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Engineering Drawing

(MEng 1032)
Chapter Four
Pictorial Drawing

Introduction
A pictorial drawing is a method of
producing a three-dimensional object
from a two-dimensional view, that
shows the three main faces indicating
the

height,

width

and

depth

simultaneously. It is an essential part


of the graphic language.

Introduction
Top
Top View

Front View

Front
Side View

Side

Comparison Between Multi-view


and Pictorial Drawing
Multi-view Drawing

Pictorial Drawing

It represents exact shape of an It represents overview of


object.
object.

an

It uses two or more views of an It represents several views of an


object on different picture object at once on a single
plane.
picture plane.
It uses hidden line to represent It rarely uses hidden line when
the hidden parts of an object.
necessary.
It gives detail dimensions of a It gives overall dimensions of a
complex object.
complex object.
It needs prior knowledge of It can be easily understood
technical
drawing
to using common sense.
understand.
It is used for manufacturing, It is used for promotion,
construction, production, and marketing and selling, business
the like.
transaction, and the like.

Types of Pictorial Projections


Pictorial
Projection

Axonometric

Oblique

Central/Perspec
tive

Isometric

Cavalier

One Point

Dimetric

Cabinet

Two Point

Trimetric

General

Three Point

Types of Pictorial Projections


Axonometric projection is a projected
view in which the lines of sight are
perpendicular to the plane of projection,
but the three faces of a rectangular object
are all inclined to the plane of projection.

Types of Pictorial Projections


Isometric projection: The receding lines
are drawn at 300 from the horizontal and
the others are vertical. Consider a cubic
object, the three principal faces and axes
are equally inclined to the plane of
projection.

Types of Pictorial Projections


Dimetric projection: Two of the
principal faces and axes are equally
inclined to the plane of projection.

Types of Pictorial Projections


Trimetric
projection:
All
three
principal faces and axes make different
angles with the plane of projection.

Types of Pictorial Projections


Oblique projection: the projectors are oblique
to the plane of projection but parallel to each
other, and one of the principal face (usually
front view) of the object is generally parallel to
the plane of projection. The receding line is
drawn at 300, 450 and 600 from the horizontal.

Oblique projection

Classification of oblique Projection


depending on the scale of measurement followed along the receding lines

Cavalier: All lines of an object are drawn in their true length.


Cabinet: Lines on the receding axis are shortened by half.
General: any oblique pictorial projection other than cavalier and cabinet.

Types of Pictorial Projections


Central/perspective projection is the most realistic
three-dimensional view of all the pictorial projections,
because it portrays the object in a manner that is most
similar to how the human eye perceives the visual world.
Horizon: an imaginary horizontal line taken at eye level.
Vanishing point (VP): a point on the horizon where
receding lines converge.

Types of Pictorial Projections


One point: have one vanishing point (VP).
VP

Vanishes
to one
point

Types of Pictorial Projections


Two point: have two vanishing point.
Vanishe
s to one
point

VP
VP

Vanishe
s to one
point

Types of Pictorial Projections


Three point: have three vanishing point.
Vanishe
s to one
point

VP

Vanishe
s to one
point

VP

VP

Vanishe
s to one
point

Isometric Drawings
Difference Between Isometric Projection and
Isometric Drawing:
An isometric projection is a true representation of
the isometric view of an object.
An isometric drawing is an axonometric pictorial
drawing for which the angle between each axes
equals 120 0 and the scale used is full scale.
Isometric drawing is almost always preferred over
isometric

projection

for

engineering

because it is easier to produce.

drawing,

Isometric Drawings
Isometric
projection
(True projection)

Foreshorten
ed (80% of
true size)

Isometric
drawing
(Full scale)

Full scale

Isometric Drawings
Isometric Axes:
Isometric axes are three lines that
have common intersection points; the
angle between each axis equals 120
0

. The plane made by two isometric

axes is called isometric plane.

Isometric Drawings

1
2

1st
Position

2nd
Position

Isometric Drawings
Isometric and Non-Isometric Lines and Planes:
Isometric line is the line that run parallel to any
of the isometric axes and includes normal line.
Any line that does not run parallel to any of
isometric axes is called non-isometric line. And
it includes inclined and oblique lines.
A plane that are not parallel to any isometric
planes is called non-isometric plane. And it
includes inclined and oblique planes.
Isometric Plane is the plane parallel to any of
isometric planes and includes normal plane.

Isometric Drawings

Isometric Lines

Isometric
Plane
Non-Isometric Line

Non-Isometric
Plane

Oblique Drawings
Difference Between Oblique Projection
and
Oblique Drawing:
An oblique projection is a true representation
of the oblique view of an object.
An oblique drawing is a pictorial drawing for
which the angle between each vertical and
horizontal axis is 900 and the angle between
horizontal and receding axis is usually 30 0,
45

and 60 0.

Oblique Drawings
Oblique
projection
(True projection)

Oblique
drawing
(Full scale)

Oblique Drawings
Oblique Axes:
Oblique

axes

are

three

namely,

vertical,

horizontal and receding axis; and the axes have


common intersection points. The plane made by
vertical and horizontal axis is called normal
plane. The normal plane represents front view
with true shape.
The advantage of oblique pictorials over isometric
pictorials is that circular shapes parallel to normal
plane are shown true shape and easy to sketch.

Oblique Drawings
Vertical Axis

Receding Axis

Horizontal Axis

30, 45 and 60

Steps to draw Pictorial Drawing


1. Position the object.
2. Select isometric/oblique axis.
3. Sketch enclosing box.
4. Add details.
5. Darken visible lines.

Steps in Pictorial Drawing

Circles in Pictorial Drawing


In

isometric

drawing,

the

circle

always become ellipse.


In oblique drawing when the circle is
parallel to normal plane, it is drawn
as its true shape and become circle;
for other planes other than normal
plane the circle becomes ellipse.

Circles in Pictorial Drawing

Circles in Pictorial Drawing


Methods to Draw Ellipse:
There are two method namely, offset
method and four center method.
The offset method can be diagonal
approach and division approach.

Circles in Pictorial Drawing

Diagonal approach offset method.

Circles in Pictorial Drawing

Division approach offset method.

Circles in Pictorial Drawing


The four center method as its name indicates uses
four center to draw an ellipse. It is efficient method.
Steps in Four Center Method:
1. Draw a rhombus using the diameter of a circle.
2. Construct perpendicular bisecting lines from each
side of rhombus.
3. Draw lines from obtuse angle corners to opposite
side of rhombus by intersecting the midpoint.
4. Locate the four centers.
5. Draw the arcs with this centers and tangent to
rhombus.

Circles in Pictorial Drawing

Four center method.

Arcs in Pictorial Drawing


Arcs are usually sketched by locating their
centers and then boxing in the enclosing
rhombus and tangent to the rhombus.

Irregular Curves in Pictorial Drawing


Steps:
1. Construct

points

along the curve in


multi-view drawing.
2. Locate these points
in

the

isometric

view.
3. Sketch
connecting lines.

the

Inclined Surfaces in Pictorial Drawing


x
C
x

x
A
y

y
C

Non-isometric line

Hidden Lines in Pictorial Drawing


In pictorial drawings, hidden lines are
omitted unless they are absolutely
necessary to completely describe the
object. Most pictorial drawings will not
have hidden lines.
To avoid using hidden lines, choose the
most descriptive viewpoint. However, if
an pictorial viewpoint can not clearly
depicts all the major features, hidden
lines may be used.

Hidden Lines in Pictorial Drawing

Hidden Lines in Pictorial Drawing