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Research. Relate.

Realize

QSR NVIVO 7

PENDAHULUAN
Penelitian kualitatif didefinisikan sebagai kegiatan
terencana untuk menangkap praktek penafsiran
responden dan informan terhadap dunia.
Perlu disadari bahwa orang bertindak sejalan
dengan tafsirnya terhadap benda atau jasa yang
dihadapinya.
Tidak dipercaya suatu barang atau jasa yang riil,
melainkan berguna hanya sejauh tafsir seseorang
yang menggunakannya.
kualitatif menunjukkan penekanan terhadap
proses-proses dan makna-makna yang tidak diuji atau diukur
dari segi kuantitas, intensitas, atau frekuensi.

PENDAHULUAN
Penelitian kualitatif merupakan suatu hubungan
sosial antara peneliti dan responden secara akrab,
menjalin hubungan simetris dan lazimnya informal.
Hubungan dalam hal ini adalah berlangsungnya
komunikasi antar manusia yang didasari pada
penilaian yang berbeda-beda atas suatu dunia .
Bias pada penelitian kualitatif menjadi salah satu
landasan perumusan hasil penelitian .
penelitian kualitatif bersifat induktif
Hanya dari data-data serupa muncul konsep lokal,
sedangkan hubungan antar konsep yang muncul di lapangan
dapat disusun menjadi suatu teori lokal.
Lokalitas menunjukkan bias responden
ketika memaknai dunia sekelilingnya
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PENDAHULUAN

Hal yang penting bagi peneliti kualitatif:


menggali nilai-nilai yang berbeda, memahaminya,
bahkan perlu memakluminya pula.
peneliti tidak berposisi untuk menilai orang lain menurut
cara pandang peneliti, melainkan memahami cara pandang
responden
Peneliti dianjurkan mewawancarai orang yang akrab atau
mengenal suatu topik atau peristiwa. Penting untuk mengubahubah tipe orang yang diwawancarai, sampai peneliti dapat
mengungkapkan keseluruhan pandangan subyek penelitian.
Titik ini dianggap tercapai apabila tambahan responden atau
informan tidak lagi menghasilkan pengetahuan baru (titik jenuh).
Mutu penelitian tergantung pada kemampuan peneliti untuk
menggali data secara berulang dan informal, serta kemampuannya
untuk menuliskan hasil penelitian bagi pihak lain

PENDAHULUAN

Terdapat tiga jalur analisis data


kualitatif
reduksi data,
penyajian data, dan
penarikan kesimpulan

PENDAHULUAN
Reduksi data merupakan bentuk analisis yang
menajamkan, menggolongkan, mengarahkan,
membuang yang tidak perlu, dan mengorganisasi
data dengan cara sedemikian rupa sehingga
kesimpulan akhir dapat diambil. Reduksi tidak perlu
diartikan sebagai kuantifikasi data.
Penyajian data adalah kegiatan ketika sekumpulan
informasi disusun, sehingga memberi kemungkinan
akan adanya penarikan kesimpulan dan
pengambilan tindakan. Bentuk penyajian data
kualitatif berupa teks naratif (berbentuk catatan
lapangan), matriks, grafik, jaringan, dan bagan.

Projects

NVIVO 7 Converts Legacy QSR Projects


Opens N4, N5 and N6
projects, and NVIVO 1
and 2 projects.
Converts them to NVIVO
7 projects
Option to make Cases
of all Documents (since
Cases are more central in
NVIVO 7)

Projects

Project Security and Integrity

All data in a project, including all Sources, are kept


in a single securely encrypted database file.
So porting and backing up is trivial.
No chance of others tampering with documents, no
need for insecure doc file update log files
In fact, absolute project database integrity, even
through computer crashes.
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Projects

Multiple Projects
Run multiple projects
together
Copy/paste content
between projects
Project merging will
now be part of the
NVIVO program
to be released in
Version 7.1 before
midyear).

Features for handling large projects

NVIVO 7 is designed to
handle extremely large
projects as well as very
small ones
Also, users can optimize
performance for large
projects
Web-browser style
inverted index text search
is insensitive to amount or
length of documents.

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Projects

Projects

Save and Undo


Saves are not
automatic, but
reminders are.
Why?

You can undo


the last five
changes, but
not beyond the
last save.

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New Screen Layout gives simple


navigation
Select a folder
(you can create
your own too)
Folders items
appear in List
Pane
Contents of
selected item
appear in tabbed
Detail Pane
Navigation Bar
with Group
Buttons
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Projects

Projects

Change the Layout


List pane
side by
side with

Detail pane
is great
for

Drag-anddrop
coding

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Projects

Or undock any (or all) of the Detail Views!

You can then minimize them down to the taskbar to avoid clutter
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Click a folder to Sources


list its items here

Sources comprise
Documents,
Externals and
Memos

Sources: the data material


Plus folders you
create

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Click an item
to open its
contents below

Sources

Import Word .DOC files directly


Conversion to .RTF
not needed
Code pictures and
table cells
Comprehensive wordprocessor
You can keep
documents in usercreated folders
In fact you can make
your own sub-folders
just about anywhere.

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External Sources support


multimedia control

Externals are Sources


for referencing
documents you cant
include in (or dont
want to copy into) the
project database
Web pages, video
files, papers and
books, etc.

Use the External itself to transcribe,


summarize, comment on the
referenced material.
Use the automatically created tape
count stamps on the External to locate
audio-video passages for replay
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Sources

Sources

Sources and Nodes can have Memos


Memo
Icons

Every Source and Node can have its own unique


Memo
Use Memos for discussions about their own
Source or Node

Free or unattached Memos can also be created


Useful for more research topic discussions

Memos, like any Source, can be coded, and


given links and annotations.

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Nodes and Coding

Five types of Nodes


Nodes are NVIVOs concept categories
First four represent people, places, topics, concepts, attitudes etc., and
their combinations. That is, they represent entities.

Free Nodes (unordered)


Tree Nodes (for category/subcategory cataloguing)
Cases (for interviewees, people, places etc.)
Tables (i.e. Matrices)
Relationships (patent pending)
Not representing entities, but making statements.

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Nodes and Coding

Give nodes nicknames

Nicknames for
nodes speed up
referencing
them when
coding

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Nodes and Coding

Cases are much more central

Why? Because only Cases have attributes


Not Sources such as interview docs, not other Nodes
Attributes are intended for demographic information about people,
places, organizations, etc.
Cases are where people, places, organizations etc. belong.

Use Relationships instead, to express information about other


things
E.g. interview document information

Make a point of collecting all interview material for an


interviewee at a case node for them.
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Auto-coding group interviews makes this easy.

Nodes and Coding

Relationships an entirely new sort of Node

A relationship joins two Project Items


They are part of the relationship

A relationship makes a statement:


Adrian (works with) Allen
Outsider (causes) attitudes\negative

Code the relationship with the evidence for the


statement it makes
Hint: use transitive verbs for relationship names
causes, cannot get on with
Then the statement made is clear:
Annette cannot get on with Adrian
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Nodes and Coding

Coding at Relationships is new and exciting


You can code for
what you read is
being said, not just
for topics.
Outsider (causes)
attitudes\positive

Then open the


relationship Node to
see everything said
about outsiders
bringing about
positive attitudes.
Then open the
related Nodes to see
what you have on
those topics
Outsiders
Attitudes\positive
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Whats in the related nodes will usually be a lot


more, and a lot less specific theyre just topics
And even intersecting them doesnt home in on this
relationship, this claim that outsiders cause
positiveness. In general it will have more, and less.

Nodes and Coding

Importance of Relationships

Ordinary nodes refer to entities


People, concepts, places, topics,
emotions, etc.

Since Relationships make statements,


they can be (and can code evidence for)
Descriptions, analytical claims,
hypotheses, properties of things, etc.

Display them in networks in the Modeler


Complex theories, event & process nets,
structures and organizations
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Nodes and Coding

Lets do some Coding


Drag-anddrop Coding
is easy (but
create new
nodes first!)
Can name
Nodes (&
Sources) in
any
language.
Can also
find text in
any
language.
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Nodes and Coding

Coding context
Can show
context in
Node Detail
View
Can also
spread
coding to its
context

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Nodes and Coding

Viewing Coding
Can highlight coding at
any node, in Detail View
of a Node or Source
Can show up to seven
coding stripes and a
coding density stripe:
Stripes for a node stay in
the one track and with a
unique color
Stripes are live both to
highlighting their text and
to accessing their node.
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Nodes and Coding

Auto-coding is streamlined
For questionnaire-type documents, code by paragraph number
Code by heading text and levels for group interview documents:

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Links

Linking is extended and streamlined

Three types of
links
1. Annotations are
similar to Ms.
Word
Can list &
inspect them
globally
Can be textsearched like
Sources

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Links

Sources and Nodes can have a Memo Link


2. A Memo belongs
uniquely to a single
Source or Node

Or make a freestanding Memo for


research notes
Memos can be
coded and linked like
other sources

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Use it for
commentary on its
original

But not with Memo


links!

Links

See Also Links extended hyperlinking


3. All in-text links are handled by See-Also Links

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Indicated by red wavy underlines


A passage can have multiple See Also links
You can link to just about any Project Item, not just Sources and Nodes
You can also link to any passage in any Source

Links

See Also links can give file & web page access

We have an External interview Tiffany linked to an


audio file
We have an interview Document Paula referring to
a passage in that audio.
1. Put a See Also Link on Paulas comment, linked to
the passage in the External
2. Now we can go straight from Paulas comment to
the audio (and also to the External).

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Sets

Sets are now more flexible


Sets can now contain a
mixture of Sources and Nodes
(including Case Nodes).
Use them for temporary and
changing collections e.g. To
review
Use them as scopes for Query
searches e.g. Divorced
women
Collect them as outputs of
Queries (for further study and
Querying) e.g. Women who
report excellent marriages

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Classifications

Attributes are properties of Cases


Attributes were described earlier in
connexion with Case Nodes
Attributes can be organized as tables of
Case Nodes versus Attributes
Cells hold the value of the Attribute at the
Case

Case Tables can be imported and


exported, e.g. to Excel or SPSS
[Attribute tables are not yet implemented]

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Classifications

Relationship Types

When creating a Relationship, it has to


be of a chosen Type, which involves:
Its name (works with, causes etc.)
Its direction
None, like associated
One-way, like causes or loves
Two-way like is married to
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The Find Tool

The Find Tool locates Project Items


Look for them by name:

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The Find Tool

Advanced Find
The Advanced Find option can handle
complex criteria for finding project items:

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The Find Tool

Grouped Find
Grouped Find is for locating items (the Range)
that relate to any of a number of selected items
(the Scope) [not yet implemented]
Example: find all Free Nodes (the Range)
coding Interview Documents (the Scope)
Result will list each Document and the Free
Nodes that code it.

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The Query System the


powerhouse of NVIVO 7
Queries are ways of locating specific content
Queries can be saved for future use
Re-run them later when data have changed
Edit them to make a similar but different search

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Query

Query

Text Search is similar to Web search engines


Check here
to save the
query
Looking for
three text
items
Can text-search
Annotations too
Use these to set
the scope of the
search
E.g. stemmed search
for give will find
giving, (English only)
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Query

Many options for Query results


What to do with the
results? If you just
preview, you can go
on to save as a
node, etc.
Last 3 items save
the scope items that
had finds, as a set or
as sibling nodes.

Including some
context with finds
(spreading) can be a
good idea, especially
for text search
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The hidden power of Text Search


Read Help on Text Search Queries to
learn about the hidden power of Text
Search:
Items with finds are listed with a
relevance weighting
Boolean search: e.g. for items containing
social interaction but not community.
Use wildcards * and ? (like in Word)
Proximity (how close do you want fear
and threat to be in a search item?)
What weighting do you want to give
different words?
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Query

Coding Query can be Simple or Advanced


Simple
looks for
coding of one
node in the
search
scope.
Advanced
allows the
statement of
many criteria
in a natural
English way.
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Query

Table Queries tabulate many queries at once


Choose the
rows for the
table
Then the
columns
Then the
operator to
make the
cells
Then Run to
make the table
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Query

The result is a Table


Show counts of
Sources, words,
etc.
Inspect each
cells content
like a Node
Export
numerical table
as Excel or tabseparated text
file
Store as Table
Node for future
use.
Give it a Memo,
link it to other
items.
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Query

Compound Queries

These will enable mixing of other types


of query
[Not yet implemented]

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Report Tool

Reports provide project profiles


Use them to
get
information
on any area
of a project

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Report Tool

Print Reports, save as .DOC, .PDF etc.

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Report Tool

Coding Comparison Reports


Compare coding
by two coders in
two identical
documents

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Models are hardly implemented


yet

Models

Heres a model of some relationships + their coded evidence

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And heres the final wrap-up!


No Using NVIVO book this time from Lyn Richards
Instead its a whole book in the Help files, Your Research
in NVIVO 7
Its a conceptual help to read by itself as a book
But also its carefully linked into the top-notch procedural
help
why as well as how for each topic, e.g. coding at relationships

Handling Qualitative Data by Lyn Richards (London,


Sage, 2005) will have new tutorials for NVIVO 7 on their
website www.sagepub.co.uk/richards

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