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Frac Pack Completions

for Sand Control Applications

For Internal Use Only

Production Under Radial Flow Conditions


Ideal case, radial flow
no formation damage

Real case, radial flow through a


near wellbore damaged region

PPwfwf

Pwf

Pi
For Internal Use Only

Pi
2

Effects of Near Wellbore Damage


Undamaged well
Pi = 5000 psi
Perm = 500 md
Porosity = 20%
Production rate = 500
bpd 28 API Crude Oil
Pwf = 4930 psi (calc)

For Internal Use Only

Damaged well
Pi = 5000 psi
Formation perm = 500 md
Damaged perm = 10 md
Porosity = 20%
Production rate = 500 bpd
28 API Crude Oil
Pwf = 3950 psi (calc)

What are the Causes of Sand Production?


Shear Failure Region
n
itio
d
on
C
ble
a
t
s
Stable Condition
Un

Cohesive
Failure
Tensile Failure
Tension

For Internal Use Only

Pore Collapse
Failure

Shear
stress

Conditions under draw


down and production
Initial Conditions
Compression

Effective
normal
stress

Modes of Formation Failure


Cohesive Failure

Shear Failure

Occurs at rock phase when


the grain to grain contact
forces are exceeded

Formation is stressed
beyond its yield limit either
during drilling or under high
drawdown pressures.
Cyclic production

Tensile Failure
Very near wellbore at high
production rates
Tensile stresses applied by
exposure to heavy kill
fluids or completion fluids
(hydraulically induced
fractures)

For Internal Use Only

Pore Collapse
Usually the final mode of
failure where the
compressive strength of
the formation is exceeded
Very weak or very depleted
reservoirs

Additional Modes of Failure


Capillary Pressure Changes
Introduction of water can reduce the capillary pressures
resulting in a change in formation stability.

Chemically weakening
Chemical attack on cementing materials within the
formation either by water, kill fluids or stimulation fluids.

Turbulent flow
In high permeability gas wells, turbulent flow in the near
wellbore will result in higher pressure losses and
increased sand mobility.

For Internal Use Only

What can be done to effectively control sand


production without damaging productivity
of the well?
Minimize damage during drilling and completion
Minimize draw down during production
limit the production rate to control drawdown
eliminate or bypass the damaged region

Minimize the velocity at the formation face


Limit the production rate to control drawdown
Increase the effective flow area to the wellbore

For Internal Use Only

FracPac Completions
A high conductivity fracture is extended
beyond the damaged region into the reservoir
The high conductivity fracture will bypass the
damaged region near the wellbore
A high conductivity path is created to the wellbore

For Internal Use Only

FracPac Completions
Tip Screen Out (TSO) fracture designs
are used to:
Maximize the fracture width
Pack propping material into the created fracture

For Internal Use Only

Tip Screen Out Fracture Design


A hydraulic fracture is initiated with an efficient fracturing
fluid such as HEC or a Cross Linked Borate Gel

Net Pressure Plot (Log Net Pvs Log Time)

For Internal Use Only

10

Tip Screen Out Fracture Design


Proppant-laden slurry is pumped into the fracture to fill
the fracture with slurry. At the point when proppant
reaches the tip of the fracture, length growth stops.

Net Pressure Plot (Log Net Pvs Log Time)

For Internal Use Only

11

Tip Screen Out Fracture Design


Pumping is continued after the tip screen out is initiated. During this time
the fracture length will be constant and the width will increase with net
pressure. The fracture is then filled and packed with proppant.

Net Pressure Plot (Log Net Pvs Log Time)


Tip screen out
initiated fracture
width increases
For Internal Use Only

12

Tip Screen Out Fracture Design


Pumping is continued after the tip screen out is initiated. During
this time the fracture length will be constant and the width will
increase with net pressure. The fracture is then filled and packed
with proppant.

Net Pressure Plot (Log Net Pvs Log Time)


Fracture is
packed and
pumping stops
For Internal Use Only

13

Tip Screen Out Fracture Design


The end result is a short, wide, very
conductive fracture which extends beyond the
near wellbore damage region.
Skin is reduced over conventional sand control
completions.
Fluid velocity at the formation face is distributed
over the fracture area and effectively reduced.
In laminated or layered formations, vertical
permeability is created to provide more effective
contact with the wellbore.

For Internal Use Only

14

Returning to the Earlier Example


Undamaged well
70 psi draw down at 500
pbd

Frac pack completion


with a 30 ft fracture
100 psi draw down at 500
bpd
350 psi draw down at 1500
bpd

Damaged well
1050 psi draw down at
500 bpd

For Internal Use Only

15

Typical Concerns
Fracture penetration into water or gas baring
formations
Higher cost
Additional equipment and volume
requirements
Difficult to execute and control in very long
productive intervals and in very deviated wells

For Internal Use Only

16

Multiple Fractures Long Intervals, Very


Deviated Walls

Note that the flow to the wellbore is


confined to radial flow which will
introduce a positive skin.

3-D

For Internal Use Only

17

Alternatives to Frac Pack Completions


High-rate water packs
Acid pre-pack/high-rate water packs
Horizontal wells

For Internal Use Only

18

High-Rate Water Packs


High-rate water packs are treatments using
ungelled or lightly gelled water pumped at high
rates to place sand into the perforation tunnels
and small created fractures.
This is often used as a pre-pack treatment to fill
and support the perforation tunnels
These treatments can also be conducted at
fracturing rates to create and pack small fractures

For Internal Use Only

19

High-Rate Water Packs


The use of inefficient or high leak off fluids
will restrict fracture growth to only the near
wellbore.
Downward growth into water or upward growth
into gas is minimized
Efficient perforation pre-packing can be
accomplished to support the perforation tunnels
Some fracture length can be created which can
by pass very near wellbore damage

For Internal Use Only

20

High-Rate Water Packs


The use of inefficient high leak off fluids will
also result in an expanded damaged zone
traveling ahead of the fractures.
Relatively large fluid volumes are used to create
very short fractures.
Small proppant quantities are placed relative
to the fluid volume injected.
Large volumes of fluid are leaked off into the
formation which can result in deep formation
damage extending away from the fracture face.

For Internal Use Only

21

Frac pack vs. High-Rate Water Pack


Frac Pack Completion
Uses efficient fluid to
create fracture length,
place larger proppant
volumes and minimize
the depth of formation
damage
Leak off is filtercake
controlled

For Internal Use Only

High-Rate Water Pack


Uses an inefficient fluid to
create very short
fractures and place
relatively small proppant
volumes.
Leak off is viscosity
controlled

22

Frac pack vs. High-Rate Water Pack


Frac Pack

High-Rate
Water Pack

Propped Fracture
Damaged or fluid invaded region

For Internal Use Only

23

Frac pack vs. High-Rate Water Pack


By nature, due to the depth of fluid invasion and
the short fracture, high-rate water packs will
typically result in slightly higher skins than frac
pack treatments.
When are high-rate water packs recommended?
Cases where height growth can not be tolerated
Cases where there is only very shallow damage
Cases where there are small reserves in place
(length is not required and cost is a driver)
Highly deviated wells
For Internal Use Only

24

Skin vs. Completion Type

For Internal Use Only

25

Horizontal Wells
Horizontal wells provide an excellent means of
increasing the effective net pay helping to
minimize drawdown and fluid velocities.
Vertical wells are limited to the vertical height of
the reservoir
Horizontal drilling makes it possible to expose a
larger portion of the formation to the wellbore

For Internal Use Only

26

Horizontal Wells
Some advantages of horizontal wells are as
follows:
The wellbore can be kept away from close water or
gas
Long intervals can be exposed

Some concerns with horizontal wells are:

For Internal Use Only

Wellbore failure is a concern in weak formations


Vertical permeability is required
Drilling damage may be hard to clean up
Stimulation options are limited

27

Selecting the Best Completion


Reservoir and well information is analyzed
to help determine a technical ranking of
completion performance
The top 3 ranked completion types are then
fed into a reservoir model and an economic
comparison made
The best option is the one which has the
combined highest ranking

For Internal Use Only

28

Reservoir and Well Properties


Permeability
vertical
horizontal

Porosity
Reservoir fluid
properties
Net height
Gross height
Rock properties
Wellbore deviation

For Internal Use Only

Gas cap or bottom


water
Reservoir size
Formation damage
depth
Formation damage
mechanism

29

Spreadsheet Comparison
A
1

Reservoir Information

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Reservoir Fluid
Permeability (md)
Porosity %
Bottomhole Pressure (psi)
Depleted Reservoir? i.e. PPG < 0.3 psi/ft
Reservoir Fluid Viscosity (cP)
BottomHole Temperature (F)
Fluid Formation Factor (Bo or Bg)
Vertical to Horizontal Permeability Ratio
Connate Water Saturation
Reservoir Quality

15

Well Information

TVD to Top of Interval


Gross Interval Height (ft)
Deviation @ Zone
18 Leave blank if you are undecided
16
17

For Internal Use Only

2
350
20
2000
No
2
4
140
0.8
0.01
35 %
Thin Bed/Laminated
3

Oil

FracPac

High Rate Water


Pack

Acid PrePack
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%
Weighting

4000
150
25

30

Acid PrePack

1%

High Rate Water Pack

27%

FracPac

71%

Reservoir Evaluation
Cumulative Production (Mscf or bbl/day)
2000

350000

1800

300000
250000

1400
1200

200000

1000
150000

800
600

100000

400
50000

200
0

0
0

High Rate Water Pack

For Internal Use Only

10
Acid PrePack

15

20

Time (months)
FracPac
High Rate Water Pack

31

25
Acid PrePack

30
FracPac

Cumulative Production

Rate (bopd or Mscf/day)

1600

Economic Comparison
NPV
$4,500,000
$4,000,000
$3,500,000
$3,000,000

NPV

$2,500,000
$2,000,000
$1,500,000
$1,000,000
$500,000
$0
($500,000)

10

High Rate Water Pack

For Internal Use Only

15
Tim e (m onths)
Acid PrePack

32

20

FracPac

25

30