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FLUID PROPERTIES AND

UNIT SYSTEM

OBJECTIVES
This chapter is develop to help students
achieve the following:
- Knowing the unit used in fluid mechanics.
- Define the main fundamental fluid
properties and its application.
- Solve the simple problems related to fluid
mechanics.

LEARNING OUTCOME
On completion of this chapter, student should be able
to do the following:
- List and define the system of units and fluid
properties of liquid.
- Understand fluid properties i.e mass, density,
relative density, specific weight, dynamic viscosity
and kinematic viscosity.
- Solves simple problem related with systems
of unit and fluid properties.

SUB TOPIC

PART 1
SYSTEMS OF UNITS

SYSTEM OF UNITS
As any quantity can be expressed in
whatever way.
It is sometimes easy to become confused
as to what exactly or how much is being
referred to.
In example :
America SI
British BS
To avoid any confusion on this course, SI
(metric) system will be use.
However, the conversion unit for basic
quantities must also be known.

DIFFERENT : SI & BS UNITS


Quantity
SI Unit
Length
Meter, m
Mass
Kilogram, kg
Temperature
Kelvin, 0K
Force
Newton, N

BS Unit
Feet, ft
Pound, lb
Fahrenheit, 0F
Pound Force, lbf

SYSTEMS OF UNITS

PRIMARY UNITS

Quantity

SI Unit

Dimension

Length

Meter, m

Mass

Kilogram, kg

Time

Second, s

Temperature

Kelvin, K

Current

Ampere, A

Luminosity

Candela

Cd

DERIVED UNITS

CONVERSION FACTORS

CONT.

EXERCISE

Reference
B. R Munson, D. F Young, T H. Okiishi,
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, John
Wiley, 2002

Chapter 1, page 32 & 33


Question 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17 & 1.18

ANSWER
1.14
1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18

PART II
PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS

FLUIDS

Fluids lack the


ability of solids
to resist
deformation

Fluids change
shape as long
as a force acts

A Fluid is a substance which deforms


continuously, or flows, when subjected
to shearing forces
If a fluid is at rest there are no
shearing forces acting.
All forces must be perpendicular to
the planes which they are acting

VELOCITY PROFILE
VELOCITY PROFILE IN A PIPE
- Consider a fluid flowing near a

velocity gradient =du


dy

wall.
- Fluid next to the wall will have
zero velocity
- Moving away from the wall
velocity increases to a
maximum

UNIFORM FLOW
No
velocity,
no shear
forces

Newton's Law of Viscosity

In a solid shear strain, , is constant


for a fixed shear stress , .
In a fluid increases for as long as
is applied - the fluid flows

The deformation which this shear stress causes


is
measured by the size of the angle and is
know as
shear strain
Rate
ofstrain
shear, strain
= x/y
/t
Shear

= x/yt
= (1/y)(x/t)
= u/y
(note that x/t = is the velocity of the particle
at E)
So,

= constant (u/y)

and
u/y
= change in velocity with
distance , y
= du/dy (velocity gradient)
also
constant

= dynamic viscosity,

=(du/dy)
Newtons law of viscosity

NEWTONIAN FLUIDS

Fluids obeying Newtons law


= (du/dy)

CAUSES OF VICOSITY IN
FLUIDS
There is some molecular interchange
between layers in liquids- but the cohesive
forces are also important.
Increases temperature of a fluid reduces
the cohesive forces and increases the
molecular interchange.

PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS
Density
Mass Density
Specific Weight
Dynamic Viscosity
Kinematic Viscosity
Surface Tension
Vapour Pressure and Capillary

DENSITY

Defination : mass per unit volume


Simbol
:
Formula : = m/V
Units
: kgm-3
Dimensions : ML-3
Typical values :
Water
: 1000 kgm-3
Mercury : 13546 kgm-3
Air
: 1.23 kgm-3
Paraffin Oil : 800 kgm-3

SPECIFIC WEIGHT

Defination : weight per unit volume


Simbol
:
Formula : = g
Units
: kgm-2s-2
Dimensions : ML-2T-2
Typical values :
Water
: 9814 kgm-2s-2
Mercury : 132943 kgm-2s-2
Air
: 12.07 kgm-2s-2
Paraffin Oil : 7851 kgm-2s-2

RELATIVE DENSITY

Defination : Ratio of mass density to


some standard mass density
Simbol
:
Formula : = substance / water
Units
: None
Typical values :
Water
: 1
Mercury : 13.5
Air
: 1.23 x 10-3
Paraffin Oil : 0.8

DYNAMIC VISCOSITY

Defination : shear force per unit area


Simbol
:
Formula : = / (du/dy)
Units
: kgm-1s-1
Dimensions : ML-1T-1
Typical values :
Water
: 1.14 x 10-3 kgm-1s-1
Mercury : 1.552 kgm-1s-1
Air
: 1.78 x 10-5 kgm-1s-1
Paraffin Oil : 1.9 kgm-1s-1

KINEMATIC VISCOSITY

Defination:
ratio of dynamic viscosity to mass density
Simbol :
Formula : = /
Units
: m2s-1
Dimensions: L2T-1
Typical values:
Water
: 1.14 x 10-6 m2s-1
Mercury : 1.145 x 10-4 m2s-1
Air
: 1.46 x 10-5 m2 s-1
Paraffin Oil : 2.375 x 10-3 m2s-1

SURFACE TENSION
It is caused by forces between fluid
molecules are unstable at the surface of
the fluid.
This imbalance will cause the surface of
the fluid acts as a "skin" or "membrane"
This nature can cause razor blades floating
on the surface of the fluid.

CAPILLARY EFFECT
It is also due to the forces between fluid
molecules are unstable at the surface of
the fluid.
This will cause the surface of fluid to be in
converge or diverge shape.

THANK YOU

ngan batu
tersebut
QUIZ 1
ersebut.
5.6m
1) Diberi ketumpatan minyak 855kg/m3. Tentukan nilai ketumpatan
bandingan dan kelikatan kinematik minyak ini jika kelikatan dinamiknya
adalah 5 x 10-3 N.s/m2.
2) Sejenis cecair mempunyai jisim 4 Mg dan isipadu 3200 liter, tentukan:
1) Berat
2) Ketumpatan
3) Ketumpatan bandingan
4) Berat tentu

00 N.Tentukan
patan bandinganny
3) Sejenis cecair dimasukkan penuh ke dalam bekas. Seketul logam
bebentuk kiub mempunyai sisi 0.5m dimasukkan ke dalam bekas
tersebut. Jisim air yang melimpah keluar ialah 50 kg. dapatkan berat
tentu cecair tersebut.
4) Berat sejenis cecair yang berisipadu 4.8m3 ialah 30kN. Kirakan,
1) Ketumpatan cecair
2) Ketumpatan bandingan cecair tersebut

EXAMPLE
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example

1
2
3
4
5
6

EXERCISE

Reference
B. R Munson, D. F Young, T H. Okiishi,
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, John
Wiley, 2002

Chap 1, page 32 & 33


Question 1.24, 1.25, 1.28, 1.32 & 1.40

ANSWER
1.24
1.25
1.28
1.32
1.40

VISCOUS FLUIDS
The behavior of a flowing fluid depends on
various fluid properties. Viscosity, one of
the important properties, is responsible for
the shear force produced in a moving fluid.
Although the two fluids shown look alike
(both are clear liquids and have a specific
gravity of 1), they behave very differently
when set into motion. The very viscous
silicone oil is approximately 10,000 times
more viscous than the water.

NO-SLIP CONDITION
As a fluid flows near a solid surface, it
"sticks" to the surface, i.e., the fluid
matches the velocity of the surface. This
so-called "no-slip" condition is a very
important one that must be satisfied in
any accurate analysis of fluid flow
phenomena.
Dye injected at the bottom of a channel
through which water is flowing forms a
stagnant layer near the bottom due to the
noslip condition. As the dye filament is
moved
away from the bottom, the motion of the

Video 3 - CAPILLARY TUBE


VISCOMETER
Most devices (called viscometers) used to
determine viscosity do not measure it
directly, but instead measure some
characteristic with a known relationship to
viscosity.
The capillary tube viscometer involves the
laminar flow of a fixed volume of fluid
through a capillary tube. The time required
for the fluid to pass through the tube is a
measure of the kinematic viscosity of the
fluid. As shown with the four tubes, the
drain times can vary depending on the
viscosity of the fluid and the diameter of

NON-NEWTONIAN
BEHAVIOR
Fluids for which shearing stress is not
linearly related to the rate of shearing
strain are designated as non-Newtonian
fluids.
A mixture of water and corn starch, when
placed on a flat surface, flows as a thick,
viscous fluid. However, when the mixture
is rapidly disturbed, it appears to fracture
and behave more like a solid. The mixture
is a non-Newtonian shear thickening fluid
which becomes more viscous as the
shearing rate is suddenly increased

FLOATING RAZOR BLADE


Surface tension forces exist at liquid/gas or
liquid/solid interfaces. Although these
forces are relatively small, they are quite
important in many situations.
A heavier-than-water, double-edged steel
razor blade can float on water. Without
surface tension, the blade would sink
because its weight is greater than its
buoyant force.
However, surface tension forces are not
large enough to support a slightly heavier