Anda di halaman 1dari 25

Atkinson Cycle Thermodynamics cycle

Last updated: December 19, 2014 Posted in: Thermodynamics,


Atkinson cycle is an ideal cycle for Otto engine exhausting to a gas
Thermodynamics Cycles,
turbine. In this cycle the isentropic expansion 3-4 of an Otto cycle(1-23-4)is further allowed to the lowest cycle pressure so as to increase
the work output. With this modification the cycle is known as Atkinson
cycle. The cycle is shown on p-V and T-s diagrams.

Pressure-volume and Temperature-entropy diagram


for the air-standard Atkinson cycle
1

where, Compression ratio =rk =


v1/ v2,
the expansion ratio = re = v4/v3
2

Diesel cycle - Thermodynamics cycle


The air-standard diesel cycle is shown on p-V and T-s diagrams
respectively. This is the ideal cycle for the diesel engine, which is also
called the compression ignition engine.
Diesel cycle consists of two reversible adiabatic, one reversible isobar
and one reversible isochoric process.

Pressure-volume and Temperature-entropy diagram for the air-standard


Diesel cycle
Basic processes in diesel cycle
1-2; Reversible adiabatic compression
2-3: Constant pressure heat addition
3-4: Reversible adiabatic expansion
4-1: Constant volume heat rejection
3

Thermal efficiency of diesel cycle

Where, Compression ratio = rk =


v1/v2 ,
Expansion ratio = re = v4/v3 ,
The
normal
range=ofr compression
ratio for diesel cycle is 16
Cut
off ratio
c =v3/v2 .

to 20 whereas for spark-ignition engines it is 6 to 10. due to


high compression ratios used in diesel engines the efficiency
of a diesel engine is more than that of a gasoline engine.
4

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics


If an object with a higher temperature comes in contact with an
object of lower temperature, it will transfer heat to the lower
temperature object. The objects will approach the same temperature
and in the absence of loss to other objects, they will maintain a
single constant temperature. Therefore, thermal equilibrium is
attained.
The Thermodynamics Zeroth Law states that if two systems are at
the same time in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they are in
equilibrium with each other.
two system which are
equal in temperature to a
third system are equal in
temperature to each other.
The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics states
that:-

two system which are equal in temperature to a third system


temperature to each other
are equal in

First Law of Thermodynamics


The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy is neither created
nor destroyed, thus the total energy of the universe is a constant.
However, energy can certainly be transferred from one form to another
form.
The 1st Law of thermodynamics is mathematically stated as
follows:

dQ = dW

During a thermodynamic cycle, a cyclic process the systems undergoes,


the cyclic integral of heat added is equal to integral of work done. the
first law equation can also be written in the form,
(dQ dW) = 0
Equation dU = dQ - dW is corollary for first law of thermodynamics. It
shows that there exists a property internal energy (U) of the system,
such that a change in its value is equal to the difference in heat
entering and work leaving the system.
Sign convention for heat and work in first law of thermodynamics is
represented in picture below.

Another property named enthalpy (H) can also be defined now as a


combination of properties U, p and V.
H = U + pV
For a reversible process, since dW = pdV, the first law of
thermodynamics can also be written as
dQ = dU + pdV
7

Second Law of Thermodynamics


The application of First Law of Thermodynamicsprocess led to the
establishment of a new property named internal energy (U), the
application of the second law to a process leads to the
establishment of another new property names as entropy (S).

Entropy is defined as follows


S

Q
rev
T

For a reversible thermodynamic process between two states, from


state 1 to state 2 in an open system, the change in entropy is given
by
It is found by applying Clausius inequality that for for an irreversible
process from state 1 to state 2, the change in entropy is given by

Second Law of Thermodynamics


The application of First Law of Thermodynamicsprocess led to the
establishment of a new property named internal energy (U), the
application of the second law to a process leads to the establishment
of
another
property
names as entropy (S).
Entropy
is new
defined
as follows
S

Q
rev
T

For a reversible thermodynamic process between two states, from state


1 to state 2 in an open system, the change in entropy is given by

It is found by applying Clausius inequality that for for an irreversible


process from state 1 to state 2, the change in entropy is given by

10

Otto Cycle - Thermodynamics cycle


Otto cycle consists of two isoentropic and two isochoric processes. Heat
is supplied and heat is rejected by the cycle during isochoric process.

Pressure-volume and Temperature-entropy diagram


for the air-standard otto cycle
11

Where,
1-2: Adiabatic compression
2-3: Isochoric heat addition
3-4: Adiabatic expansion
4-1: Isochoric heat rejection
Heat supplied during constant volume
process 2-3
eat rejected during constant volume
process 4-1
The thermal efficiency of otto cycle can be written as

12

Additional:

The High Efficiency Hybrid Cycle (HEHC) attempts to combine the best
features of numerous thermodynamic cycles including Otto, Diesel,
Rankine, and Atkinson to create a highly efficient engine.
13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25