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18.

2 Reflection and Mirrors


Pg. 617-622

Reflection of Light Rays


The reflection you see in the mirror
depends on how the surface reflects
the light
Rays are straight lined
representations of how light reflects
Light rays obey the law of reflection

The two ways in which a surface can


reflect light are regular reflection
and diffuse reflection

Regular Reflection
When parallel rays of light hit a
smooth surface, regular reflection
occurs
All the light rays reflect at the same
angle
Produces a sharp reflection

Diffuse Reflection
When parallel rays of light hit a
bumpy or uneven surface, diffuse
reflections occur
Light rays hit the surface at different
angles because of the uneven surface
Each light ray reflects at a different
angle
DO NOT see a clear reflection

Plane Mirrors
Plane mirrors are a flat sheet of
glass, that has a silver-colored
coating on one side
the coating reflects the light
The coating is smooth = regular
reflection occurs and a clear image
forms
Image is a copy of an object formed by
reflected or refracted rays of light

What kind of image forms:


Virtual images are upright images that
forms where light seems to come from
Virtual = something that does not really exist

Plane mirrors produce virtual images that


are upright and the same size as the object
Image not exactly same as object
The left and right of the image are reversed

How Images Form


Light rays from the object strike the
mirror and reflect towards the
observers eye
Even though rays are reflected the
observers brain treats them as if they
had come from behind the mirror
Image appears to be behind the mirror

Concave Mirrors
A mirror with a surface that curves inward
like the inside of a bowl is a concave
mirror
Reflects parallel rays of light so that they meet
at a point

The Optical Axis is an imaginary line that


divides a mirror in half
The Focal Point is the point at which rays
parallel to the optical axis meet
Depends on shape of mirror
More curved the mirror the closer the focal
point is to the mirror

Concave Mirrors
The Optical Axis is an imaginary line
that divides a mirror in half
The Focal Point is the point at which
rays parallel to the optical axis meet
Depends on shape of mirror
More curved the mirror the closer the focal
point is to the mirror

X= Focal Point
---- = Optical Axis

Representing How Images


Form
Ray diagrams are used to show where a
focused image forms on a concave
mirror
Shows rays of light coming from points on
the object
Two rays coming from one point on the
object meet or appear to meet at the
corresponding point on the image

***Turn to pg. 620 to practice drawing ray


diagrams***

Determining the Type of


Image

Concave mirrors can form virtual


or real images
If an object is placed at the focal
point = NO Image forms!
if the light is placed at the focal
point it can project parallel rays
of light
Ex. Car headlights

Real Vs. Virtual Images


Real images
form when rays
actually meet
Occur if the
object is farther
away from the
mirror than the
focal point
May by larger or
small than the
object

Virtual images
form when the
object is between
the mirror and
focal point
are always
larger than the
object for
concave
mirrors

Convex Mirrors
Convex Mirrors are mirrors with surfaces
that curve outwards
rays spread out but appear to come to from a
focal point behind the mirror
Because rays never meet, images formed by
convex mirrors are always virtual and smaller
than the object
Used in car mirrors

Advantage: allows you to see a larger area


than you can with a plane mirror
Disadvantage: images appears further away
than it really is