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Cardiovascular System

by
M. Rasjad Indra

Main function
Serve a transportation for:
Supplying nutrition and oxygen to tissues
Elimination of metabolic end products from tissues
Hormones & other chemical substances as a
intercellular communication mediator

Maintain a stable internal environment for a life &


optimal function of cells.

How does this system regulate its activities to achieve the


function???

Tissue perfussion (Supply


nutrition & oxygen and eliminate
metabolic waste products)

Local blood vessel


resisstance

Blood flow
Total blood vessel
resisstance
Blood volume

Vasoconstriction /
dilatation

Heart Space &


Valves

Blood pressure

Cardiac pumping

Cardiac
cycle

Cardiac muscle
contraction
Cardiac muscle &
cunductive system

Vascular smooth
muscle
Action potential

Theoritical Framework of Cardiavascular System

For better understanding the mechanism of regulation you


have to recognize many parameters of the system:
1. Cardiac output [CO]
2. Blood pressure [P]
3. Blood flow [Q]
4. Vascular resistant [R]
Stroke volume = End Diastolic Vol. - End Systolic Vol.
Cardiac output= Stroke Volume x Frequency
Cardiac index = Cardiac output / Body Surface Area
Ejection Fraction=(SV/EDV) x 100 %
Ohm law:

P
Q
R

r = radius
d= blood viscosity
l = blood vessel length

Pr
Poiseuille law: Q
8l

Role of each CVS compartment


Heart:

Blood pumping

Arteri:

Blood transport under high pressure to tissues.

Ateriole:

Regulate blood flow to capillaries

Capillary:

Fluid exchange, nutrition, electrolites hormone


between plasma & interstitial

Venula:

Blood flow from capillaries to middle veins

Vein:

Blood flow from tissues to heart


Regulated blood reservoir.

Blood Volume in Cardiovascular


System
84 % in systemic circulation:
64 % in vein
13 % in artery
7 % in arteriole and capillaries

16 % pulmonary & cardiac circulation:


7 % in the heart
9 % in the lungs

Tabel. Blood Volume Distribution


Regio

Volume (ml)

Volume (%)

Sistemic circulation

4200

84,0

Aorta and large artery

300

6,0

Small artery

400

8,0

Capilary

300

6,0

Small vein

2300

46,0

Large vein

900

18,0

Pulmonar y circulation

440

8,8

Artery

130

2,6

Capillary

110

2,2

Vein

200

4,0

Heart
Total

360
5000

360
5000

7,2
100,0

7,2
100,0

Parameter

Aorta

Small artery

Arteriole

Capillary

V. Cava

Number

8000

2 x 107

1 x 1010

Radius

1,13,cm

0,5 mm

15 m

3 m

1,38 cm

Diameter

4 cm2

7,9 x 10-3 cm2

7,1 x 10-7 cm2

2,8 x 10-7 cm2

6 cm2

Total diameter

4 cm2

63 cm2

141 cm2

2827 cm2

6 cm2

Total blood flow

83 ml/second

83 ml/second

83 ml/second

83 ml/second

83 ml/scnd

Mean of Linier velocity 21 cm/secnd

1,3 cm/second 0,6 cm/second

0,003 cm/sc

14 cm/scnd

Blood flow per unit

0,01 ml/secnd

8 x 10-9 ml/sc

83 ml/scnd

83 ml/second

4 x 10-6 ml/scnd

Diameter of Blood Vessels


Blood vessel

Diameter (cm2)

Aorta
Small Arteries

2,5
20

Arteriole

40

Capillaries
Venule

2500
250

Small Vein

80

Vena cava

Blood Flow
The blood flow going slower because of
decreasing blood pressure and increasing total
diameter of blood vessels

In aorta: 33 cm / second
In capillary: 0,3 mm / second
Capillaries length: 0,3 1 mm blood stay in
capillary 1 3 seconds
Very short time for fluid exchange between
plasma and interstitial !!!!

Blood pressure

3 Basic Principles of
Cardiovascular Function
1. Tissue blood flow is regulated in

accordance with tissue metabolic need.


2. Cardiac output is controlled mainly by
total tissue blood flow / metabolic need.
3. Blood pressure is determined by a
balance between regulation of tissue
blood flow and cardiac output regulation
mechanism.