have curved I vs. V graphs.

slope=1/R

V

I

slope=1/R

called ohmic materials, and have

linear I vs. V graphs.

Law are called nonohmic materials,

and have curved I vs. V graphs.

V

I

ohmic and nonohmic conductors.

Demo:

temperature dependence of

resistivity.

Demo:

resistive heating.

Electric Current.

You must know the definition of current, and be able to use it in solving

problems.

You must understand the difference between current and current density, and

be able to use current density in solving problems.

You must be able to use Ohms Law and electrical resistance in solving circuit

problems.

Resistivity.

You must understand the relationship between resistance and resistivity, and be

able to use calculate resistivity and associated quantities.

You must be able to use the temperature coefficient of resistivity to solve

problems involving changing temperatures.

Resistivity

It is also experimentally observed (and justified by

quantum mechanics) that the resistance of a metal wire

is well-described by

L

R

,

A

material, L is the wire length, and A its cross-sectional

area.

This makes sense: a longer wire or higher-resistivity

wire should have a greater resistance. A larger area

means more space for electrons to get through, hence

lower resistance.

R = L / A,

units of

are

m

A

L

through it.

The greater the resistivity, the harder it is to push

electrons through it.

The greater the cross-sectional area, the easier it is to

push electrons through it.

Resistivity is a useful tool in physics because it depends

on the properties of the wire material, and not the

geometry.

to 1015 m for hard rubber. Thats an incredible range

of 23 orders of magnitude, and doesnt even include

superconductors (we might talk about them some time).

Example (will not be worked in class): Suppose you

want to connect your stereo to remote speakers.

(a) If each wire must be 20 m long, what diameter

copper wire should you use to make the resistance

0.10 per wire.

R = L / A

A = L / R

A = (d/2)2

(d/2)2 = L / R

geometry!

(d/2)2 = L / R

d/2= ( L / R )

d = 2 ( L / R )

d = 2 [ (1.68x10-8) (20) / (0.1) ]

d = 0.0021 m = 2.1 mm

voltage drop across each wire?

V=IR

V = (4.0) (0.10)

V = 0.4 V

copper in a table in your text.

The equation for resistivity I introduced five slides back

is a semi-empirical one. Heres almost how we define

resistivity:

E

.

J

NOT an official

starting

equation!

equation.

We define conductivity as the inverse of the

resistivity:

1

1

, or .

r

r

E J,

definition of

resistivity.

r

r

J E.

The official Ohms law, valid for non-ohmic materials.

Cautions!

In this context:

is not volume density!

is not surface density!

cross-sectional area of 3.31x10-6 m2 and carries a

current of 10 A. Calculate the magnitude of the electric

field in the wire.

I

E J

A

(1.72 108 m) 10 C/s

E

(3.31106 m 2 )

Question: are we still assuming the electrostatic case?

Homework hint (not needed in this particular example): in this chapter it is safe to

use V=Ed.

Electric Current.

You must know the definition of current, and be able to use it in solving

problems.

You must understand the difference between current and current density, and

be able to use current density in solving problems.

You must be able to use Ohms Law and electrical resistance in solving circuit

problems.

You must understand the relationship between resistance and resistivity, and be

able to use calculate resistivity and associated quantities.

You must be able to use the temperature coefficient of resistivity to solve

problems involving changing temperatures.

Many materials have resistivities that depend on

temperature. We can model* this temperature

dependence by an equation of the form

0 1 T T0 ,

temperature coefficient of resistivity.

approximation can be used if the temperature range is not too great;

i.e. 100 C or so.

shape of a cylinder 1 cm long and 4 mm in diameter is

attached to a sample. The thermometer has a

resistance of 0.030 . What is the temperature of the

sample?

Look up resistivity of carbon, use it to calculate

resistance.

5

0 3.519 10 m

T0 20C

L = 0.01 m

r = 0.002 m

0 L

R 0 2 0.028

r

This is the resistance at 20 C.

0.0005 C-1

RA

(R)

L

1

T(R) T0

1

0

T(0.030) 122.6 C

The result is very sensitive to significant figures in

resistivity and .

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