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Data Collection Tools

The Interview

Present by:
NAME

ID

Md. Mahmudul Hasan Hirok


S.A.M. Mahmudul Hasan

160204561

Ershad Mridha
Md. Forhad
Monoar Hossen

160204551

Data Collection

Data collection is the process of gathering and


measuring information on variables of interest, in an
established systematic fashion that enables one to
answer stated research questions, test hypotheses, and
evaluate outcomes.

Types of Research Data Collection


Techniques
Data Collection Method

Primary Data

Secondary Data

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Questionnaire

INTERVIEW
Interview

Observation

What is an Interview?

The interview method of collecting data involves presentation of oralverbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral-verbal responses. This method
can be used through personal interviews and, if possible, through
telephone interviews.

Kvale (1996) regarded interviews as an interchange of views


between two or more people on a topic of mutual interest, sees the
centrality of human interaction for knowledge production, and
emphasizes the social situatedness of research data.

Why Should We Use Interview As A


Data Collection Method?
According to McNamara, 1999

Interviews are particularly useful for getting the story behind a


participants experiences.

The interviewer can pursue in-depth information around the topic.

Interviews may be useful as follow-up to certain respondents.

(cont) Why Should We Use Interview


As A Data Collection Method?
Gray (2004) has given the following reasons

There is a need to attain highly personalized data.

There are opportunities required for probing.

A good return rate is important (speed).

When respondents are not fluent in the native language of the country,
or where they have difficulties with written language.

Immediacy

(cont) Why Should We Use Interview


As A Data Collection Method?

Data from interview are usable

Depth of response can be assured

In an exploratory study, the interview technique provides basis for the


formulation of questionnaire

Clarification is possible

No items are overlooked

Higher proportion of responses is obtained

Greater amount of flexibility is allowed

Types Of Interview

Types of
interview

Personal
Interview

Telephone
interview

Focus group
interview

Depth
interview

Projective
techniques

Personal Interview

Personal interview method requires a person known as the interviewer


asking questions generally in a face-to-face contact to the other person
or persons.

A face to face two way communication between the interviewer and the
respondents

This sort of interview may be in the form of direct personal investigation


or it may be indirect oral investigation.

This can be done in many forms e.g. door to door or as a planned


formal executive meeting.

Methods of conducting an Personal


Interview

Structured interviews involve the use of a set of predetermined


questions and of highly standardized techniques of recording.

Unstructured interviews are characterized by a flexibility of approach


to questioning. It do not follow a system of pre-determined questions
and standardized techniques of recording information.

Focused interview is meant to focus attention on the given experience


of the respondent and its effects.

Clinical interview is concerned with broad underlying feelings or


motivations or with the course of individuals life experience.

Non-directive interview is simply to encourage the respondent to talk


about the given topic with a bare minimum of direct questioning.

Merits of Personal Interview

Information at greater depth

Flexibility of restructuring the Questionnaire

Interviewer by his skill can come over resistance

Non Response generally low

Samples can controlled more effectively

Personal information can be obtained

Interviewer can collect supplementary information about respondents


personal characteristics and environment which has value in interpreting
results

Demerits of Personal Interview

Expensive method

Respondent may give bias information

Some Executive people are not approachable so data collected may be


inadequate

Takes more time when samples are more

Systematic errors may be occurred

Supervisors has to do complex work of selecting ,training and


supervising the field staff.

Telephone interviews

This method of collecting information consists in contacting respondents


on telephone itself.

Telephone interviewing demonstrates the same structural characteristics


as standard interviewing techniques, except that it is conducted by
telephone

Uncommon method may be used in developed regions.

Merits of Telephone Interview

Flexible compare to mailing method

Faster than other methods

Cheaper than personal interview method

Callbacks are simple and economical also

High response than mailing method.

when it is not possible to contact the respondent directly, then interview is


conducted through Telephone.

Replies can be recorded without embarrassment to respondents

Interviewer can explain requirements more easily

No field staff is required

Wider distribution of sample is possible

Demerits of Telephone Interview

Little time is given to respondents.

Survey is restricted to respondents who have telephones.

Not suitable for intensive survey where comprehensive answers are


required

Bias information may be more.

Very difficult to make questionnaire because it should short and to the


point.

Extensive geographical coverage may get restricted by cost


considerations.

Conclusion
Interviewing is an art governed by certain scientific principles.
For successful implementation of the interview method,

Interviewers should be carefully selected, trained and briefed.

Occasional field checks should be made.

Some provision should also be made in advance so that appropriate


action may be taken if some of the selected respondents refuse to
cooperate or are not available when an interviewer calls upon them.

The interviewer must ask questions properly and intelligently and must
record the responses accurately and completely.

The interviewer must answer legitimate question(s)

THANK
YOU