Anda di halaman 1dari 62

HRD FRAMEWORK

TOPICS COVERED
HRD
FRAMEWORK
Evaluatio
n of HRD
HRD Program Program
Implementation
Creating A HRD
program
HRD Need
Assessment

A Framework for the HRD


Process
HRD efforts should use the following four
phases (or stages):
Needs Assessment
Design
Implementation
Evaluation

(A DImE)

The HRD Process: A DImE

Definition Of Need:
Before delving deep into need assessment, it is
of
paramount importance to know, what is the
meaning of
need.
Need- The concept of need refers to a
discrepancy or
gap between what an organization expects to
happen and what actually occurs.

Various Types of Needs


Performance
Diagnostic
Factors that can prevent problems from
occurring
Analytic
Identify new or better ways to do things
Compliance
Mandated by law or regulation

Need Assessment
A process by which an organizations HRD needs

are identified and articulated.


It identifies:
a) an organizations goals and its effectiveness in
reaching these goals.
b) Gaps between current skills and the skills needed
to perform the job successfully.
c) Gaps between employees skills and the skills
required for effective current job performance.
d) The conditions under which the HRD activity will
occur.

There is nothing so useless as


doing efficiently that which
should not be done at all.
-Peter F. Drucker

Benefits
Through needs assessment, we try to

answer questions like:


1. Need for the needs assessment,
2. Accomplishment of type of learning,
3. Expected changes in the behavior and
performance,
4. Probability of achieving the results,
5. Cost benefit analysis of HRD solutions.
6. Root causes of performance gaps

Levels of Need Assessment


1. Organizational analysis
Where is training needed and under what
conditions?

2. Task analysis
What must be done to perform the job
effectively?

3. Individual analysis.
Who should be trained and how?

Organizational Analysis
It looks at the effectiveness of the organization and

determines where training is needed and under what


conditions it will be conducted.
Why
Ties HRD programs to corporate or
organizational goals
Strengthens the link between profit and HRD
actions
Strengthens corporate support for HRD
Makes HRD more of a revenue generator

Not a profit waster

Source of Organizational
Analysis
Mission statement
HRM inventory
Skills inventory
Quality of Working Life indicators
Efficiency indexes
System changes
Exit interviews

Task Analysis
It provides data about a job or a group of jobs

and the knowledge, skills, attitudes and


abilities needed to achieve optimum
performance.

How to Collect Information For a


Task Analysis

KSA analysis
Performance standards
Observe the job/sample the work.
Perform the job.
Job inventory questionnaire.
Review literature about the job.
Ask questions about the job.
Analysis of operating problems.

INDIVIDUAL ANALYSIS
It analyzes how well the individual employee

is doing the job and determines which


employees need training and of what kind.
Based on many sources of data
Summary Analysis
Determine overall success of the individual

Diagnostic Analysis
Discover reasons for performance

SOURCES FOR INDIVIDUAL


ANALYSIS

Performance evaluation.
Performance problems.
Observation.
Work samples.
Interviews.
Questionnaires.
Attitude surveys.
Checklists or training progress charts.

FOUR STEPS TO CONDUCTING A NEEDS ASSESSMENT:


STEP 1. PERFORM A "GAP" ANALYSIS.
The first step is to check the actual performance of

our organizations and our people against existing


standards, or to set new standards.
There are two parts to this:
Current situation
Desired or necessary situation

The difference the "gap" between the current and

the necessary will identify our needs, purposes,


and objectives.

FOUR STEPS TO CONDUCTING A NEEDS


ASSESSMENT
STEP 2. IDENTIFY PRIORITIES AND IMPORTANCE
It must be seen whether the identified needs are
real, if they are worth addressing, and specify their
importance and urgency in view of organizational
needs and requirements (1). For example (2):
Cost-effectiveness
Legal mandates
If some of our needs are of relatively low importance,
we would do better to devote our energies to
addressing other human performance problems with
greater impact and greater value.

FOUR STEPS TO CONDUCTING A


NEEDS ASSESSMENT
Step 3. IDENTIFY CAUSES OF PERFORMANCE

PROBLEMS AND/OR OPPORTUNITIES.


We must know what our performance requirements are,

if appropriate solutions are to be applied. We should


ask two questions for every identified need: (3)
Are our people doing their jobs effectively?
Do they know how to do their jobs?
This will require detailed investigation and analysis of

our people, their jobs, and our organizations -- both for


the current situation and in preparation for the future.

FOUR STEPS TO CONDUCTING A NEEDS


ASSESSMENT
Step 4. IDENTIFY POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS AND GROWTH

OPPORTUNITIES.

"If it ain't broke, don't fix it."


But if our people ARE NOT doing their jobs effectively:
TRAINING may be the solution, if there is a knowledge

problem.
Organizational Development activities may provide
solutions when the problem is not based on a lack of
knowledge and is primarily associated with systematic
change. These interventions might include strategic
planning, organization restructuring, performance
management and/or effective team building.

CAVEAT
Figuring out what is really needed
Not always an easy task
Needs lots of input
Takes a lot of work
Do it now or do lots more later
First step in both the ISD and HRD process

models

Phase Two: Designing the Training or


HRD Intervention
Key activities include:
Setting objectives
Selecting the trainer or vendor
Developing lesson plans
Selecting methods and techniques
Preparing materials
Scheduling training

Phase Two: Design

Objectives
Performance
Conditions
Criterias

PERFORMANCE:
Increase upper body strength
Assemble a chair
Catch a football pass
Graduate from college
Werner & DeSimone (2006)

25

Conditions
Conditions under which performance is done
e.g.,
using standard conditioning equipment
using a screwdriver and hammer
at a full run under man-to-man coverage
without cheating or outside help

Werner & DeSimone (2006)

26

Criteria
The level of acceptable performance e.g.,
by 25 percent within one year
within one hour without mistakes
at least 80% of the time without penalties
within 5 years and with a B average

Werner & DeSimone (2006)

27

Make or Buy Decisions


You cannot be an expert on everything
You cant afford to maintain a full-time staff

for once-a-year training


You cant afford the time or money to build all
of your own training programs
Implication: Much training is purchased,
rather than self-produced

Werner & DeSimone (2006)

28

Factors to Consider Before


Purchasing an HRD Program
Level of expertise available/required
Timeliness
Number of trainees
Subject matter
Cost
Size of HRD organization
X Factor (other conditions)

Werner & DeSimone (2006)

29

Other Factors to Consider


Vendor credentials
Vendor background
Vendor experience
Philosophical match (between vendor and

organization)
Delivery method

Werner & DeSimone (2006)

30

EIGHT POINT STRATEGY FOR


HRD PROGRAMS
Jerry Gillet and Seteven Eggland (2002)

identified for managers of HRD an eight-point


strategy for designing cost-effective,
reputable HRD programs that can survive
economic crises and internal/external changes
affecting the organization.
Establish a written HRD philosophy.
Establish HRD policy.
Obtain support of top management.
Integrate HRD into the long-range
organizational plan.

Conduct extensive needs assessments.


Encourage collaboration.
Establish criteria for participation in HRD

programs.
Be introspective but focus on results.

The Learning Pyramid

By Permission: Yin (2004)

Training Delivery Methods


Three basic categories:
On-the-Job Training
Off- the- Job Training
Classroom Training
Self-Paced Training

Note: Computer-based training can be in a classroom,


or individual/self-paced.

On-the-Job Training (OJT)


Job instruction training (JIT)
Prepare the worker , Present the task, Practice the task, Follow
up.

Job rotation
Train on different task/ positions, often used to train entry level
managers, To provide back up in production position.

Coaching
Between worker and supervisor. Can provide specific performance
improvement and correction.

Mentoring
senior employee paired with a junior employee (protg), Helps
to learn the ropes, Prepares protg for future advancement

OFF-the-Job Training
This occurs when employees are taken

away from their place of work to be


trained. Common methods of off-the-job
training include:
Day release
Distance learning / evening classes
Block release courses
Sandwich courses
Sponsored courses in higher education

Classroom Training Approaches


Five basic types:
Lecture - Oral presentation of material ,Some
visual aids can be added, Remains a very
popular training method, Interesting lectures
can work well, Good to supplement with other
materials.
Discussion - Two-way communication,Use
questions to control lesson, Direct: produce
narrow responses, Reflective: mirror what was
said, Open-Ended: challenge learners to
increase understanding

Classroom Training
Approaches
Experimental Methods - Case studies,

Business game simulations, Role Playing,


Behavior Modeling, Outdoor training
Self-Paced or Computer-Based Training

Audiovisual Media
Brings visual senses (seeing) into play, along with

audio senses (hearing)


Types:
STATIC MEDIA- Printed materials, Lecture notes, Work aids,
Handouts

DYNAMIC MEDIA- Audio cassettes, CDs, Film, Videotape,


Video disc
TELECOMMUNICATIONS- Instructional TV,
Teleconferencing,
Videoconferencing

Computer-Based Training (CBT)


Interactive with user
Training when and where user wants it
Trainee has greater control over progress
CBT can provide progress reports and be

tailored to specific instructional objectives


Trainee works on own with minimal
facilitation by instructor who is elsewhere

E-learning
Intranet
Internal to site/organization
Internet
General communications
Online reference
Needs assessment, administration, testing
Distribution of CBT
Delivery of multimedia

EVALUATION OF Training
Evaluation of HRD Program helps in gauging

the degree to which a training (or other HRD


program) achieves its intended purpose.
In other words it measures the effectiveness
of the HRD program.

EVALUATION OF Training
Textbook definition:
The systematic collection of descriptive and
judgmental information necessary to make
effective training decisions related to the
selection, adoption, value, and modification
of various instructional activities.
Any attempt to obtain information (feedback)
on the effect of training program and to
assess the value of training in the light of that
information for improving further training.

Effectiveness of HRD Program:


a) The degree to which a training (or other HRD program)

achieves its intended purpose


b) Measures are relative to some starting point
c) Measures how well the desired goal is achieved
)In other words:

Are we training:
a) the right people
b) the right stuff
c) the right way
d) with the right materials
e) at the right time

Before Training:The learner's skills and knowledge are assessed

before thetraining program. During the start of training, candidates


generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the
times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes
of the program. Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on
the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the
candidates preferences and learning style.

During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. This

phase
After

usually

consist

of

short

tests

at

regular

intervals

Training:It is the phase when learnersskills and


knowledgeare assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the
training. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had
the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels.
There are various evaluation techniques for this phase.

Purposes of Evaluation:
Determine whether the program is meeting the

intended objectives
Identify strengths and weaknesses
Determine cost-benefit ratio
Identify who benefited most or least
Determine future participants
Provide information for improving HRD programs
Reinforce major points to be made
Gather marketing information
Determine if training program is appropriate
Establish management database

The Training Evaluation should involve:


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

senior management
the trainer
line management
the training manager
the trainee

Models and Frameworks of Evaluation

There are six frameworks for evaluation


1. Kirkpatrick
2. CIPP
3. Brinkerhoff
4. Kraiger, Ford & Salas
5. Holton
6. Philips
The most popular is that of D. Kirkpatrick:
Reaction
Learning
Job Behavior
Results

KIRKPATRIKS Four Levels

A Suggested Framework
Reaction
Did trainees like the training?
Did the training seem useful?

Learning
How much did they learn?

Behavior
What behavior change occurred?

Results
What were the tangible outcomes?
What was the return on investment (ROI)?
What was the contribution to the organization?

Advantages and Disadvantages of


Techniques
Methods

Advantages

Disadvantages

1.

Flexible
Opportunity for clarification
Depth Possible
Personal Contact

High Reactive effects


High cost
Face-to-Face Threat Potential
Trained Observers Needed

2. Questionnaire

Low cost
Anonymity Possible
Respondent Sets Pace
Variety Of Options

Possibly Inaccurate Data


Return Rate Beyond Control

3. Observation

Non- Threatening
Excellent way to Measure Behavior
Change

Possibly Disruptive
Reactive Effect Probable
Trained Observers Needed

4. Written Test

Low Purchase Cost


Readily Scored and Quickly
Processed
Easily Administered
Wide Sampling Possible

Possible low Relation to Job


Performance
Reliance on Norms May Distort
Individual Performance
Cultural Bias

5. Simulation/ Performance Test

Reliable
Objective
Close Relation to Job Performance

Time consuming
Simulation often Difficult and
Costly

Interview

Ethical Issues Concerning


Evaluation Research
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Confidentiality
Informed consent
Withholding training from control groups
Use of deception
Pressure to produce positive results

Evaluation of Training Costs


Cost-benefit analysis
Compares cost of training to benefits gained such as
attitudes, reduction in accidents, reduction in employee
sick-days, etc.
Cost-effectiveness analysis
Focuses on increases in quality, reduction in scrap/rework,
productivity, etc.

Types of Training Costs


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Direct costs
Indirect costs
Development costs
Overhead costs
Compensation for participants

Problems with the Traditional


View
Misuse of the terms evaluation and

evaluating effectiveness
Failure to explicitly address the different
purposes for evaluating HRD activities
Narrow view of stakeholders and their
agendas
Outdated range of subjects for HRD
evaluation
Insufficient research methods (definition of
units of analysis and tools for

HRD Evaluation Steps


Analyze needs.
Determine explicit evaluation strategy.
Insist on specific and measurable training

objectives.
Obtain participant reactions.
Develop criterion measures/instruments to measure
results.
Plan and execute evaluation strategy.

Benefits of Evaluation
Improved quality of training activities
Improved ability of the trainers to relate inputs to outputs
Better discrimination of training activities between those that are

worthy of support and those that should be dropped


Better integration of training offered and on-the job development
Better co-operation between trainers and line-managers in the
development of staff
Evidence of the contribution that training and development are
making to the organization
Reduction in preventable accidents measured
Reduction in scrap/rework measured in cost of labor and materials

Bibliography
Gent, Michael J. and Gregory G. Dell'Omo.

"The Needs Assessment Solution." Personnel


Administrator, July 1989: 82-84.
McGehee, W. and P-W. Thayer. Training in
Business and Industry. New York: Wiley, 1961.
Werner and DeSimone ,Human Resource
Development: Foundation. Framework and
Application , 2006 edition[Reprint 2008]

Brinkerhoff, R.O., Achieving Results from

Training, Jossey-Bass Inc., San Francisco,


1987, p. 39.
Zemke, R., & Gunkler, J., "Using Small Group
Techniques for Needs Assessment, Data
Gathering, and other Heinous Acts", seminar
notes, American Society for Training and
Development Southern Minnesota Chapter,
Minneapolis, July 9, 1985.
Margolis, F.H., and Bell, C.R., Understanding
Training: Perspectives & Practices, University
Associates, San Diego, 1989, pp 13-15.

http://en.wikipedia.org/Human_resource_d

evelopment.html
[Accessed on 10th July,2011]
http://www.helium.com/items/1800411-need
s-analysis-training
[Accessed on 10th July, 2011]
http://www.eolss.net/EolssSampleChapters
/C11/E1-10-02/E1-10-02-TXT-02.aspx
[Accessed on 11th July, 2011]