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Pipeline Design Training

Free Span Analysis


10 August 2006

NRG ENGINEERING

training@nrgengineering.com

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Pipeline Design Training Module I Overview


August 2 August 28, by Mr. Eng Bin NG
1

Applicable
Codes

On-bottom
Stability
(Concrete
Coating)
Design

Wall
Thickness
Design

Cathodic
Protection
Design

Pipe
Expansion
Calculatio
ns

4 Allowable

Free Span
Calculatio
ns

Flexibility
Analysis
Methodolo
gy
8

Use of
Spoilers
for Pipe
Self-burial

Pipeline
Constructi
on -

Conventiona
l&
Unconventio
nal

Pipeline
Protection

against
Anchors,
Wave
Liquefaction
&
Earthquake

On-bottom
Roughnes
s Analysis
10

Installation
Engineerin
g
(1/2)

Installation
Engineerin
g
(2/2)

Workshop, revision, exercise

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Pipeline Design Training Module I Schedule


Weekending

Aug 4
1 2

Aug 11
4

Aug 18

Aug 25

28

10 11 14 15 16 17 18 21 22 23 24 25 28

Applicable Codes, Wall Thickness


Design
On-bottom Stability (Concrete
Coating) Design
Pipe Expansion Calculations,
Flexibility Analysis Methodology
Allowable Free Span Calculations,
On-bottom Roughness Analysis
Pipeline Protection against Anchors,
Wave Liquefaction & Earthquake
Cathodic Protection Design

Today

Use of Spoilers for Pipe Self-burial


Pipeline Construction - Conventional
& Unconventional
Installation Engineering

Workshop, revision, exercise


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Introduction
The pipeline span analysis is performed to determine
allowable pipeline free spans in installation, hydrotest and
operation conditions.
The allowable pipeline span is established from static load
considerations and dynamic (vortex shedding).
Static span design criteria are based on the allowable
bending stress for the pipeline. The static span calculations
take into account the pipeline weight, design pressure,
design temperature and additional forces due to current and
significant waves associated with the relevant return period.
The hydrodynamic loading is computed based on the design
water depth.
The vortex shedding calculations are based on the design
currents and significant waves
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Therelevant
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Static Span
The maximum allowable span length based on static stress
considerations are dependent on self-weight of the pipe and
coatings and the uniformly distributed load from the
environment.
The allowable static span length for a pipeline is calculated
by limiting the equivalent stress in the span to ab where
ab is the allowable bending stress based on the Von Mises
equation after deducting the axial stress.

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Static Span (contd)


Where

ab

= Allowable Bending Stress (N/m2)

Ls = Maximum static span (m)


I

= Second Moment of area (m4)

= Outside Diameter of Steel Pipe (m)

= Uniformly distributed load per unit length (N/m


= (Fv2 + FH2)0.5

Fv

= Total Vertical Force (N/m)


= Ws

FH

= Total Horizontal force (N/m)


=

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FD FI
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FD

Drag Force (N/m)

=
FI

0.5C D sw Dt (Vc U s cos ) 2

Inertia Force (N/m)

=
CD =

sw

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0.25C I sw Dt As sin
2

Drag Coefficient

CI

Ws =

Submerged pipe weight (N/m)

Inertia Coefficient

Density of seawater (kg/m3)

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Dt

Vc =

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Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)


Horizontal steady current normal to pipe axis (m/s)

Us
velocity
As

Total outer diameter of pipe (m)

=
Wave induced horizontal water particle
normal to pipe axis (m/s)

Horizontal water particle acceleration normal to


the pipe axis (m/s2)

Wave phase angle (deg)

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The allowable bending stress is computed based on a fully


restrained pipeline, which gives the most critical span
requirement.
The allowable bending stress due to span effect is
determined by using the Von Mises equation. The allowable
bending stress is computed by setting the allowable
equivalent stresses and deducting the stress due to internal
pressure, curvature and temperature effect.
The pipe stresses must not exceed the allowable combined
stresses in all conditions. These allowable stresses are used
in the static span calculation to determine the allowable
span length with self-weight and 1 year and 100 year
environmental loading.
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Allowable combined stresses are presented below:


TABLE 4.2 ALLOWABLE STRESS CRITERIA
Description

Allowable Combined Stress


(%SMYS)

Installation
72
Hydrotest
90
Operation
90

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Dynamic Span
The dynamic span is calculated by considering the vortex
induced vibration (VIV) from the flow velocity acting on the
pipeline.
The excitation due to vortex shedding is analysed in
accordance with Appendix A of 1981 DNV Rules of
Submarine Pipeline System (Ref. [2]). In this guideline, the
pipeline is designed for no vortex shedding vibration.
Under the guidelines of DNV 81 (Ref. [2]), to avoid the
occurrence of vortex shedding excitation, the maximum
permissible free-span length will be determined based on a
comparison of the frequency of vortex shedding and the
natural frequency of the pipe span.
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The vortex shedding frequency is given by the formula:

S tU c
fv
Dt
Where:

fv
St

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=
=

Vortex shedding frequency (1/s)


Strouhal number

Uc =

Flow velocity normal to pipeline (m/s)

Dt =

Pipe diameter (total) (m)

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For determination of the velocity ranges where vortex


shedding induced oscillations may occur, a parameter
called the reduced velocity Vr, is used. Vr is defined as:
Vr
Where:

Vr =

Reduced velocity

Uc =

Flow velocity normal to pipe axis (m/s)

fn

Natural frequency of pipe span (1/s)

Dt =

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Uc
f n Dt

Outer pipe diameter including coatings (m)

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The natural frequency of the free span is determined from:

C1
fn
2
Where:

C1 =
E
I

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=
=

EI

4
me L

1
2

Numerical constant dependent on end conditions (


Youngs modulus (N/m2)
2nd moment of area of pipe (m4)

me =

Effective mass of pipe (kg/m)

Length of free-span (m)

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The numerical constant, C1, which is dependent on the end


restraint conditions, varies over the range to 22.0 for end
conditions varying from simply supported to fully fixed. In
this case, C1 is taken as 15.4 (fixed/pinned condition).

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The effective mass per unit length, me, is defined as:

me m p mc m a
Where: me =

Effective mass (kg/m)

mp =

Mass of coated pipe in air (kg/m)

mc =

Mass of content (kg/m)

ma = Added mass (kg/m)


= mass of water displaced by the volume
of the coated pipe

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Another parameter controlling the response of the pipeline


is the stability parameter, Ks, defined as:

2me
Ks
w Dt
Where:

Ks =

Stability parameter (-)

me = Effective mass (kg/m)

= Logarithmic decrement of structural


damping (-)

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Dt =

Outer pipe diameter including coatings (m)

w =

Mass density of surrounding water (kg/m3)


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Types of Oscillations
Two types of oscillations may occur:
oscillations in-line with the velocity vector (in-line motion),
and
oscillations perpendicular to the velocity vector (cross-flow
motion).

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In-Line Oscillations

Resonant in-line vortex shedding induced


oscillations may occur when 1.0 < Vr <
3.5 and Ks < 1.8.

The flow velocity for the onset of in-line


motion is dependent on Ks. The
relationship is given in Figure A.3 of DNV
1981 Rules (Ref. [1]).

Depending on the flow velocity, the


vortices will either be shed symmetrically
or, alternatively, from either side of the
pipe.

For 1.0 < Vr < 2.2 the shedding will be


symmetrical

For Vr > 2.2 the shedding will be


asymmetrical.

The amplitude of the motions due to inline vortex excitation may be determined
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from 1981 DNV Rules (how?).

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Cross-flow Oscillations

Cross-flow oscillations may occur for Ks < 16 and values of Vr as determined from
DNV 1981 Rules.
The velocity for onset of cross-flow motion is dependent on the Reynolds Number of
the flow across the pipe span (See Figure A.5 of DNV 1981 (Ref. [1])).

The amplitude of the cross-flow motion is dependent on Ks, the stability parameter.
The maximum value, as predicted by the DNV approach, may be determined from
1981 DNV Rules (how?).

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The critical span length for a known set of environmental


conditions is calculated using the procedure given below:
Establish the value of Ks and hence determine the reduced
velocity for onset of in-line and cross-flow motion, Vr. Rearrange and combine the formulae given above to give an
expression for the critical span length.
1

BD t Vr
Lcr

U
c

Where: Lcr =
B

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Critical free span length (m)


15.4 EI

2 me

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1
2

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Pipeline Design Training

Any questions?

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training@nrgengineering.com

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