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WELDING PROCESS

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M.S.Rogers

Welding Processes

Copyright 2003 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Introduction to welding process


The four main arc welding process MMA,TIG,MIG/MAG and SAW
An arc is created when electrical discharges occurs across the
gap b/w electrode and parent metal.
The arc generates heat for fusion of the base metal

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For manual and semi automatic


welding the following are general
principle
Vertical up progression tends to give the highest heat input
Vertical down welding tends to give the lowest heat input
Over head position give to low heat input because of the need to
low current and relatively fast travel speed

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Heat Input

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Welding Parameters
Arc voltage(arc voltage is related to the arc length)
Welding Current(Welding current major influence on the depth of
fusion/Penetration
Polarity

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Power Source Characteristics


OCV-To strike an arc a relatively high voltage is required to
generate a spark
Between the electrode and base metal.this is known as open
circuit voltage(50-90v)
Constant Current Power Source(MMA and TIG)drooping
Charcteristics
Constant Voltage Power Source(MIG/MAG,FCAW and SAW) flat
Characteristics

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MANUAL

SEMI AUTOMATIC

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Travel

Feed

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Welding Processes
SOLID STATE
WELDING
BRAZING &
SOLDERING
OXY FUEL
WELDING

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FUSION WELDING

ALLIED
WELDING
PROCESS

RESISTANCE
WELDING

LASER
WELDING

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MBI

Manual Metal Arc Process (MMA)


(Suitable for all welding position)
SHEILDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW)
STICK WELDING
MANUAL WELDING PROCESS

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Manual Metal Arc Process (MMA)


SHEILDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW)
Electrode covering
Electrode
Electric Arc

Solidified slag

Molten weld pool


Gas shield
Build up of weld metal
Penetration

Parent material
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MBI

Basic MMA Equipment Diagram


Welding Machine

Electrode Holder
Work Piece

Power Source
+

Work Cable

Earth

Clamp
Return Cable

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MBI

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Welding Variables

Arc length

Angle of electrode

Speed of travel

Type of electrode

Polarity

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Affects heat input

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Amperage too low-Poor fusion or penetration,Unstable


Amperage too high- Excessive penetration,spatter,undercut
Arc voltage too low- Poor penetration,electrode stubbing,lack of
fusion defects,irregular weld bead shape

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M.S.Rogers

TYPE OF POLARITY

DIRECT CURRENT /Electrode Negative- STRAIGHT


POLARITY Light penetration

DIRECT CURRENT/Electrode Positive-REVERSE


POLARITY Deep penetration

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ALTERNATING CURREN-Medium Penetration

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Welding Power Sources


Drooping or Constant Current Characteristic

Large arc gap


Requires
more volts

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Small arc gap


Requires less volts

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MBI

Manual Metal Arc (MMA)


The three main electrode covering types
used in MMA welding

Rutile - general purpose (E6013)

Basic - low hydrogen (E7018/7016)

Cellulose - deep penetration/fusion (E6010/6011)

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MBI

FUNCTION OF FLUX COVERING

SHIELDING

DEOXIDATION

ALLOYING

IONIZING

INSULATING

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MBI

Cellulose(2)

Rutile(3)

L.Hydrogen(3)

Sodium
Pottasium

Iron Powder

Iron Oxide(1)
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M.S.Rogers

Electrode Identification

EXXXX
COATING AND OPERATING CHARECT..

POSITION
STRENGTH

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1-All position
2-f & h position
4-Vertical down & up

-60*1000 =60000PSI

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25

MATERIAL WELDABILITY
SIZE :

4.78 mm MIN through 25 mm

TYPE :

Ferrous Metal and NonFerrous Metal

CONDITION:

Moderate Preparations on
Welding Area / Joint from
Contaminations

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MBI

SELECTION OF ELECTRODES
TYPE OF MATERIAL

AWS CLASS

1 . CARBON STEEL

E7018, E7016, E6010,


E6013

2. STAINLESS STEEL

E308L, E316L, E347L

3. ALUMINIUM

E1188, E4043,E5356

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CONSUMABLES
SIZE :

2.0mm dia through 6.0mm dia

TYPE :

Basic, Rutile, Cellulose, Acid

CONDITION:

Basic - Bake 350C


- Hold 150C
- Store / Quiver 75 Rutile Dry
Cellulose - Dry

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90C.

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MBI

ADVANTAGES
Cheap Equipment
Suitable for all weld
position
Capable of welding
thin material.

DISADVANTAGES
Required Proper
Inter run cleaning
Slow weld process
Required proper
consumable storage

Required moderate
welder skill
Low in maintenance

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MBI

TYPICAL DEFECTS
SLAG INCLUSION
POROSITY
UNDERCUT
SPATTERS
LACK OF SIDEWALL FUSION
LACK OF ROOT FUSION
LACK OF ROOT PENETRATION
ARC BLOW
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MBI

Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG)

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MBI

Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG)


Cap

Switch
Filler wire

Handle

Switch power
cable

Collet
Deposited weld metal
Non-consumable electrode
Shielding gas
Gas inlet
& power
cable
Molten weld pool
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TIG Torch Assembly


Tungsten
housing

Tungsten
electrodes

Fitted ceramic
shielding cup

Ceramic
shield cup

On/Off switch

Gas lens

Split collet
Gas diffuser
Spare ceramic
shielding cup
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Torch body
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Basic TIG Equipment Diagram


Shielding Gas +
Regulator

Welding Torch
Welding Machine
Work Piece
+

Earth

Gas Hose

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Work Cable

Return Cable
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MBI

Tungsten Electrodes

Cerium: DC -ve elctrode - steels and most metals

Lanthanum: AC - Aluminum alloys and magnesium

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MBI

Argon (Ar) Inert

Shielding Gases

Suitable for welding carbon steel, stainless

steel, aluminium, reactive

material and magnesium

23% heavier than air


Forms a tight arc column, high current

density, small arc concentration,


lower arc voltage, moderate penetration and moderate thermal conductivity

More suitable for thinner

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materials and positional welding

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MBI

Shielding Gases
Helium (He) Inert

Suitable for welding carbon steel,


magnesium due to

stainless steel, copper, aluminium and


better puddle fluidity and bead wetting

Second lightest gas 1/7 as heavy as air


Form a wider arc, lower current density, higher

arc voltage, deeper

penetration and high thermal conductivity

Requires higher flow rates

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MBI

Shielding Gases
Helium / Helium Argon Mix (He) Inert

Suitable for welding carbon steel, stainless steel, copper, aluminium


and

magnesium

High cost, high flow rates


More suitable for thicker materials and

materials of high thermal

conductivity.

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MBI

MATERIAL WELDABILITY
SIZE :

1.0 mm MIN through 6.0 mm

TYPE :

Ferrous Metal and NonFerrous Metal

CONDITION:

Strictly Clean Preparations on


Welding Area / Joint from
Contaminations

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MBI

CONSUMABLES
SIZE :

1.0 mm dia through 2.4 mm dia

TYPE :

As per parent metal

CONDITION:

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Place in the original container & dry

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MBI

SELECTION FILLER METAL


MATERIAL TYPE

AWS CLASS

1. CARBON STEEL

ER70 S-G,

2. STAINLESS STEEL

ER 308L, ER316L,
ER347L

3. ALUMINIUM

ER1188, ER4043,
ER5356

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ADVANTAGES
Virtually no
spatters produced
High quality welds
Capable to weld thin
material
Capable to weld any

DISADVANTAGES
Expensive equipment
Required high skill
weld technique.
Very slow weld
process.
High in maintenance.

type of material.
Capable to be used
in all weld position.
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MBI

TYPICAL DEFECTS
TUNGSTEN INCLUSION
POROSITY
LACK OF SIDEWALL FUSION
LACK OF ROOT FUSION
LACK OF ROOT PENETRATION

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MBI

Metal Active/Inert Gas (MAG/MIG)

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MBI

Metal Active/Inert Gas (MAG/MIG)


Wire electrode
Current conductor

Gas nozzle

Wire feed
rolls
Shielding gas in

Gas shield
Electric Arc
Molten weld pool

Contact tip and electrode


wire guild
Build up of weld metal
Penetration

Parent material
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MBI

Metal Active/Inert Gas (MAG/MIG)


Gas Nozzle

Nozzle to work
distance

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Contact Tube/tip

Filler
Extension

Contact Tube to
Work Distance

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MAG/MIG Torch Head Assembly


Torch body
Torch head assembly
(Less nozzle)

On/Off switch
Hose port

Nozzles or
shrouds
Gas diffuser
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Spot welding
spacer
Contact tips
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MBI

MAG/MIG Internal Wire Drive


Plain top roller

15 Kg Filler Wire Spool

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Half grooved
bottom roller

Wire guide
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MAG/MIG Wire Spool

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Metal Transfer Modes for MAG/MIG

Short Circuit / Dip Transfer:


Uses small wire diameter, thin (all position) and thick (vertical & o/head) material
low deposition rate and filling large gaps.
Voltage ~ < 21
Amperage ~ < 200

Spray Transfer:
Uses larger wire diameter, high deposition rates, t >2.4mm, restricted to flat &
horizontal position.
Voltage ~ > 27
Amperage ~ > 250

Globular Transfer: Deposits at high rates & capable producing high quality welds
and for flat & horizontal position.
Between Dip & Spray Transfer Modes.

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MBI

Shielding Gases
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Active

Compound of 27% Carbon and 72% oxygen


11/2 times heavier than air
At elevated temperature , it will disintegrates to

oxygen and carbon

monoxide

Suitable for ferrous metal welding

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Shielding
gases
Example gases and applications for MIG/MAG welding
Pure argon

Aluminium, copper, 9% nickel steel

Argon + 1% to 5% oxygen

Stainless steel

CO2

Carbon steel up to 0.4%, low alloy


steel

Argon + 5% to 25% CO2

Carbon and low alloy steels

Argon + 15% nitrogen

Copper and its alloys

75% helium + 25% argon

Aluminium and copper

75% helium + 25% argon + CO2 trace

Austenitic stainless steel

High purity argon

Titanium, Zirconium alloys

Note: A H2 trace may be added to most gases to increase arc voltage and
therefore overall deposition rates.
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AWS 5.18 Carbon Steel Filler

ER 70 S - 6

Alloy Composition
Solid Wire
Ultimate Tensile Strength
Rod
Electrode

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SELECTION OF FILLER WIRES


MATERIAL TYPE

AWS CLASS

1. CARBON STEEL

ER70 S-6

2. STAINLESS STEEL

ER 308L, ER316L,
ER347L

3. ALUMINIUM

ER1188, ER4043,
ER5356

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Flux Cored Arc Welding


Flux core

Insulated extension nozzle


Current carrying guild tube

Wire joint

Flux cored hollow wire


Flux powder
Arc shield composed of
vaporized and slag forming
compounds

Flux core
wires

Solidified weld
metal and slag

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Molten
weld
pool

Metal droplets covered with


thin slag coating
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SELECTION OF FILLER WIRES


MATERIAL TYPE

AWS CLASS

1. CARBON STEEL

E70T-1

2. STAINLESS STEEL

E 308LT, E316LT,
347LT

3. ALUMINIUM

ER1188T, ER4043T,
ER5356T

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Sub-arc (SAW)

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Sub-arc (SAW)
Filler wire spool

Flux hopper

Power supply

Slide rail

Wire electrode

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Flux

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Sub-arc (SAW) Fluxes

Fused SAW
Fluxes
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Agglomerated SAW
Fluxes
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APPLICATION S.A.W. IN THE


FABRICATION

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Sub-arc Fluxes

Fused Flux

Agglomerated Flux

Flaky appearance

Granulated appearance

Lower weld quality

High weld quality

Low moisture intake

Addition of alloys

Low dust tendency

Lower consumption

Good re-cycling

Easy slag removal

Very smooth weld profile

Smooth weld profile

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Process Comparisons
Process

Electrical characteristic

Electrode current type

MMA

Drooping / constant current

DC+ve,

DC-ve,

TIG

Drooping / constant current

DC-ve,

AC

MIG/MAG

Flat / constant voltage

DC+ve,

MAG FCAW

Flat / constant voltage

DC+ve,

DC-ve,

Sub-arc

Flat / constant voltage

DC+ve,

DC-ve,

Electro-slag

Flat / constant voltage

DC+ve,

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AC

AC

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