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Introduction to Research

Research

Methods

www.wiley.com/college/sekaran

Business

Chapter 1

Research

Methods

www.wiley.com/college/sekaran

Business research: an organized and

systematic inquiry or investigation

into a specific problem, undertaken

with the purpose of finding answers

or solutions to it.

Research

Methods

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Basic research: generates a body

of

knowledge

by

trying

to

comprehend how certain problems

that occur in organizations can be

solved.

Applied research: solves a current

problem faced by the manager in the

work setting, demanding a timely

solution.

Research

Methods

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years, helping to increase sales from $5 billion in 2001

to $32 billion in the fiscal year 2008. Growth for the

music player averaged more than 200% in 2006 and

2007, before falling to 6% in 2008. Some analysts

believe that the number of iPods sold will drop 12% in

2009. The reality is theres a limited group of people

who want an iPod or any other portable media player,

one analyst says. So the question becomes, what will

Apple do about it?

has had so many breakdowns that production has

suffered. Machinery has to be replaced. Because of

heavy investment costs, a careful recommendation as

to whether it is more beneficial to buy the equipment

Research or to lease it is needed.

2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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Methods

Business

Absenteeism

Communication

Motivation

Consumer decision making

Customer satisfaction

Budget allocations

Accounting procedures

Research

Methods

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research

Being knowledgeable about research and

research methods helps professional managers

to:

Identify and effectively solve minor problems in the work

setting.

Know how to discriminate good from bad research.

Appreciate the multiple influences and effects of factors

impinging on a situation.

Take calculated risks in decision making.

Prevent possible vested interests from exercising their

influence in a situation.

Relate to hired researchers and consultants more

effectively.

Combine experience with scientific knowledge while

Research making decisions.

2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Methods

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The ManagerResearcher

Relationship

Trust levels

Value system

Acceptance of findings and

implementation

Issues of inside versus outside

researchers/consultants

Research

Methods

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Internal Researchers

Advantages:

Better acceptance from staff

Knowledge about organization

Would be an integral part of implementation

and evaluation of the research

recommendations.

Disadvantages

Less fresh ideas

Power politics could prevail

Possibly not valued as expert by staff

Research

Methods

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External Researchers

Advantages

Divergent and convergent thinking

Experience from several situations in different

organizations

Better technical training, usually

Disadvantages

Takes time to know and understand the

organization

Rapport and cooperation from staff not easy

Not available for evaluation and implementation

Costs

Research

Methods

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Chapter 2

Scientific Investigation

Research

Methods

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Hallmarks of scientific

research:

Hallmarks or main distinguishing

characteristics of scientific research:

Purposiveness

Rigor

Testability

Replicability

Precision and Confidence

Objectivity

Generalizability

Parsimony

Research

Methods

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Hypothetico-Deductive

Research

The Seven-Step Process in the

Hypothetico-Deductive Method

Identify a broad problem area

Define the problem statement

Develop hypotheses

Determine measures

Data collection

Data analysis

Interpretation of data

Research

Methods

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Deductive reasoning: application of a

general theory to a specific case.

Hypothesis testing

we observe specific phenomena and on

this basis arrive at general conclusions.

Counting white swans

are often used in research.

Research

Methods

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Chapter 3

Introduction to Research

The Research Process - The Broad

Problem Area and Defining the

Problem Statement

Research

Methods

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Examples of broad problem areas that a

manager could observe at the workplace :

anticipated.

The sales volume of a product is not picking up.

Minority group members are not advancing in

their careers.

The newly installed information system is not

being used by the managers for whom it was

primarily designed.

The introduction of flexible work hours has

created more problems than it has solved in

many companies.

Research

Methods

16

Preliminary Information

Gathering

Nature of information to be

gathered:

Background information of the

organization.

Prevailing knowledge on the topic.

Research

Methods

17

Literature

Helps the researcher to:

Structure research on work already done

Develop problem statement with

precision and clarity

research projects

Research

Methods

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A literature review is the selection of

available documents (both published and

unpublished) on the topic, which contain

information, ideas, data and evidence

written from a particular standpoint to fulfill

certain aims or express certain views on the

nature of the topic and how it is to be

investigated, and the effective evaluation of

these documents in relation to the research

being proposed (Hart, 1998, p. 13).

Research

Methods

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One does reinvent the wheel

Look at a problem from a specific angle

Find out what variables are important to consider

Introduce relevant terminology/provide

definitions

Provide arguments for the relationships variables

Testability and replicability are enhanced.

Research findings are related to findings of

others.

Research

Methods

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Data sources

Textbooks

Academic and professional journals

Theses

Conference proceedings

Unpublished manuscripts

Reports of government departments and

corporations

Newspapers

The Internet

Research

Methods

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Most libraries have the following

electronic resources at their disposal:

Electronic journals

Full-text databases

Bibliographic databases

Abstract databases

Research

Methods

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Titles

Abstract

Table of contents/first chapter book

Number of citations

Research

Methods

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Review

Literature review introduces

Subject study

Highlights the problem

Summarizes work done so far

Research

Methods

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Research objective: why of the research

Research objective applied research:

to change something.

Example:

to the organization;

decrease turnover, absenteeism and increase

performance levels.

Research

Methods

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Example

The purpose of this study is twofold:

1. to identify the factors that influence

the passengers waiting experience

and

2. to investigate the possible impact of

waiting on customer satisfaction and

service evaluations.

Research

Methods

Research questions:

Translates problem into a specific need for information

Research questions:

If objective is unclear we will not be able to formulate research

questions

Example:

What are the factors that affect the perceived waiting experience of

airline passengers

To what extent do these factors affect the perception of waiting times?

What are the affective consequences of waiting

How does affect mediate the relationship between waiting and service

evaluations?

How do situational variables (such as filled time) influence customer

reactions to the waiting experience?

Research

Methods

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Relevant

for the organization

Feasible

you are able to answer the research

questions within the restrictions of the

research project.

Interesting

to you!

Research

Methods

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The research proposal drawn up by

the investigator is the result of a

planned, organized, and careful

effort.

Research

Methods

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(1)

Working title.

Background of the study.

The problem statement.

- The purpose of the study.

- Research questions.

The scope of the study.

The relevance of the study.

Research

Methods

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Research Proposal

contains (2)

The research design offering details on:

a. Type of study

b. Data collection methods

c. The sampling design.

d. Data analysis.

Time frame of the study

Budget

Selected bibliography.

Research

Methods

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Chapter 4

Theoretical

Framework &

Hypothesis

Development

Research

Methods

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32

Theoretical framework

Foundation deductive research project!

Deductive research: moving from the general (a

theory) to the specific (observations).

Research

Methods

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Theoretical Framework

A theoretical framework represents

your beliefs on how certain

phenomena (or variables or

concepts) are related to each other

(a model) and an explanation on why

you believe that these variables are

associated to each other (a theory).

Research

Methods

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Theoretical framework

Basic steps:

Identify and label the variables

correctly

State the relationships among the

variables: formulate hypotheses

Explain how or why you expect

these relationships

Research

Methods

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Variable

varies or changes in value

Research

Methods

Dependent variable

Independent variable

Moderating variable

Mediating variable

2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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(In)dependent variables

Dependent variable (DV)

Is of primary interest to the researcher.

The goal of the research project is to

understand, predict or explain the

variability of this variable.

Influences the DV in either positive or

negative way. The variance in the DV is

accounted for by the IV.

Research

Methods

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Example

Research

Methods

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Moderators

Moderating variable

Moderator is qualitative (e.g., gender,

race, class) or quantitative (e.g., level of

reward) variable that affects the direction

and/or strength of relation between

independent and dependent variable.

Research

Methods

Mediating variable

Mediating variable

surfaces between the time the

independent variables start operating

to influence the dependent variable and

the time their impact is felt on it.

Research

Methods

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Hypothesis

is an empirical statement concerned with

the relationship among variables.

Good hypothesis:

Must be testable

Must be better than its rivals

Can be:

Directional

Non-directional

Research

Methods

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Exercise

Give the hypotheses for the following framework:

Customer

switching

Service

quality

Switching

cost

Research

Methods

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Exercise

Give the hypotheses for the following framework:

Service

quality

Research

Methods

Customer

satisfaction

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Customer

switching

Argumentation

hypotheses are an integration of:

Exploratory research

Common sense and logical reasoning

Research

Methods

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Chapter 5

Elements of Research

Design

Research

Methods

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45

Research Design

Research

Methods

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Exploratory

Descriptive

Causal

Research

Methods

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Exploratory study:

is undertaken when not much is known

about the situation at hand, or no

information is available on how similar

problems or research issues have been

solved in the past.

Example:

A service provider wants to know why

his customers are switching to other

service providers?

Research

Methods

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Descriptive study:

is undertaken in order to ascertain and be able to

describe the characteristics of the variables of interest in

a situation.

Example:

A bank manager wants to have a profile of the

individuals who have loan payments outstanding for 6

months and more. It would include details of their

average age, earnings, nature of occupation, fulltime/part-time employment status, and the like. This

might help him to elicit further information or decide

right away on the types of individuals who should be

made ineligible for loans in the future.

Research

Methods

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Causal study:

Delineating one or more factors that are

causing the problem.

Example:

A marketing manager wants to know if

the sales of the company will increase if

he increases the advertising budget.

Research

Methods

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Extent of Researcher

Interference

Minimal interference

Moderate interference

Excessive interference

Research

Methods

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Study Setting

Contrived: artificial setting

Non-contrived: the natural

environment where work proceeds

normally

Research

Methods

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Research Strategies

Experiments

Survey Research

Observation

Case studies

Grounded theory

Action research

Mixed Methods

Research

Methods

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Population to be studied

Unit of analysis:

Individuals

Dyads

Groups

Organizations

Cultures

Research

Methods

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Time Horizon

Cross-sectional studies

Snapshot of constructs at a single point in time

Use of representative sample

Constructs measured at multiple points in time

Use of different sample

Longitudinal studies

Constructs measured at multiple points in time

Use of same sample = a true panel

Research

Methods

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Chapter 6

Measurement of

Variables: Operational

Definition

Research

Methods

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56

Measurement

Measurement: the assignment of

numbers or other symbols to

characteristics (or attributes) of

objects according to a pre-specified

set of rules.

Research

Methods

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Objects include persons, strategic

business units, companies, countries,

kitchen appliances, restaurants, shampoo,

yogurt and so on.

Examples of characteristics of objects are

arousal seeking tendency, achievement

motivation, organizational effectiveness,

shopping enjoyment, length, weight,

ethnic diversity, service quality,

conditioning effects and taste.

Research

Methods

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Types of Variables

Two types of variables:

One lends itself to objective and precise

measurement;

The other is more nebulous and does

not lend itself to accurate measurement

because of its abstract and subjective

nature.

Research

Methods

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Operationalizing Concepts

Operationalizing concepts: reduction

of abstract concepts to render them

measurable in a tangible way.

Operationalizing is done by looking

at the behavioral dimensions, facets,

or properties denoted by the

concept.

Research

Methods

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Example

Research

Methods

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Chapter 7

Measurement of

Variables: Scaling,

Reliability, Validity

Research

Methods

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62

Scale

Scale: tool or mechanism by which

individuals are distinguished as to

how they differ from one another on

the variables of interest to our study.

Research

Methods

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Nominal Scale

subjects to certain categories or groups.

O Marketing

O Maintenance

O Production

O Servicing

O Sales

O Public Relations

O Finance

O Personnel

O Accounting

O Male

O Female

Research

Methods

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Nominal Scale

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Methods

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Ordinal Scale

Ordinal scale: not only categorizes variables in

such a way as to denote differences among

various categories, it also rank-orders categories

in some meaningful way.

What is the highest level of education you have

completed?

O Less than High School

O High School/GED Equivalent

O College Degree

O Masters Degree

O Doctoral Degree

Research

Methods

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Ordinal Scale

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Methods

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Interval Scale

Interval scale: whereas the nominal

scale allows us only to qualitatively

distinguish groups by categorizing

them into mutually exclusive and

collectively exhaustive sets, and the

ordinal scale to rank-order the

preferences, the interval scale lets us

measure the distance between any

two points on the scale.

Research

Methods

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Interval scale

moment best. There are no right or wrong answers. Please answer

every question.

I disagree completely

I agree completely

I disagree completely

I agree completely

3. For the efforts I put into the organization, I get much in return

I disagree completely

Research

Methods

I agree completely

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Interval scale

Research

Methods

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Ratio Scale

Ratio scale: overcomes the

disadvantage of the arbitrary origin

point of the interval scale, in that it

has an absolute (in contrast to an

arbitrary) zero point, which is a

meaningful measurement point.

What is your age?

Research

Methods

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Ratio Scale

Research

Methods

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Insert Table 12.1 here

Research

Methods

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Goodness of Measures

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Methods

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Validity

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Methods

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Reliability

Reliability of measure indicates

extent to which it is without bias and

hence ensures consistent

measurement across time (stability)

and across the various items in the

instrument (internal consistency).

Research

Methods

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Stability

Stability: ability of a measure to

remain the same over time, despite

uncontrollable testing conditions or

the state of the respondents

themselves.

TestRetest Reliability: The reliability

coefficient obtained with a repetition of

the same measure on a second

occasion.

Parallel-Form Reliability: Responses on

two comparable sets of measures

Research

2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

tapping

the

same construct are highly

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Methods

Internal Consistency

Internal Consistency of Measures is

indicative of the homogeneity of the items

in the measure that tap the construct.

Interitem Consistency Reliability: This is a test

of the consistency of respondents answers to

all the items in a measure. The most popular

test of interitem consistency reliability is the

Cronbachs coefficient alpha.

Split-Half Reliability: Split-half reliability

reflects the correlations between two halves of

an instrument.

Research

Methods

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Chapter 8

Data Collection

Methods: Introduction

and Interviews

Research

Methods

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79

Sources of Data

Primary data: information obtained firsthand by

the researcher on the variables of interest for the

specific purpose of the study.

Examples: individuals, focus groups, panels

Secondary data: information gathered from

sources already existing.

Examples: company records or archives,

government publications, industry analyses

offered by the media, web sites, the Internet, and

so on.

Research

Methods

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Interviews

Unstructured interviews:

the interviewer does not enter the interview

setting with a planned sequence of questions to

be asked of the respondent.

Structured interviews:

Conducted when it is known at the outset what

information is needed.

The interviewer has a list of predetermined

questions to be asked of the respondents either

personally, through the telephone, or via the

computer.

Research

Methods

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Personal interview

Advantages

Can pick up non-verbal cues

Relatively high response/cooperation

Special visual aids and scoring devises can be used

Disadvantages

Research

Methods

Geographical limitations

Response bias / Confidentiality difficult to be assured

Some respondents are unwilling to talk to strangers

Trained interviewers

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Telephone interview

Advantages

Discomfort of face to face is avoided

Faster / Number of calls per day could be high

Lower cost

Disadvantages

Interview length must be limited

Low response rate

No facial expressions

Research

Methods

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Self-administered

Advantages

Expanded geographical coverage

Requires minimal staff

Perceived as more anonymous

Disadvantages

Research

Methods

No interviewer intervention possible for clarification

Cannot be too long or complex

Incomplete surveys

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Projective Methods

Word association techniques:

Asking the respondent to quickly associate a word

with the first thing that comes to mind.

Often used to get at true attitudes and feelings.

Call for respondent to weave a story around a

picture that is shown.

To trace patterns and personality characteristics of

respondents.

Inkblot tests:

Form of motivational research, uses colored inkblots

that are interpreted by respondents.

Research

Methods

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Data Collection

Methods: Observation

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Methods

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86

Observation

Observation involves going into the

field, - the factory, the supermarket,

the waiting room, the office, or the

trading room - watching what

workers, consumers, or day traders

do, and describing, analyzing, and

interpreting what one has seen.

Research

Methods

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Examples

Shadowing a Wall Street broker engaged

in his daily routine.

Observing in-store shopping behavior of

consumers via a camera.

Sitting in the corner of an office to observe

how a merchant bank trader operates.

Working in a plant to study factory life.

Studying the approach skills of sales

people disguised as a shopper.

Research

Methods

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of observation

Controlled versus Uncontrolled

Observational Studies

Participant versus Non-Participant

Observation

Structured versus Unstructured

Observational Studies

Concealed versus Unconcealed

observation

Research

Methods

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Participant Observation

The participatory aspect:

Complete participation

Moderate participation

Active participation

Research

Methods

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Participant Observation

The observation aspect

Obtaining permission

Finding a sponsor

Establishing rapport

Research

Methods

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What to observe?

Descriptive observation stage:

Space

Objects

Actors

Feelings

Events

Spradly, 1980

Research

Methods

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What to observe?

Focused and selective observation stage:

Look for a story line

Sort out regular from irregular activities

Look for variation in the storyline

Look for negative cases or exceptions

Develop a plan for systematic observation if

needed

DeWalt and DeWalt, 2002

Research

Methods

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Structured observation

Looks selectively at predetermined

phenomena

Different levels of structure

Research

Methods

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Coding schemes

Focus

Objective

Ease of use

Mutually exclusive and collectively

exhaustive

Research

Methods

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Simple checklist

Sequence record

Sequence record on time scale

Research

Methods

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Data Collection

Methods:

Questionnaires

Research

Methods

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97

Questionnaire Design

Definition

A questionnaire is a pre-formulated, written set of

questions to which the respondent records his

answers

Research

Methods

Steps

1. Determine the content of the

questionnaire

2. Determine the form of response

3. Determine the wording of the questions

4. Determine the question sequence

5. Write cover letter

2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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1. Questionnaire content

Framework

Need information for all constructs in

framework

Measurement: Operationalizing

Objective construct:

1 element/items

=> 1 question

Subjective construct:

multiple elements/items

=> multiple questions

Research

Methods

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2. Response format

Closed vs. Open-ended questions

Closed questions

Helps respondents to make quick

decisions

Helps researchers to code

Open-ended question

First: unbiased point of view

Final: additional insights

Complementary to closed question: for

interpretation purpose

Cfr.

Measurement:

Response

scales

Research

Methods

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3. Question wording

Avoid double-barreled questions

Avoid ambiguous questions and words

Use of ordinary words

Avoid leading or biasing questions

Social desirability

Avoid recall depended questions

Research

Methods

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Question wording

Use positive and negative statements

Dresdner delivers high quality banking service

Dresdner has poor customer operational support

Avoid double negatives

Rules of thumb:

< 20 words

< one full line in print

Research

Methods

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4. Question sequence

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5. Cover letter

The cover letter is the introductory

page of the questionnaire

It includes:

Identification of the researcher

Motivation for respondents to fill it in

Confidentiality

Thanking of the respondent

Research

Methods

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Chapter 9

Sampling

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105

Sampling

Sampling: the process of selecting a sufficient

number of elements from the population, so

that results from analyzing the sample are

generalizable to the population.

Research

Methods

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Relevant Terms - 1

Population refers to the entire group of

people, events, or things of interest that

the researcher wishes to investigate.

An element is a single member of the

population.

A sample is a subset of the population. It

comprises some members selected from it.

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Relevant Terms - 2

Sampling unit: the element or set of

elements that is available for

selection in some stage of the

sampling process.

A subject is a single member of the

sample, just as an element is a single

member of the population.

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Methods

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Relevant Terms - 3

The characteristics of the population such

as (the population mean), (the

population standard deviation), and 2

(the population variance) are referred to

as its parameters. The central tendencies,

the dispersions, and other statistics in the

sample of interest to the research are

treated as approximations of the central

tendencies, dispersions, and other

parameters of the population.

Research

Methods

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Research

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Advantages of Sampling

Less costs

Less errors due to less fatigue

Less time

Destruction of elements avoided

Research

Methods

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Major steps in sampling:

Define the population.

Determine the sample frame

Determine the sampling design

Determine the appropriate sample

size

Execute the sampling process

Research

Methods

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Sampling Techniques

Probability versus nonprobability

sampling

Probability sampling: elements in

the population have a known and

non-zero chance of being chosen

Research

Methods

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Sampling Techniques

Probability Sampling

Simple Random Sampling

Systematic Sampling

Stratified Random Sampling

Cluster Sampling

Nonprobability Sampling

Convenience Sampling

Judgment Sampling

Quota Sampling

Research

Methods

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Procedure

selected

Characteristics

Research

Methods

Highly generalizable

Easily understood

Reliable population frame necessary

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Systematic sampling

Procedure

element between 1 and n

Characteristics

Research

Methods

Easier than simple random sampling

Systematic biases when elements are not randomly

listed

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Cluster sampling

Procedure

Random selection of clusters

Include all elements from selected clusters

Characteristics

Research

Methods

Intercluster homogeneity

Intracluster heterogeneity

Easy and cost efficient

Low correspondence with reality

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Stratified sampling

Procedure

Include all strata

Random selection of elements from strata

Proportionate

Disproportionate

Characteristics

Research

Methods

Interstrata heterogeneity

Intrastratum homogeneity

Includes all relevant subpopulations

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Number of subjects in total sample is allocated

among the strata (dis)proportional to the relative

number of elements in each stratum in the

population

Disproportionate case:

strata exhibiting more variability are sampled more than

proportional to their relative size

requires more knowledge of the population, not just

relative sizes of strata

Research

Methods

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Example

Research

Methods

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Overview

Research

Methods

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Methods

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We can increase both confidence and precision by

increasing the sample size

Research

Methods

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In general:

Categories:

30 per subcategory

Multivariate:

10 x number of vars

Experiments:

condition

15 to 20 per

Research

Methods

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Research

Methods

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Chapter 10

Quantitative Data

Analysis

Research

Methods

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126

Analysis

Data coding: assigning a number to

the participants responses so they

can be entered into a database.

Data Entry: after responses have

been coded, they can be entered into

a database. Raw data can be entered

through any software program (e.g.,

SPSS)

Research

Methods

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Editing Data

An example of an illogical response is an outlier

response. An outlier is an observation that is

substantially different from the other

observations.

Inconsistent responses are responses that are not

in harmony with other information.

Illegal codes are values that are not specified in

the coding instructions.

Research

Methods

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Transforming Data

Research

Methods

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Methods

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Frequencies

Research

Methods

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Tendencies and Dispersions

Research

Methods

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Reliability Analysis

Research

Methods

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Chapter 11

Quantitative Data

Analysis: Hypothesis

Testing

Research

Methods

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134

Statistical Power

Type I error (): the probability of

rejecting the null hypothesis when it

is actually true.

Type II error (): the probability of

failing to reject the null hypothesis

given that the alternative hypothesis

is actually true.

Statistical power (1 - ): the

probability of correctly rejecting the

Research

Methods

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Technique

Research

Methods

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Mean

One sample t-test: statistical

technique that is used to test the

hypothesis that the mean of the

population from which a sample is

drawn is equal to a comparison

standard.

Research

Methods

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Related Means

Paired samples t-test: examines

differences in same group before and after

a treatment.

The Wilcoxon signed-rank test: a nonparametric test for examining significant

differences between two related samples

or repeated measurements on a single

sample. Used as an alternative for a paired

samples t-test when the population cannot

be assumed to be normally distributed.

Research

Methods

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Related Means - 2

McNemar's test: non-parametric

method used on nominal data. It

assesses the significance of the

difference between two dependent

samples when the variable of interest

is dichotomous. It is used primarily in

before-after studies to test for an

experimental effect.

Research

Methods

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Unrelated Means

Independent samples t-test: is done

to see if there are any significant

differences in the means for two

groups in the variable of interest.

Research

Methods

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Means

ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA) helps

to examine the significant mean

differences among more than two

groups on an interval or ratio-scaled

dependent variable.

Research

Methods

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Regression Analysis

Simple regression analysis is used in

a situation where one metric

independent variable is hypothesized

to affect one metric dependent

variable.

Research

Methods

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18

00

6

0

4

0

20304050P

6_

0A

708090

H

Y

S

TR

LKH

D

_A

TE

Scatter plot

Research

Methods

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Yi 0 1 X i i

Y

0

`0

Research

Methods

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n

Minimize

2

i

i 1

Yi

Yi

ei

Xi

Research

Methods

www.wiley.com/college/sekaran

SPSS

Analyze Regression Linear

Model Summary

Model

1

R

.841

R Square

.707

Adjusted

R Square

.704

Std. Error of

the Estimate

5.919

ANOVA

Model

1

Research

Methods

Regression

Residual

Total

Sum of

Squares

8195.319

3398.640

11593.960

df

1

97

98

M ean Square

8195.319

35.038

www.wiley.com/college/sekaran

F

233.901

Sig.

.000

SPSS

contd

Coefficients

Model

1

Research

Methods

(Constant)

PHYS_ATTR

Unstandardized

Coefficients

B

Std. Error

34.738

2.065

.520

.034

Standardized

Coefficients

Beta

.841

www.wiley.com/college/sekaran

t

16.822

15.294

Sig.

.000

.000

Model validation

1. Face validity: signs and magnitudes make sense

2. Statistical validity:

Model fit: R2

Model significance: F-test

Parameter significance: t-test

Strength of effects: beta-coefficients

Discussion of multicollinearity: correlation matrix

Research

Methods

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SPSS

Model Summary

Model

1

Research

Methods

R

.841

R Square

.707

Adjusted

R Square

.704

Std. Error of

the Estimate

5.919

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R2 measures the proportion of the variation in y that is

explained by the variation in x.

R2 = total variation unexplained variation

total variation

R2 takes on any value between zero and one:

R2 = 1: Perfect match between the line and the data points.

R2 = 0: There is no linear relationship between x and y.

Research

Methods

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SPSS

Model Summary

Model

1

R

.841

R Square

.707

Adjusted

R Square

.704

Std. Error of

the Estimate

5.919

Research

Methods

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Model Significance

H0: 0 = 1 = ... = m = 0

H1: Not H0

Research

Methods

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Model Significance

H0: 0 = 1 = ... = m = 0

H1: Not H0

Test statistic

F =

(SSReg/k)

~ Fk, n-1-k

(SSe/(n 1 k)

SSReg = explained variation by regression

SSe = unexplained variation by regression

Research

Methods

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SPSS

ANOVA

Model

1

Research

Methods

Regression

Residual

Total

Sum of

Squares

8195.319

3398.640

11593.960

df

1

97

98

M ean Square

8195.319

35.038

www.wiley.com/college/sekaran

F

233.901

Sig.

.000

Parameter significance

0)

H 0: j = 0

H 1: j 0

with bj = the estimated coefficient for j

SEj = the standard error of bj

Research

Methods

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(i.e., j

SPSS

contd

Coefficients

Model

1

Research

Methods

(Constant)

PHYS_ATTR

Unstandardized

Coefficients

B

Std. Error

34.738

2.065

.520

.034

Standardized

Coefficients

Beta

.841

www.wiley.com/college/sekaran

t

16.822

15.294

Sig.

.000

.000

Conceptual Model

Physical

Attractivenes

s

Research

Methods

Likelihood

to Date

Multiple Regression

Analysis

We use more than one (metric or

non-metric) independent variable to

explain variance in a (metric)

dependent variable.

Research

Methods

Conceptual Model

Perceived

Intelligence

Physical

Attractivenes

s

Research

Methods

+

+

Likelihood

to Date

Model Summary

Model

1

R

.844

R Square

.712

Adjusted

R Square

.706

Std. Error of

the Estimate

5.895

ANOVA

Model

1

Regression

Residual

Total

Sum of

Squares

8257.731

3336.228

11593.960

df

2

96

98

Mean Square

4128.866

34.752

F

118.808

Sig.

.000

Coefficients

Model

1

Research

Methods

(Constant)

PERC_INTGCE

PHYS_ATTR

Unstandardized

Coefficients

B

Std. Error

31.575

3.130

.050

.037

.523

.034

Standardized

Coefficients

Beta

.074

.846

t

10.088

1.340

15.413

Sig.

.000

.183

.000

Conceptual Model

Perceived

Intelligence

Physical

Attractivenes

s

Research

Methods

+

+

Gende

r

Likelihood

to Date

Moderators

Moderator is qualitative (e.g., gender, race, class) or

quantitative (e.g., level of reward) that affects the

direction and/or strength of the relation between

dependent and independent variable

Analytical representation

Y = 0 + 1X1 + 2X2 + 3X1X2

with

Y = DV

X1 = IV

X2 = Moderator

Research

Methods

Model Summary

Model

1

R

.910

R Square

.828

Adjusted

R Square

.821

Std. Error of

the Estimate

4.601

ANOVA

Model

1

Research

Methods

Regression

Residual

Total

Sum of

Squares

9603.938

1990.022

11593.960

df

4

94

98

Mean Square

2400.984

21.170

F

113.412

Sig.

.000

Coefficients

Model

1

(Constant)

PERC_INTGCE

PHYS_ATTR

GENDER

PI_GENDER

Unstandardized

Coefficients

B

Std. Error

32.603

3.163

.000

.043

.496

.027

-.420

3.624

.127

.058

Standardized

Coefficients

Beta

.000

.802

-.019

.369

t

10.306

.004

18.540

-.116

2.177

Sig.

.000

.997

.000

.908

.032

Research

Methods

Conceptual Model

Perceived

Intelligence

Gende

r

Physical

Attractivenes

s

Likelihood

to Date

+

Communality

of Interests

Research

Methods

Perceived Fit

Mediating/intervening variable

and dependent variable

Analytical representation

1.

Y = 0 + 1X

=> 1 is significant

2.

M = 2 + 3X

=> 3 is significant

3.

Y = 4 + 5X + 6M

=> 5 is not significant

=> 6 is significant

Research

Methods

With

Y = DV

X = IV

M = mediator

Step 1

Mode l S umm ary

Model

1

R

.963

R Square

.927

Adjus ted

R Square

.923

St d. E rror of

the E stimate

3. 020

ANOVA

Model

1

Research

Methods

Regression

Residual

Total

Sum of

Squares

10745.603

848.357

11593.960

df

5

93

98

Mean Square

2149.121

9.122

F

235.595

Sig.

.000

Step 1

contd

Coefficients

Model

1

(Cons tant)

PERC_INTGCE

PHYS_ATTR

GENDER

PI_GENDER

COMM_INTER

Unstandardized

Coefficients

B

Std. Error

17.094

2.497

.030

.029

.517

.018

-.783

2.379

.122

.038

.212

.019

Standardized

Coefficients

Beta

.044

.836

-.036

.356

.319

t

6.846

1.039

29.269

-.329

3.201

11.187

Sig.

.000

.301

.000

.743

.002

.000

Research

Methods

Step 2

Mode l S umm ary

Model

1

R

.977

Adjus ted

R Square

.955

R Square

.955

St d. E rror of

the E stimate

2. 927

ANOVA

Model

1

Research

Methods

Regression

Residual

Total

Sum of

Squares

17720.881

831.079

18551.960

df

1

97

98

Mean Square

17720.881

8.568

F

2068.307

Sig.

.000

Step 2

contd

Coefficients

Model

1

(Cons tant)

COMM_INTER

Unstandardized

Coefficients

B

Std. Error

8.474

1.132

.820

.018

Standardized

Coefficients

Beta

.977

t

7.484

45.479

Sig.

.000

.000

Research

Methods

Step 3

Mode l S umm ary

Model

1

R

.966

R Square

.934

Adjus ted

R Square

.930

St d. E rror of

the E stimate

2. 885

ANOVA

Model

1

Research

Methods

Regression

Residual

Total

Sum of

Squares

10828.336

765.624

11593.960

df

6

92

98

Mean Square

1804.723

8.322

F

216.862

Sig.

.000

Step 3

contd

Coefficients

Model

1

(Cons tant)

PERC_INTGCE

PHYS_ATTR

GENDER

PI_GENDER

COMM_INTER

PERC_FIT

Unstandardized

Coefficients

B

Std. Error

14.969

2.478

.019

.028

.518

.017

-2.040

2.307

.142

.037

-.051

.085

.320

.102

Standardized

Coefficients

Beta

.028

.839

-.094

.412

-.077

.405

t

6.041

.688

30.733

-.884

3.825

-.596

3.153

Sig.

.000

.493

.000

.379

.000

.553

.002

significant effect of mediator on dep. var.

Research

Methods

Chapter 12

Qualitative Data

Analysis

Research

Methods

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173

Qualitative Data

Qualitative data: data in the form of

words.

Examples: interview notes,

transcripts of focus groups, answers

to open-ended questions,

transcription of video recordings,

accounts of experiences with a

product on the internet, news

Research

articles,

and

the

like.

Methods

2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

www.wiley.com/college/sekaran

The analysis of qualitative data is

aimed at making valid inferences

from the often overwhelming amount

of collected data.

Steps:

data reduction

data display

drawing and verifying conclusions

Research

Methods

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Data Reduction

Coding: the analytic process through

which the qualitative data that you

have gathered are reduced,

rearranged, and integrated to form

theory.

Categorization: is the process of

organizing, arranging, and classifying

coding units.

Research

Methods

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Data Display

Data display: taking your reduced

data and displaying them in an

organized, condensed manner.

Examples: charts, matrices,

diagrams, graphs, frequently

mentioned phrases, and/or drawings.

Research

Methods

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Drawing Conclusions

At this point where you answer your

research questions by determining

what identified themes stand for, by

thinking about explanations for

observed patterns and relationships,

or by making contrasts and

comparisons.

Research

Methods

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Reliability in Qualitative

Research

Category reliability depends on the

analysts ability to formulate categories

and present to competent judges

definitions of the categories so they will

agree on which items of a certain

population belong in a category and which

do not. (Kassarjian, 1977, p. 14).

Interjudge reliability can be defined degree

of consistency between coders processing

the same data (Kassarjian 1977).

Research

Methods

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Validity refers to the extent to which

the qualitative research results:

accurately represent the collected data

(internal validity)

can be generalized or transferred to

other contexts or settings (external

validity).

Research

Methods

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Chapter 13

The Research Report

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181

The key purpose of any research report is to

offer a clear description of what has been done

in the various stages of the research process.

Important to identify the specific purpose of the

report, so that it can be tailored accordingly.

Examples

Simple descriptive report

Comprehensive report, offering alternative solutions

Research

Methods

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Presentation of Results

Results of the study and recommendations

to solve the problem have to be effectively

communicated to the sponsor, so that

suggestions made are accepted and

implemented.

Contents and organization of written report

and oral presentation depend on the

purpose of the research study, and the

audience to which it is targeted.

Research

Methods

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Characteristics of a Well-Written

Report

Clarity

Conciseness

Coherence

The right emphasis on important aspects

Meaningful organization of paragraphs

Smooth transition from one topic to the

next

Apt choice of words

Specificity

Research

Methods

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Title

Executive summary or abstract

Table of contents

List of Tables, Figures, and Other Materials

Preface

Authorization Letter

The introductory section

The body of the report

The final part of the report

References

Appendix

Research

Methods

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Oral Presentation

Deciding on the Content

Visual Aids

For instance graphs, charts, tables

The presenter

The presentation

Handling questions

Research

Methods

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