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DISCOURSE AND

PRAGMATICS

By Group 3:
1. Rizkynanda Setiawan
2. Alifatul Syadiyah

WHAT IS PRAGMATICS ?
Pragmatic is the study of meaning in relation to
the context in which a person is speaking or
writing
Relationship between linguistic form and
communicative function is of central interest in
the area of pragmatics

LANGUAGE,CONTEXT AND
DISCOURSE
Language function in context is central to an
understanding of the relationship between what
is said and what is understood is spoken and
written discourse
The context of situation of what someone says
is,therefore,crucial to understanding interpreting
the meaning of what is being said.

SPEECH ACT AND DISCOURSE

Speech act is what Austin argued that he said


there are three kind of act which occur with
everything we say. These are the locutionary act,
the illocutionary act, and the perlocutionary act.

FLOUTING THE CO-OPERATIVE


PRINCIPLE

On some occasions speakers flout the co-operative


principle and intend their hear to understand
this ; that is ,they purposely do not observe the
maxim, and intend their hearer to be aware of
this.

CONVERSATIONAL IMPLICATURES
AND DISCOURSE
Conversational implicatures refers to the inference a
hearer makes about a speakers intended meaning
that arises from their use of the literal meaning of
what the speaker said.
Conventional and particularized conversational
implicatures
With conventional implicatures, no particular
context is required in order to derive the implicature.
Particularized conversational implicatures, are
derived from a particular context, rather than from
use of the words alone. The speaker assumes the
hearer will search for the relevance of what they are
saying and derive an intended meaning.

CONVERSATIONAL IMPLICATURES
AND DISCOURSE
Scalar implicatures
These are derived when a person uses a word from
a set of words that express some kind of scale of
values.

POLITENESS, FACE AND DISCOURSE


Politeness and face are important for understanding
why people choose to say things in a particular way
in spoken and written discourse.
There are several ways to think of politeness. These
might involve ideas like being tactful, modest and
nice to other people. In the study of linguistic
politeness, the most relevant concept is 'face'.
Face means the public self-image of a person. It refers
to that emotional and social sense of self that
everyone has and expects everyone else to recognize.
Something that represents a threat to another
person's self-image , is called a face-threatening act.

POLITENESS, FACE AND DISCOURSE


Choosing a politeness strategy
We draw on a number of considerations when we
decide on a choice of politeness strategy. They
typically involve the relative status of the
participants, based on social values tied to such
things as age and power. We may consider how
socially close or distant we are from our hearer.

FACE AND POLITENESS ACROSS


CULTURE
It is important to point out the specific nature of
face and politeness varies from society to society
and from culture to culture.
The ways in which people express politeness also
differs across cultures.

POLITENESS AND GENDER


Politeness strategies have also been shown to vary
according to gender.
Holmes (1995) reveals that the relationship
between sex, politeness and language is a
complex one and that while research shows that,
overall, women are more polite than men, it also
depends on what we mean by polite as well as
which women and men are being compared and
what setting the interaction occurs in; that is, the
particular local conditions in which the man or
woman is speaking.