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Keselamatan

Pengoperasian
Forklift
PT. Unza Vitalis
Salatiga

Developed by Department of Occupational Safety, Health &


Environment
for employee training

Contents
1. Dasar Hukum
2. Sebab Sebab Kecelakaan Kerja
3. Pengoperasian Forklift
4. Keselamatan Dalam Pengoperasian Forklift
5. Perawatan Forklift

1. DASAR HUKUM
( Perundangan Pesawat
Angkat Angkut )

Permen No. 05/Men/1985


(Pesawat Angkat & Angkut)
Mengapa
diawasi

Pengawasan K3
Pesawat Angkat dan
Angkut

Untuk
apa

Obyek
mekanik yg
mana

Siapa yang
mengawasi

dan

TUJUAN

Dimana
pengawasanny
a

Bagaimana cara
mengawasinya

Dasar
hukumnya apa

direktorat@norma-k3.com
Mengapa
diawasi

Pasal 2 ayat (2)


huruf a, b, f & g
Pasal 3 ayat (1)
huruf a, c, n & p
Pasal 4

Potensi Bahaya
Bagian yg bergerak
Bagian yg menanggung beban
Gas buang
Kemampuan / ketrampilan

Sumber Bahaya
Pesawat
Operator

Pesawat
Angkat &
Angkut

Kecelakaan
Dasar hukum
pengawasanny
a
Ruang lingkup
Siapa yang mengawasi
Bagaimana caranya

Jenis Kecelakaan
Terjungkit/terguling
Terjepit
Peledakan
Termasuk PAK

Pengendalian

Menjamin keselamatan dan


kesehatan TK dan orang lain
Menjamin penggunaan
pesawat angkat dan angkut
aman dipakai
Menjamin proses produksi
aman dan lancar

Konstruksi harus kuat


Safety device terpasang dan
berfungsi baik
Layak pakai
Riksa uji
APD
Perawatan dengan baik
Pengoperasian sesuai
manual/SOP dan oleh orang yg
berwenang

2. SEBAB SEBAB
KECELAKAAN KERJA

Penyebab Kecelakaan Kerja


Operasional Forklift
- Kurangnya kesadaran operator terhadap arti
KESELAMATAN
- Pengoperasian Forklift yang tidak sesuai
dengan Instruksi Kerja : Overload, Overspeed,
dll
- Kurang perawatan dan pemeriksaan Forklift
- Penempatan barang di atas garpu kurang
stabil
- Operator kurang mengetahui kondisi jalan

Penanggulangan Kecelakaan
Kerja Operasional Forklift
- Memilih operator yang memiliki
kemampuan
- Operator harus terlatih dan
bersertifikat
- Operator diuji kemampuannya melalui
praktek pengoperasian yang aman
- Operator harus memiliki phisik yang
baik (pendengaran, penglihatan, dll)

3.
PENGOPERASIAN
FORKLIFT

Usia minimal operator Forklift adalah 18 tahun

Menurut Standar
OSHA

Komponen Komponen Utama Forklift

Class 2 Electric Truck


Characteristics:
1. Electric motor
2. Narrow construction to fit in aisles
3. Solid tires

The operator stands on a


platform which moves up and
down. Sometimes called an
order picker

Straddle legs add stability for


forklifts that don't use a
counter-weight

Forklift Operating Manual


Karena ada banyak merek, model dan
jenis forklift, maka penting untuk
memeriksa spesifikasi peringatan dalam
buku pnduan operator forklift.
Buku panduan Forklift harus disimpan
pada forklift setiap saat.

OSHA

Akibat Mengabaikan Keselamatan Kerja Forklift


Forklift adalah pesawat angkat angkut yang sangat diperlukan di
berbagai perusahaan sebagai material handling, akan tetapi akan
menimbulkan risiko besar seperti kerusakan properti, cedera atau
kematian jika Anda:
- Tidak memperoleh pelatihan mengenai keselamatan Operasi Forklift
- Tidak mengetahui spesifikasi bagian-bagian dari kendaraan Forklift
- Mengoperasikan Forklift tanpa adanya prosedur/ cara kerja yang aman
- Mengoperasikan Forklift yang sudah tidak layak pakai (rusak/ ada
bagian part mesin yang hilang)

Source: RiteHite Doors

Source: WorksafeBC

Forklift Nameplate
The nameplate will list the type of forklift and the capacity

Weight
Type
Load
capacity
OSHA

Segitiga Keseimbangan Forklift

OSHA

Almost all counterbalanced powered industrial trucks supported at three points. This is
true even if the vehicle has four wheels. The truck's steer axle is attached to the truck by
a pivot pin in the axle's center. When this point is connected to the front wheels with
imaginary lines, this three-point support forms a triangle called the stability triangle. So
long as the center of gravity remains within this stability triangle, the truck is stable and
will not tip over.

How loads affect forklifts

OSHA

Forklift menyeimbangkan beban dengan penyeimbang di belakang. Roda


depan bertindak sebagai titik tumpu atau titik keseimbangan. Pusat
gravitasi bergerak ke atas ketika garpu dinaikkan.

Jangan dijalankan dengan


beban yang terangkat ke atas

Forklift Load Capacity

OSHA

While carrying a load near the maximum allowable capacity, be aware of the
following:
Danger of tipover
Danger of losing load
Danger of being struck by falling load

Moving the load

OSHA

Use extra caution when handling loads that approach the truck's
maximum rated capacity:
Tilt the mast & forks back and position the heaviest part of the
load against the carriage.
Travel with the mast tilted back to keep the load stable.
Never travel with the load tilted forward. Tilting the load forward
increases the load distance and makes the load less stable

Driving on an incline
Always drive with the load on the uphill side - go backwards driving down
the incline and frontwards going up the incline to prevent tipping or losing
control of the forklift.

If no load on the forklifts, do the opposite with forks pointing down the
ramp

OSHA

Penyebab Forklift Terjungkit / Terguling


Mengemudi dengan kecepatan
tinggi saat melintasi ruangan
Driving off edge of platform,
ramp, road or other surface
Source: RiteHite Doors

Driving an indoor forklift


outdoors on rough, uneven
ground
Turning on an incline or hill

What do in case of a tip-over

OSHA

If the forklift tips, keep your arms and legs inside and hold on to the steering wheel.
Dont attempt to jump out you cant move faster than the forklift can tip over. Most
people who attempt to jump are killed by the impact of the overhead guard.
Tipover procedures for other types of forklifts may vary. For example operators of stand-up
forklifts with rear-entry access should step backwards off the forklift if a tipover occurs.

Seatbelts
Seatbelts are required on all forklifts manufactured since 1992 and can be
retrofitted on all older models.
You are required to uses it when it is supplied with the forklift. It will save
your life.

Click it - before
you drive!!

worksafeVictoria
OSHA

L&I

A common cause of forklift fatalities is from the operator not having or using a seatbelt.

Forklift video clip from Worksafe B.C.

Forklift inspection and maintenance


All forklifts be examined at least daily before
being used. Forklifts used on a round-the-clock
basis must be examined after each shift. Check
the following:
- Fluid levels -- oil, water, and hydraulic fluid.
- Leaks, cracks or other visible defect in hydraulic
hoses and mast chains.
- Tire pressure and tire cuts or gouges.

U.S. Army

- Condition of the forks, including the top clip


retaining pin.
- Safety decals and nameplates in place and legible.
- All safety devices working properly including the
seat belt.

A vehicle that is damaged, defective or otherwise


unsafe must be removed from service. Report the
problem to your supervisor immediately.

MSHA

Refueling a propane powered forklift


Liquid propane is extremely cold when released to
the atmosphere. If your skin is exposed to propane
while refueling, you can get frostbite.
Shut off the engine before refueling.
Dont leave propane-powered forklifts near high
heat sources.
When parking propane-powered forklifts for a long
period of time, turn the tank valve off.
Any propane leak must be taken seriously.
Propane vapor is heavier than air and will tend to
sink to the lowest lying area. If not adequately
dissipated, it will ignite when exposed to a spark
or flame.
OSHA

Charging or changing batteries on electric forklifts


The battery changing/charging area
should have the following:
- no smoking signs.
- adequate fire protection.
- plenty of water for flushing and
neutralizing spilled battery acid.
- an eyewash that provides at least 15
minutes of flowing water
- enough ventilation to remove
hydrogen gas during battery charging.

If you have to add water, to batteries or handle battery


acid, be sure to wear personal protective equipment.

OSHA

Forklift Attachments
Forklifts can have a variety of attachments
which affect their performance and use.
The load capacity of the forklift is reduced
by the weight of the attachment.
The attachment must be approved by the
forklift manufacturer.

Be sure you know how to use the specific


attachment on the forklift you will be
operating or get training if you dont.

OSHA

Stacking loads on pallets


Loose loads are subject to falling. Off center loads can also be subject
to falling or cause the forklift to tip over. The photos below show the
correct way to load pallets.

Avoid using damaged pallets.

Forklift Work Platforms


Never lift other workers on forks unless you use an approved work
platform with railings as shown.

U.S. Army

Dangerous!!

Source: Pelsue Co.

Safe

An extremely dangerous practice

Source: JICOSH

A risky way to change a light bulb!!

Order Picker Fall Protection

In warehouses order picker forklifts, the vehicle must have


either:
Standard guardrails on all open sides
or
A safety harness and lanyard

CDC
OSHA

Why a safety harness is needed on an order picker forklift


While working in a warehouse using
an order picking forklift, a worker tried
to stand on a shelf to adjust the
position of the load on the pallet. His
foot slipped from the rack and he fell
from the fourth tier to the floor.

A safety harness would have


stopped his fall.

Source: JICOSH

Forklifts have reduced visibility


Both the forklift mast and a large load on the forks reduce forward visibility.

Older mast design

Newer mast design

In warehouses or other indoor workplaces, aisles of material, walls,


doors and other building configurations can create blind corners.
OSHA all photos

Forklift Blind Spot

Blind spot

Forklifts and Pedestrians


Slow down and sound horn at intersections,
corners, and wherever your vision is obstructed.
When provided, use flashing warning light or
backup alarms when traveling in reverse.
Always look in the direction of travel.
Signal to pedestrians to stand clear.
Do not allow anyone to stand or walk under
upraised forks.
When possible, make eye contact with
pedestrians or other forklift operators before
moving in their path.
OSHA

Forklift-pedestrian accident example

Neither the pedestrian or the forklift


operator were paying attention!!

Source - JICOSH

Loading truck trailers and railroad


cars
Make sure:
truck trailer wheels are chocked,
dock board is secure and can
handle weight,

OSHA

you use horn or warning lights


when exiting trailer or railcar.

OSHA

Wide or irregular size loads

Source - New York Dept. of Health

OSHA

Distribute the weight evenly when carrying irregular sized loads.


Keep the center of gravity of the load as near as possible to the center
going horizontally across the forks.
Keep the center of gravity of the load as near to the front wheels as
possible.

Loading/unloading High Storage Racks

When removing a load from a high rack:


Slowly back out with the load
Stop when it clears the rack
Lower the load to the floor
Dont lower the load while moving!

Forklift dos and donts


No one else on the forklift except the
operator, unless the forklift has a seat
for a rider.
Always drive with the forks lowered
and lower forks to floor when parking
the forklift.

Source: JICOSH

Watch overhead clearances especially entering or exiting


buildings or when you are raising a load on the forks.
Yale forklift company safety poster

The risk to a rider


A seasoned forklift operator sat next to
the operator's seat while showing a new
operator how to operate the forklift.

The new operator accidentally


performed the wrong maneuver, causing
the forklift to run into one of the pillars at
the site. The worker who had been
training him was crushed between the
support pillar and the forklift.
Source: JICOSH

Stay out of the mast!!


While using a forklift to transport 15
cardboard boxes at once, some of the
boxes started to slip. The operator
climbed into the mast to adjust the
falling boxes.

When the worker stepped between the


operator's seat and the mast (without
turning off the engine first) he
accidentally hit one of the control
levers, causing the mast to move. He
was crushed between it and the
overhead guard.
Source: JICOSH

No Speeding!!

Wikimedia commons

Dont leave your forklift unattended


A forklift is considered "unattended"
When the operator is 25 ft. or more
away from the vehicle even if it
remains in his view, or whenever the
operator leaves the vehicle and it is
not in his view.

Wisconsin Dept of Health Services

When a forklift is left unattended, forks


must be fully lowered, controls
neutralized, power shut off, and brakes
set. Wheels must be blocked if the
truck is parked on an incline.
Wheres the operator??
When the operator of a forklift is within 25 ft. of the truck still in his view, the load
engaging means must be fully lowered, controls neutralized, and the brakes set to
prevent movement, but the power does not need to be shut off.

Propane-powered forklifts and carbon monoxide


Propane powered forklifts produce carbon monoxide. The amount depends
on how well they are tuned, but should be 1% or less at the tailpile.

Source:Worksafe BC

Carbon monoxide poisoning can occur when propane forklifts are used
in cold rooms, controlled atmosphere rooms, truck trailers or shipping
containers, or in warehouses or other enclosed areas that do not have
enough fresh air ventilation.
If propane powered forklifts are used indoors, they should be tuned up
regularly and tested for carbon monoxide emissions periodically.
Link to more information on carbon monoxide and forklifts

You must also have hands-on


training on the specific truck
you
will
... truck
controls
andoperating
handling are different

Click here to see L & I forklift operator training requirements

3. Keselamatan Kerja
a. Proses Charging Battery
- Hati-hatilah pada saat charging atau
penggantian battery terhadap sengatan
listrik
- Saat penggantian battery lepaskan
kabel
pada terminal negatif terlebih dahulu,
dan alat-alat yang ada jangan
menyentuh terminal positif, karena
- Pada saat memasang battery kabel
terminal negatif di pasang paling akhir
b. Jangan menaruh beban pada tempat
yang tinggi dalam keadaan forklift pada
lantai yang miring

c. Aturlah letak beban yang seimbang ketika


mengangkat beban yang lebar dan
bentuknya tidak beraturan.
d. Berjalan dan berhenti secara perlahan,
hindari rem mendadak ketika berhenti
atau membawa barang
e. Tidak boleh meletakkan tangan atau kaki
diantara mast dengan alasan apapun
f. Jangan mengangkat barang pada posisi tilt
ke depan. Mast harus pada posisi tegak
atau sedikit miring ke belakang ketika
mengangkat beban. Pengangkatan barang
dapat dimiringkan ke depan (tilt ke depan)
hanya ketika hendak menurunkan barang

FORKLIFT :
Adalah suatu peralatan yang didesain
sedemikian rupa yang berfungsi untuk :
- Mengangkat
- Mengangkut
- Memindahkan
Barang dari suatu tempat ke tempat lain
sesuai
dengan kapasitas dan jarak tempuh.
Supaya : efisien, efektif, aman.

Forklift dalam pemakaiannya


mengandung sumber bahaya
yang potensial.
Oleh karena itu untuk
mencegah dan mengurangi
kecelakaan di tempat kerja
perlu usaha yang bersifat
represif dan preventive.

Dasar Hukum lain :


Peraturan menaker no 9
Men/VII/2010
Tentang : Operator dan
petugas pesawat angkat dan
angkut.
- Lisensi K3 : kewenangan
operator
- Log book : buku
kerja( kegiatan

Masalah dasar kecelakaan :


1.SDM
2.Kualitas operator
3. Kualitas pengawas
4. Sistem
5. Terbatasnya ahli K3
6. Terbatasnya sarana latihan
7. Rendahnya tingkat
kesadaran
8. Lemahnya penegakan
hukum

Permenaker 5 / 1985: Pesawat


angkat dan angkut.
-Pasal 3 : beban max. Yang
diijinkan harus tertulis pada
bagian yang mudah dilihat
dan dibaca.
-Pasal 4 : hanya boleh
dijalankan oleh
operator yang yang telah
mempunyai
ketrampilan tentang
forklift.

Pasal 19 : bila lebih dari


seorang operator, harus
bekerja berdasarkan isyarat
hanya dari 1 orang yang
ditunjuk.
Pasal 54 : Operator harus
nyaman, dilarang
menumpang forklift.

Pasal 106 : 60 Cm dari lebar kendaraan


harus bebas halangan.
Bila 2 arah (90 CM ) harus bebas
halangan .
Pasal 112 : Forklift harus dilengkapi
dengan alat pelindung.
Pasal 113 : dalm keadan jalan,garpu
harus berjarak 10 15 CM dari permukaan
jalan.
Pasal 114: Bila di belakang kendaraan lain
harus berjarak 10 Meter.

menggunakan forklift selain


untuk mengangkat,
mengangkut, menumpuk
barang.
Pasal 138 : Beban uji 125%
dari jumlah beban max. Yang
diijinkan

Pemeriksaan :
- Pemeriksaan dan uji
selambat2nya : 2 tahun
setelah
pengujian pertama, dan
selanjutnya 1 tahun 1 kali.

2.Tidak akan menyentuh benda


lain
3.Hindari ayunan saat diangkat
4.Alat harus dihentikan bila
keadaan bahaya
5.Tidak boleh lakukan perbaikan
saat sedang ada angkutan
6.Dilarang mengoperasikan
dengan
kejutan
7. Dilarang menambah
perlengkapan

Permenaker
no.9/men/VII/2010
Tentang : Operator & Petugas pesawat angkat dan
angkut.
Forklift termasuk dalam gol : Pesawat angkutan di
atas
landasan dan permukaan.
Syarat sopir Forklift : ( Pasal 14 )
1.SLTA
2.Min.3 tahun membantu di bidangnya
3.Berbadan sehat, Ket. Dokter
4.Umur min. 21 thn.
5.Punya lisensi K3 dan buku kerja ( berlaku 5 thn )

Pasal 25
Buku kerja harus diperiksa setiap 3 bulan
oleh
atasanya.
Pasal 26
Buku kerja dan lisensi hanya berlaku di
Perusahaan
yang mengajukan permohonan

Pasal 27
Lisensi dapata dicabut :
1.Operator menimbulkan kecelakaan
2.Operator melakukan tindakan ceroboh
3.Tidak melakukan seperti di (Pasal 34 )
Pasal 28
Kewenangan operator : mengawasi dan
membimbing operator kelas 2

Pasal 34
Kewajiban Operator :
1.Cek kondisi Pesawat
kemampuan
alat pengaman
alat perlengkapan
2.Tangggung jawab operasional pesawat
secara aman
3. Tidak meninggalkan pesawat dalam
keadaan hidup.

4.Hentikan dengan segera bila


perlengkapan
dan pengamanan rusak / tidak
5.Mengawasi Operator kelas 2
berfungsi
6.Operator kelas 2 juga hrus berkoordinasi
dengan O
perator kelas 1
7. Operator harus mengisi buku kerja

Faktor yang mempengaruhi


kecelakaan
1.Tinggi garpu
2.Titik berat barang
3.Tekanan angin
4.Pengereman mendadak
5.Kecepatan forklift
6.Posisi forklift saat menanjak
/menurun

Sistem hidrolik
Tenaga dengan memampatkan
cairan
Operator wajib tahu :
Cara kerjanya
Sehingga mengurangi kerusakan saat
pemakaian

Keselamatan pada Forklift


Penyebab sebagian besar dari Manusia
Hanya sedikit yang diakibatkan dari faktor
teknis

Minimnya kesadaran
Kurangnya pengetahuan
Kurangnya perawatan
Penempatan barang kurang stabil
Mengangkat barang melebihi kapasitas
Pengereman mendadak
Operator kurang mengetahui kondisi jalan
Ngebut
Penggunaa tidak semestinya

Untuk menghindari
kecelakaan
1. Operator harus terlatih,punya
kemampuan, sertifikat
2. Operator tahu kondisi forklift
3. Fisik, pendengaran, mata hrus
bagus.