Anda di halaman 1dari 44

Tarnish &

corrosion
1

TARNISH

Tarnish is observable as a surface


discoloration on a metal, or as a slight loss
or alteration of the surface finish or luster.

CORROSION

Corrosion is not merely a surface deposit. It


is a process in which deterioration of a
metal is caused by reaction with its
environment.

Promote accelerated reaction between the corrosion products and


the metal or alloy

Causes of Tarnish and Corrosion:

Tungsten rods with evaporated crystals, partially oxidised with


colourful tarnish

Tarnish is observed as the surface discoloration on a metal, or as a


slight loss or alteration of the surface finish or lustre.

HARD
DEPOSITS
(CALCULUS)
SOFT DEPOSITS
(PLAQUE)

FILMS COMPOSEED
MAINLY OF
MICROORGANISMS
AND MUCIN

Stains &
discoloration
6

Tarnish

is often the forerunner of corrosion

Corrosion

is not merely a surface deposit. It is a process in which

deterioration of a metal is caused by reaction with its environment.

This disintegration of the metal is by the action of corrosion which occurs through
the action of moisture, atmosphere, acid or alkaline solutions and certain chemicals.

corrosion

CLASSIFICATION

CHEMICAL CORROSION

A direct combination of metallic and non-metallic elements to


yield a chemical compound through processes such as oxidation,
halogenations, or sulfurization reactions.

Dissociative oxygen adsorption


10

Examples of dry corrosion in dentistry :

Corrosion of dental gold alloys that contain silver.

Oxidation of silvercopper alloy particles that are mixed with


mercury.

11

ELECTROCHEMICAL
CORROSION
Composed of three essential components-An anode, a
cathode and an electrolyte.
English chemists John
Daniell (left) and Michael
Faraday (right), both are
credited to be founders of
electrochemistry as known
today.

ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION

Anode -- Positive ions are formed with the production of free


electrons.

Cathode-- Reduction reaction must occur that will consume


free electrons produced at the anode.

The electrolyte supplies the ions needed at the cathode and


carries away the corrosion products at the anode.

13

ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL IN THE ORAL CAVITY WITH


TWO DISIMILIAR FILLINGS

Ammeter

Amalgam Anode
+ ion

..
.
.
.
..

Saliva electrolyte

Gold alloy cathode


- ION

15

POSSIBLE REACTIONS- REDUCTION REACTIONS


1. M+
+ e2. 2H+ + 2e3. 2H2O + O2 + 4e-

Mo
H2
4(OH)-

Metal ion may be removed to form metal atoms

Hydrogen ions may be converted to hydrogen gas

Hydroxyl ions may be formed

16

Electromotive force
series

This classification for arrangement of the elements in the


order of their dissolution tendencies in water.

Potential values are calculated with solutions containing


one atomic weight ,in grams, of ions in 1000ml of water at
25 c.

Metals with a more positive potential have a lower


tendency to dissolve in aqueous solutions.
17

Metals

Ion

Electrode
Potential (V)

Gold

Au+

+ 1.50

Gold

Au3+

+ 1.36

Platinum

Pt +

+ 0.86

Palladium

Pd2*

+ 0.82

Mercury

Hg2+

+ 0.80

Silver

Ag+

+ 0.80

Copper

Cu+

Bismuth

Bi3+

+ 0.47

Antimony

Sb3+

Hydrogen

H+

0.00

Lead

Pb2+

-0.12

Tin

Sn2+

-0.14

Nickel

Ni2+

-0.23

Cadmium

Cd2+

-0.40

Iron

Fe2+

-0.44

Chromium

Cr2+

-0.56

Zinc

Zn2+

-0.76

Aluminum

Al3+

-1.70

Sodium

Na-+

-2.71

Calcium

Ca2+

-2.87

Potassium

K+

-2.92

+ 0.23

+ 0.10

18

If two pure metals are immersed in an electrolyte and


connected by an electrical conductor to form a galvanic
cell.

The metal with the lower electrode potential in the table


becomes the anode and undergoes oxidation , that is, its
ions go into solution.

CATHODE

ANODE

19

GALVANIC CORROSION / DISSIMILAR METALS


CORROSION

It occurs when dissimilar metals are in direct physical contact with


each other.

This metallic combination may produce Electro galvanism or


Galvanic currents.

AMALGAM

GOLD

20

GALVANIC SHOCK

A pain sensation caused by electric current generated by a contact


between two dissimilar metals forming a battery in the oral
environment.

It also occur between restoration of similar alloys, which doesnt


have exactly same surface composition or structure.

Even occurs in a single isolated metal restoration.

21

GOLD
FILLING

AMALGAM FILLING

ENAMEL
DENTINE
PULP

Single metal
restoration
saliva

saliva

+
_

saliva
Tissue fluids cl-

saliva

saliva

saliva

HETEROGENOUS SURFACE COrrosion

Heterogeneous compositions of metal surface.

This occurs within the structure of the restoration


itself.

Difference in compositions within the alloy grains

24

Grains with lower electrode potential are attacked and


corrosion results
Impurities in alloy enhance corrosion

Microscopic structure of copperzinc alloy

25

Due to more reactive nature of grain boundaries, intergranular


corrosion occurs adjacent to grain boundaries with relatively
little corrosion of grains.
This type of corrosion occurs due to the in homogeneity and
mainly technological errors.
26

STRESS CORROSION

Imposition of stress increases the internal energy of an alloy, either


through elastic displacement of atom or the creation of microstrained field associated with dislocation and the tendency to
undergo corrosion will be increased.

Stress corrosion most likely to occur during fatigue or cyclic


loading in the oral environment.

27

Surface irregularities acts as sites of stress conc


-ordinary fatigue failure occurs at norminal
stresses below the normal elastic limit of the
alloy.

28

Eg. Repeated removal and insertion of a partial


denture will develop a severe stress pattern of certain
alloys especially at the grain boundaries. Combined
with the oral environment ,the appliance develops
stress corrosion resulting in fatigue and failure.

29

CONCENTRATED CELL CORROSION

It occurs whenever there are variations in the


electrolytes or in the composition of the given
electrolyte within the system.

30

saliva

Crevice corrosion
Preferential attack occurs at crevices in dental prostheses or at
margins between tooth structure and dental restorations.

Crevice
present
between
restoration
and tooth
margin

For this reason, all metallic dental


restorative materials should be polished.

33

PROTECTION AGAINST CORROSION

Gold coating is applied to enhance the appearance of many dental


product.
But the noble metal is soft : when surface is scratched or pitted to such a
depth that the base metal is exposed to the environment, the base metal
will be corroded at a very rapid rate.

35

Paint application or coating with inorganic


nonconductive coatings. A sratch in the coating will not
lead to rapid attack of the active metal.

36

Certain metal develop a thin adherent highly protective film by reaction


with the environment and such a metal is said to be passive.

37

Iron, steel and certain other metals may be electroplated with nickel
followed by chromium for corrosion protection .

38

Chromium passivated metal can be susceptible to stress corrosion


and pitting corrosion, hence the patient should be warned against
using household bleaches for cleaning partial denture frame work .

39

CORROSION OF
DENTAL RESTORATION

Addition of noble metals like gold, platinum and palladium in


dental alloy
Gold resist sulfide tarnish, Palladium resists sulfide tarnishing
of silver.

Base metals alloys such a s Ni-Cr, Co-Cr and Ti are virtually


resistant to sulfide tarnish although they are susceptible to
chloride corrosion

41

Evaluation of tarnish and corrosion resistance


Potentiodynamic polarization tests.
Three electrodes
experimental electrode-the dental alloy
counter electrode -typically platinum.
a reference electrodesaturated calomel electrode or
saturated AgCI electrode
Electrolyte :saline sol at appropriate chlorine ion conc, fusayama
sol, ringers sol.

Electrochemical impeding spectrography.


Scanning electrochemical microscope.

CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Application of varnish in the dentinal walls and on the


surface of the filling to avoid galvanism in amalgam
restorations.
Galvanic currents may be associated with lichenoid
reactions, ulcers, lichenplanus but not yet proved.
Avoid giving amalgam restoration opposing gold filling
because the mercury released from the silver amalgam will
MERCURY
weaken and discolour both the fillings and also gives
a
metallic taste in the mouth.

43