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KULIAH BATUBARA

GEOLOGI BATUBARA
Kualitas/Uses

Fakultas Teknik Geologi


UNIVERSITAS PADJADJARAN
2016

Kualitas Batubara
Kualitas Batubara
Kualitas ditentukan oleh sifat kimiawi dan fisika, yakni :
kandungan maseral dan mineral matter, dan juga
peringkat (tingkat koalifikasi), yang mempengaruhi potensi kegunaannya.
Kedua sifat tersebut menentukan apakah batubara dapat digunakan secara komersial atau tidak.

Kimiawi
Secara sederhana terdiri atas kelembaban (moisture), pure coal, dan mineral matter.
Kelembaban terdiri atas kelembaban permukaan dan kelembaban yang terikat secara kimiawi.
Pure coal --- jumlah kandungan bahan organik;
Mineral matter jumlah kandungan bahan anorganik, yang jika batubara dibakar akan berupa abu.

Analisis batubara: proksimat dan ultimat.


Proksimat analisis yang cukup meluas, mendeterminasi :
kelembaban,
zat terbang (VM),
karbon tertambat (FC), dan
abu.
Proksimat merupakan analisis dasar batubara, dan sangat penting dalam praktek kegunaan
batubara.
Pengujian sangat bergantung pada prosedur dan standar yang digunakan, yang harus
dicantumkan dalam hasil pengujian.

Kualitas Batubara

Ultimat menentukan elemen kimiawi dalam batubara, misal :


karbon (C),
hidrogen,
oksigen,

nitrogen, dan
sulfur
Juga klor dan fosfor, serta unsur jejak.
Dasar data analisis
Analisis batubara harus mencantumkan dasar dan standar yang digunakan,
dan dilaporkan sbb:
As received basis (a.r.), juga as sampled. Data ditampilkan dalam
persen, meliputi total moisture, yakni kandungan kelembaban permukaan
dan air-dried moisture batubara.
Air-dried basis (a.d.b.). Data ditampilkan dalam persen air-dried coal,
yang meliputi air-dried moisture, tetapi bukan moisture permukaan.
Dry basis (dry). Data ditampilkan dengan moisture yang sudah
dihilangkan.
Dry ash-free basis. Batubara dianggap terdiri atas zat terbang dan fixed
carbon berdasarkan perhitungan dengan menghapuskan moisture dan
kandungan abu.
Dry, mineral-matter free basis (d.m.m.f.) --- kandungan total mineral

Kualitas Batubara-Proksimat
Moisture (Kelembaban):
Surface moisture ---- adventitious moisture, not naturally occurring with
the coal; can be removed by low temperature air drying (c.40 o C).
As received basis or as delivered moisture.---- total moisture of coal
sample when received or delivered to laboratory. Usually a laboratory
will air-drying. An aggresive drying step is then carried ouy detrmining
the air-dried moisture. These results are added together to give the
total/as received/as delivered moisture.
Total moisture. --- all the moisture which can be removed by aggresive
drying (c.150o C in vacuum or nitrogen atmosphere).
Air-dried moisture ---- moisture remaining after air drying and which can
be removed by aggresive drying.

High moisture is undesirable in coals as it :


is chemically inert and absorbs heat during combustion, and :
creates difficulties in handling and transport.
lowers the CV in steam coals and lowers the amount of carbon available
in coking coals.

Kualitas Batubara-Proksimat
Abu
Residu bahan anorganik sesudah proses pembakaran.
Harus diingat bahwa kandungan abu tidak ekuivalen dengan kandungan mineral matter
dalam batubara, namun mineral matter merupakan bagian terbesar pembentuk abu.
Steam coal kandungan abu tinggi mengurangi CV. Kandungan abu yang
direkomendasikan sekitar 20% (air-dried), tapi umumnya yang digunakan kadar abu
harus < 20%.
Coking coals --- abu maksimum 10 20% (air-dried).
Volatile matter (Zat terbang)
Keluar dari batubara pada temperatur tinggi dalam tempat tanpa udara.
Berasal terutama dari fraksi organik batubara, teteapi secara minor juga dari MM.
Power plant minimum VM 20-25% (d.a.f.). Limit 25-40%.
Best quality coking coal VM: 20 35% (air-dried), but values of 16 36% can be used.
Fixed Carbon (Karbon tertambat)
Karbon yang terdapat dalam residu sesudah VM dikeluarkan.
Tidak dihitung secara langsung, tetapi merupakan perbedaan dalam air-dried coal,
antara persen total moisture, abu, dan VM 100%.

Kualitas Batubara-Analisis Ultimat

Analisis Ultimat
Determinasi karbon dan hidrogen sebagai gas dari
pembakaran lengkap, determinasi sulfur, nitrogen,
dan bau.
C dan H
Lepas sebagai CO2 dan H2O.
Nitrogen
Sangat signifikan berkaitan dengan polusi udara.
Dalam pembakaran, Ni membantu pembentukan
oksida jika lepas sebagai flue gas akan mencemari
atmosfir. Batubara dengan kadar Ni rendah (1.5-2%
d.a.f) lebih baik.

Kualitas Batubara
Sulfur
Kandungan sulfur menyebabkan masalah dalam penggunaan karena
menghasilkan polusi.
S mengakibatkan korosi dan pengotoran boiler tube, serta
pencemaran udara ketika lepas sebagai flue gas.
Hadir dalam batubara dalam tiga bentuk:
Sulfur organik hadir dalam bahan batubara.
Sulfur pirit --- sebagai mineral sulfida utamanya pirit.
Mineral sulfat ---- hydrous iron atau kalsium sulfat, dihasilkan oleh
oksidasi fraksi sulfida dalam batubara.
Dalam analisis ultimat, terutama hanya total sulfur yang dianalisis.
Untuk power plant, total sulfur tidak melebihi 0.8-1.0% (air-dried)
Nilai maksimum yang diperbolehkan bergantung pada peraturan emisi
daerah setempat.
Pada industri semen total sulfur sampai 2.0% (a.d.)
Coking coal --- maksimum 0.8%, karena kalau melebihi akan
mempengaruhi kualitas baja.

Kualitas Batubara

Oksigen
Indikator penting dalam peringkat batubara.
Dihitung dengan mengurangi jumlah elemen lain,
yakni karbon, hidrogen, nitrogen, dan sulphur dari
nilai 100%.

Boron
Indeks yang berguna untuk penunjuk paleosalinity
kondisi lingkungan pengendapan batubara.
Lead, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, dan mercury
berkaitan dengan dampak lingkungan hidup.

Kualitas Batubara- Proximate Analysis


Proximate Analysis
Includes:
Moisture (FM, TM, IM),
Volatile Matter (VM),
Fixed Carbon (FC),
Ash,
Calorific Value/Specific Energy (CV).
Moisture:
one of the contaminants of coal;
consists of free or surface moisture (FM) that can be removed by exposuring to air;
inherent moisture (IM) can be removed by heating at 220o F.
Commonly, moisture values are residual moisture, and is named as determined basis
(adb) moisture, because these are determined on air-dried coal samples.
The moisture content is a good indicator of rank of brown- and sub-bituminous coal stages;
increases with increasing depth.
Porosity is the main factor controlling the degree of moisture content.
A decrease of moisture content occurs, a corresponding rise in calorific value is noted.
In tropical and warm temperate climates, difficulties in sample preparation of coal for moisture
analysis occur, because the moisture can be rapidly released from the coal.

Kualitas Batubara- Proximate Analysis

Matter (VM):
Volatile
removed when coal is heated in the absence of air.
released from the organic compounds during heating or
combustion of coal
comprises HC and N gases, and vapour.
yield from a whole coal sample is very useful information,
particularly on coal type analysis.
VM = 100 (%) (M+VM+Ash)
Type of coal rich in exinite produces more VM than the exinitepoor one.
Fixed carbon (FC):
stable solid carbon compound or char other than ash,
Obtained upon combustion of coal in absence of oxygen after
the removal of moisture and VM.
FC is used as an index of the yield of coke expected from a
coal on carbonization.
May be an index of coal rank and a parameter in coal
classification.
Amount of FC is inversely proportional to VM (Diessel (1992).

Kualitas Batubara- Proximate Analysis

Calorific Value (CV) or Specific Energy:


quantity of the heat unit released when 1 kg-weight of coal is
completely burned in oxygen under standard pressure or volume.
Heating value of coal can be used as a measure of the rank of coal,
related to coal type (Cook and Kantsler, 1982).
Ash:
an inorganic residue consisting of non-combustible mineral matter in
coal, when coal is completely burned.
Represent the bulk of MM in coal, after volatile components have been
released.
Graese et al. (1992) categorized ash in coal:
(1) Very high (15 20%);
(2) High (10 15%);
(3) Moderate (5 10%); and
(4) Low (< 5%).
Chemical composition of coal ash is directly related to the composition
on minerals contained in coal.

Kualitas Batubara- Ultimate Analysis

Sulphur:
high content is associated with marin influence in coal
measures.
Majority of sulphur in coal belongs to MM in inorganic
forms.
Inorganic sulphur occurs as various types of iron
sulphides, mainly pyrite present as the most common
iron-bearing mineral in coal.
Sulphur is the most harmful impurity of coal in industrial
use and in its environmental implications.
It occurs as possible sources of pollution during the
combustion of coal (Swaine, 1982).
High sulphur coal is a major source of anthropogenic
sulphur oxide emissions, leading to the contribution of
acid rain.

Kualitas Batubara- Trace Elements (Unsur Jejak)

Trace Elements
From the viewpoint of environmental considerations, certain kinds
and concentration of trace elements produce :
potential environmental hazards,
affecting humans, animals, and plants.

Swaine (1982) considered that elements, which ultimately were


recognized in
fly-ash,
}
Bottom ash
} led to the subsequent deposition of
very fine ash, and
} dry matter and precipitation with rain.
reached atmosphere, }
trace element should be considered during mining, preparation,
and storage of coal.
t is necessary to find out the concentration of certain trace
elements in coal prior to its use.
As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb have to be taken into consideration, because
they are of primary environmental significance.
Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Th, U, V, and Zn are related to potential interest,
but they could be also of presumed environmental significance.

Kualitas Batubara- Trace Elements

Arsenic (As)
Predominantly found in coal fractures and micro-fractures of
pyrite.
Coal containing As of < 80 ppm is usually used for power plant.
Swaine (1982) considered that some checks should be made on
the arsenic contents of fly-ash applied to soil, and on leachates
from fly-ash dump associated with power plants.

Boron (B)
A selective entrapment of B from marine water leads to its
formation as organic affinity in coal.
However, high content of B is also due to hydrothermal activity.
B is the only geochemical indicator which is consistently sensitive
to varying degrees of salinity.
Lyons et al. (1989) considered that B is an indicative of
paleosalinity, and it shows a significant enrichment in sea water
(Diessel, 1992).
Coal ash with B concentration between 210 16210 pp, may be
useful for agricultural purposes (Michailova and Gladkaya, 1980).

Kualitas Batubara- Trace Elements

Cadmium (Cd)
Cd in coal is of primary environmental significance, because of
its harmful effects in areas contaminated by industrial wastes
containing Cd (Swaine, 1982).

Copper (Cu)
Some environmental and health problems could occur in coal
containing a high Cu.
Cu can be classified as of moderate concern in
environmental and health significance.
Molybdenum (Mo)
Mo as MoS2 has been precipitated under reducing conditions
in coal swamps.
Mo is the best marker for lacustrine deposition (Teschner and
Wehner, 1991).
Environmentally, an excess o Mo concentration may harm
animal, causing molybdenosis in sheep and cattle.

Kualitas Batubara- Trace Elements

Vanadium (V)
V solubility is strongly pH dependent;
an increase in the solubility is due to increasing pH
of the water.
A high level of V concentration (> 214 ppm) leads
to possible corrosion during utilization and also to
health problems.

Zircon (Zr)
Zn is less prominent in lacustrine environment in
comparison to fluvial one.
The element provides the most suitable criteria for
distinction between fluvial and lacustrine
carbonaceous rocks (Dill et al., 1991).