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STATISTICAL METHODS IN

SOCIAL SCIENCES

Dr. Sapia Moalam Abdulrachman

Introduction

Statistics
is an area of science concerned with the extraction of information
from numerical data and its use in making inference about a
a population from which the data were obtained.

Role of Statistics in Research

Statistics ensure the objectivity of empirical evidence in research.

It is through statistical evidence that conclusion relative to the


the research hypothesis can be drawn.

Types of Statistical
Methods

Parametric Statistics

are statistical techniques used in making inference of conclusion


regarding the population using the characteristics of a sample.
It requires the following conditions:
- The values in the sample are normally distributed
- The samples are independently selected
- The data being analyse are measured by at least in interval
scale
- The variances are equal

Non-Parametric Statistics

Parametric Statistical
Tools
Z-test for Single Sample Proportion
T-test for single Sample Mean
Z-test for Two Sample Proportion
T-test for two Sample Mean
Analysis of Variance
Simple Correlation and Regression
Multiple Correlation
Discriminant Analysis

Non-Parametric Statistical Tools

Chi-Square Goodness of Fit


Chi-Square Test for Two Independent Samples
Lambda
Gamma and Somers d
Mann-Whitney U Test
Kruskal Wallis H Test
Wilcoxon Paired Samples
Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test
Spearmans Rank Order Correlation

When to use Chi-Square Goodness


of Fit
The distribution does not meet the requirements
of parametric test
The purpose of the study is to compare the
distribution of a sample against a theoretical
distribution
The sample size is at least 100
The data are measured in nominal or
categorical
level

When to use Chi-Square for Two Independent


Samples

When the requirements for parametric test


are not met
The purpose of the study is to compare two
independent samples
The sample size for each group is at least
100
The data are measured in nominal, ordinal,
or interval scale

When to use Lambda?


When

the requirements for parametric test


are not met
The purpose of the study is determine the
strength of association between two
variables
The sample size maybe small
The data are measured in nominal level

When to use Gamma or Somers


d
When

the requirements for parametric test


are not met
The purpose of the test is to determine the
strength of association between two
variables
The data are measured in ordinal scale
The sample is relatively small

When to use the Mann-Whitney U


Test
The

requirements for parametric test are


not met
The purpose of the test is to compare two
independent samples
The sample sizes are relatively small
The data are measured in at least ordinal
scale

When to use the Kruskal Wallis H


Test
When

the requirements for parametric test


are not met
The purpose of the test is to compare three
independent samples
The sample sizes are relatively small
The data are measured in at least ordinal
scale

When to use the Wilcoxon Paired


Sample Test
When

the requirements for parametric test


are not met
The purpose of the test is to compare paired
sample or before and after treatment
The sample size is relatively small
The data are measured at least in ordinal
scale

When to use Wilcoxon Rank Sum


Test
When

the requirements of the parametric


test are not met
The purpose of the test is to compare two
independent samples
The sample sizes are relatively small
The data are measured in at least intervalfr
scale

When to use the Spearmans Rank


Order Correlation?
When the requirements for parametric test
are not met
The purpose of the test is to determine the
relationship between two variables
The sample size is relatively small
The data are measured in at least ordinal
scale

DATA MANAGEMENT

DESCRIPTIVE

STATISTICS are group

of statistical tool that are used in


portraying the characteristics of a given
population or sample, such of which are:
measures of
central tendency, measures of dispersion
and fractiles.