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Data Collection Tools

The Interview

Present by:


Md. Mahmudul Hasan Hirok

S.A.M. Mahmudul Hasan


Ershad Mridha
Md. Forhad
Monoar Hossen


Data Collection

Data collection is the process of gathering and

measuring information on variables of interest, in an
established systematic fashion that enables one to
answer stated research questions, test hypotheses, and
evaluate outcomes.

Types of Research Data Collection

Data Collection Method

Primary Data

Secondary Data





What is an Interview?

The interview method of collecting data involves presentation of oralverbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral-verbal responses. This method
can be used through personal interviews and, if possible, through
telephone interviews.

Kvale (1996) regarded interviews as an interchange of views

between two or more people on a topic of mutual interest, sees the
centrality of human interaction for knowledge production, and
emphasizes the social situatedness of research data.

Why Should We Use Interview As A

Data Collection Method?
According to McNamara, 1999

Interviews are particularly useful for getting the story behind a

participants experiences.

The interviewer can pursue in-depth information around the topic.

Interviews may be useful as follow-up to certain respondents.

(cont) Why Should We Use Interview

As A Data Collection Method?
Gray (2004) has given the following reasons

There is a need to attain highly personalized data.

There are opportunities required for probing.

A good return rate is important (speed).

When respondents are not fluent in the native language of the country,
or where they have difficulties with written language.


(cont) Why Should We Use Interview

As A Data Collection Method?

Data from interview are usable

Depth of response can be assured

In an exploratory study, the interview technique provides basis for the

formulation of questionnaire

Clarification is possible

No items are overlooked

Higher proportion of responses is obtained

Greater amount of flexibility is allowed

Types Of Interview

Types of



Focus group



Personal Interview

Personal interview method requires a person known as the interviewer

asking questions generally in a face-to-face contact to the other person
or persons.

A face to face two way communication between the interviewer and the

This sort of interview may be in the form of direct personal investigation

or it may be indirect oral investigation.

This can be done in many forms e.g. door to door or as a planned

formal executive meeting.

Methods of conducting an Personal


Structured interviews involve the use of a set of predetermined

questions and of highly standardized techniques of recording.

Unstructured interviews are characterized by a flexibility of approach

to questioning. It do not follow a system of pre-determined questions
and standardized techniques of recording information.

Focused interview is meant to focus attention on the given experience

of the respondent and its effects.

Clinical interview is concerned with broad underlying feelings or

motivations or with the course of individuals life experience.

Non-directive interview is simply to encourage the respondent to talk

about the given topic with a bare minimum of direct questioning.

Merits of Personal Interview

Information at greater depth

Flexibility of restructuring the Questionnaire

Interviewer by his skill can come over resistance

Non Response generally low

Samples can controlled more effectively

Personal information can be obtained

Interviewer can collect supplementary information about respondents

personal characteristics and environment which has value in interpreting

Demerits of Personal Interview

Expensive method

Respondent may give bias information

Some Executive people are not approachable so data collected may be


Takes more time when samples are more

Systematic errors may be occurred

Supervisors has to do complex work of selecting ,training and

supervising the field staff.

Telephone interviews

This method of collecting information consists in contacting respondents

on telephone itself.

Telephone interviewing demonstrates the same structural characteristics

as standard interviewing techniques, except that it is conducted by

Uncommon method may be used in developed regions.

Merits of Telephone Interview

Flexible compare to mailing method

Faster than other methods

Cheaper than personal interview method

Callbacks are simple and economical also

High response than mailing method.

when it is not possible to contact the respondent directly, then interview is

conducted through Telephone.

Replies can be recorded without embarrassment to respondents

Interviewer can explain requirements more easily

No field staff is required

Wider distribution of sample is possible

Demerits of Telephone Interview

Little time is given to respondents.

Survey is restricted to respondents who have telephones.

Not suitable for intensive survey where comprehensive answers are


Bias information may be more.

Very difficult to make questionnaire because it should short and to the


Extensive geographical coverage may get restricted by cost


Interviewing is an art governed by certain scientific principles.
For successful implementation of the interview method,

Interviewers should be carefully selected, trained and briefed.

Occasional field checks should be made.

Some provision should also be made in advance so that appropriate

action may be taken if some of the selected respondents refuse to
cooperate or are not available when an interviewer calls upon them.

The interviewer must ask questions properly and intelligently and must
record the responses accurately and completely.

The interviewer must answer legitimate question(s)