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MANAGEMEN RISIKO KESELAMATAN

TAMBANG
Ir Untung Suryanto MSc

Job Safety Analysis


What is a Job Safety Analysis (JSA)
A JSA is a technique of screening job tasks as a
way to identify hazards before they occur.
It focuses on the relatinship between the worker,
the task, the tools and the work environment.
After identifying hazards, you can take steps to
eliminate or reduce the hazard to an acceptable
level.
Hazard a potential for harm
A hazard is associated with a condition or
activity that, if left uncontrolled, can result in an
injury or illness.

HAZARD & RISIKO


HAZARD
Suatu keadaan/kondisi yang dapat
mengakibatkan (berpotensi) menimbulkan
kerugian (injury/penyakit) bagi pekerja

RISIKO
Kemungkinan/peluang suatu hazard menjadi
suatu kenyataan
Pajanan, Frekuensi, Konsekuensi
Dose - Response

Mengelola risiko harus dilakukan secara


komprehensif melalui pendekatan manajemen
risiko, yang meliputi:
1. Penentuan konteks,
2. Identifikasi risiko
3. Analisa risiko,
4. Evaluasi risiko,
5. Pengendalian risiko,
6. Komunikasi,dan
7. Pemantauan dan tinjauan ulang

Langkah awal mengembangkan manajemen risiko adalah menentuhkan konteks


yang diperluhkan karena manajemen risiko sangat luas dan bermacam
aplikasinya salah satu diantaranya adalah manajemen risiko K3.
Untuk manajemen risiko K3 sendiri,juga diperlukan penentuan konteks yang akan
dikembangkan misalnya menyangkut risiko kesehatan kerja,kebakaran, hygiene,
industry,dan lainnya.
Dari konteks tersebut masih dapat dikembangkan lebih lanjut misalnya
manajemen risiko untuk aktivita rumah sakit, industry kimia, kilang minyak,
konstruksi, dan bidang lainnya.
penentuan konteks ini diselaraskan dengan visi dan misi organisasi serta sasaran
yang ingin dicapai.lebih lanjut ditetepkan pula criteria risiko yang sesuai bagi
organisasi.
setelah menetapkan konteks manajemen risiko,langkah berikutnya adalah
melakukan identifikasi bahaya,analisa dan evaluasi risiko serta menentukan
langkah atau strategi pengendaliannya.

JENIS PEKERJAAN YANG BERISIKO

PETUGAS KESEHATAN
PETUGAS PETERNAKAN
PETUGAS PEMBERSIH SELOKAN/SAMPAH
PETUGAS YANG BEKERJA DENGAN
KELEMBABAN TINGGI Jamur kulit
(panu, candida, dll)

TEMPAT KERJA YANG BERISIKO

LAB MIKROBIOLOGI, LAB KESMAS, LAB


BIOMOLEKULER

RS & FASILITAS KESEHATAN LAINNYA


FASILITAS BIOTEKNOLOGI
FASILITAS DOKTER HEWAN & BINATANG
PERTANIAN
LAIN-LAIN

PENGENDALIAN

CONTAINMENT mencegah pajanan

BIOSAFETY PROGRAM MANAGEMENT support


dari pimpinan puncak

Desain tempat kerja


Peralatan safety (biosafety cabinet, peralatan
centrifugal)
Cara kerja
Dekontaminasi
Penanganan limbah dan spill management

Program support, biosafety spesialist, institutional


biosafety committee, biosafety manual, OH
program, Info & Educt

COMPLIANCE ASSESSMENT

Audit, annual review, Incident & accident statistics


8

PENANGGULANGAN BAHAYA BIOLOGI

MENGENAL BAHAYA-BAHAYA BIOLOGI YANG ADA


DI TEMPAT KERJA
MENGHINDARI KONTAK LANGSUNG DENGAN
SUMBER PENULAR
MELAKUKAN TINDAKAN ASEPSIS YANG BENAR
MENJAGA KEBERSIHAN DIRI
MENGGUNAKAN ALAT PELINDUNG DIRI YANG
SESUAI

ERGONOMI
Ilmu yang mempelajari kesesuaian
antara manusia dengan sistem
kerjannya.
Ilmu aplikasi untuk mendesain
pekerjaan dan tempat kerja agar
sesuai dengan kemampuan dan
keterbatasan tubuh manusia

10

Faktor Risiko Ergonomi


Individu
Kapasitas Kerja Fisik
Umur
Fitness

Organisasi
Job context (rotasi kerja, upah, karir path, dll)
Job content (tingkat kesulitan pekerjaan, ketelitian, dll)

Pekerjaan

Posture
Durasi
Frekuensi
Beban objek (force)

11

TUJUAN PENERAPAN ERGONOMI

MENYESUAIKAN PEKERJAAN DENGAN KONDISI


TUBUH MANUSIA UNTUK MENURUNKAN RISIKO
YANG AKAN DIHADAPI

Efek Kesehatan Ergonomi


Work Musculosceletal Disorders Symptom
12

K3 TAMBANG
Di bawah BINWAS ESDM
Berkiblat pada UU-1/1970,
PP-19/1973, Kepmen555/1995, UU Minerba4/2009, SMKP Minerba38/2014
Dipimpin oleh seorang KTT
KTT dibantu oleh pengawas
operasional dan pengawas
teknis
Kontraktor dipimpin oleh PJO

Dirjen ESDM
KAIT:
1. Direktur Teknik ESDM
2. Ka Dinas Tambang Propinsi

Site Director /

Inspektur Tambang

KTT
HSE Mgr

Kepala Divisi /
WKTT

Kepala Divisi /
WKTT

Ka Dept

PJO

Kepala Tambang
Bawah Tanah

PJO

Kepala
Kapal Keruk
PJO

PENGAWAS OPERASIONAL MADYA (POM)


PENGAWAS OPERASIONAL DAN PENGAWAS TEKNIS (POP)

Apa bedanya?

DASAR HUKUM SMKP


MINERBA
UUD 1945

UUD 1945

Pasal 27 (2)

Pasal 33 (2 & 3)

UU Keselamatan
Kerja

UU Ketenagakerjaan

UU Minerba

UU No.13 /2003

UU No.4 /2009

UU No.1/1970

Pasal 86 & 87

Pasal 96 & 141

PP Penerapan SMK3
PP No. 50 / 2012

PP Binwas Minerba

Pasal 4 (2) & 19

Pasal 16, 26 & 27

PP
Keselamatan
Kerja
Tambang
PP
No.19/1973
Kepmen PE
No.555.K/26/MPE/199
5

PP No.55 /2010

SMKP
Permen ESDM No.38
Th.2014

DEFINISI DAN RUANG LINGKUP


SMKP
Bagian dari sistem manajemen
perusahaan secara keseluruhan dalam
rangka pengendalian risiko yang
berkaitan dengan kegiatan kerja guna
terciptanya tempat kerja yang aman,
efisien dan produktif.
(PP 50 / 2012, Pasal 1 angka 1)

==

==

Konsep
Safety

Konsep K3

Konsep
pekerjaan

Apa yang terjadi bila


anda melihat ini, anda
diam saja?

Apa yang terjadi


melihat ini, anda diam
saja?

KT 4456 come in.....


Masuk pak
Terimakasih kamu
sudah berhenti di stop
sign. Kamu
profesional.
KT
4456

Peran dan Tanggung Jawab


K3
STRUKTURAL
FUNGSIONAL
ANTAR
DEPARTEMEN
(Masuk di Job
Description)

General Manager
Deputy General
Manager

(Dengan surat
penunjukan)

(Standar Tertulis)
Security Department
HR Department

Karyawan

Kepala Teknik Tambang


Wakil Kepala Teknik
Tambang
Anggota Steering
Committee
Anggota Crisis
Management Team
Anggota Taskforce
Anggota Crisis
Management Team
HSE Representative
Sukarelawan Fire and
Rescue
Fire Warden

Karyawan Junior

First Aider

HSE

General
Superintendent
Superintendent
Supervisor
Leader
Karyawan Senior

Training Department
Road Maintenance
Department
Medical Services
Engineering
Department
Purchasing Department
Public Affars
Department
Corporate
Communication

Kedewasaan Sistem K3

K3
Beb
an

K3
Tuntut
an

K3
Priorit
as

K3
Tuju
an

K3
Nilai
hidu
p

K3
Siap
a
kita

Apa yang sebaiknya


anda lakukan waktu
melihat karyawan
bekerja di ketinggian
sudah memakai full
body harness dan
perlengkapannya
dengan benar

Apa yang terjadi


pagi-pagi kita mel
ruang tidur anak
sudah rapi jali sepe
dan waktu melihat
diam saja

Risk Management
1
29
300

Perilaku

Accident

Perkembangan
Risiko

Kegiatan Pekerjaan

Terobosan
untuk
Efisiensi

Stop berpikir normatif

Kritisi apa yang ada untuk


untuk tampil lebih efektif
==

dwi_pudjiarso@indoshe.com
+628121065202
WA
www.indoshe.com

SELF READING AND STUDY..

Risk management in Europe


Generic distances based on environmental impact
in general (noise, smell, dust, etc.).
Consequence based (deterministic or
Qualitative)
Safety distances are based on the extent of
consequences (effects) of distinct accident
scenarios (worst case or reference scenarios).
Risk based (probabilistic or Quantitative)
Quantitative risk analysis (QRA) includes an analysis
of all relevant accident scenarios with respect to
consequences and likelihood (expected frequency),
and results in calculated values of individual risk
and societal risk, which can be compared with
acceptance criteria.

Quantitative vs. qualitative


risk analysis
Identify all hazards
Select a large set of scenarios

Identify all hazards


Select a small set of
scenarios with the largest
consequences
Obtain some feel for the
likelihood of these scenarios

Determine the expected


frequency (likelihood) of all
these scenarios
Determine the consequences of

all these scenarios


Combine all these results (using

wind direction statistics, etc) and


calculate Individual Risk around
the plant
Draw Individual Risk on map and
compare with acceptance
criteria

Determine the consequences


of these scenarios
Draw safety distances on a
map

Qualitative=Consequencebased: advantages and


disadvantages
Selection of scenarios and
Analysis is (relatively)

easy and fast


Decision process is
simple (either safe or

unsafe)
Results are easy to
communicate (based on
easy-to-understand
accident scenarios)

assessment of improbable = (?)


impossible accidents is often
tacit or implicit.
Can give a wrong impression of
precision and safety
Use of worst case scenarios
leads to conservative results
(expensive for society) (Results
are determined by the worstcase but unlikely accidents)
Tendency to forget less severe
scenarios in risk control and
safety management

QRA=risk based:
advantages and
disadvantages
Complete analysis, opportunity
Expensive and
for setting priorities, focus on
most risky items.
Transparent (for experts?), both
probabilities and consequences
are included explicitly
Results can be compared with
criteria for risk acceptance

Results for different types of


facilities can easily be compared
Not dominated by a single
accident scenario not sensitive
for selection of scenarios

cumbersome analysis,
which requires expert
knowledge
The probabilistic
element in the result is
hard to communicate
Result suggests large
accuracy, but it
includes large
uncertainty
The presence of accept
criteria (hard political
decision) is necessary
beforehand

QRA - Probability
assessment of scenarios
Loss of Containment events (each of them
happening with a certain likelihood) are developed
into event trees (scenarios)
Event trees identify the conditional probability of
important conditions (ignition, wind direction)
For each scenario, consequences are quantified (e.g.
fatality rate foot print of a toxic cloud, i.e. probability
of fatality at a position (x,y) for that scenario)
For every point on the map (x,y), sum the
contribution of all the scenarios to the risk at that
point.

Results of QRA:
Individual Risk and Societal
Risk

Frequency (per year)

1.E-03

10-6
10-7
10-8

1.E-04
1.E-05
1.E-06
1.E-07
1.E-08
1.E-09
1

10

100

1000

Expected Fatalities

10000

Qualitative analysis
results: safety distance

Qualitative analysis
results: risk matrix
Severity

Likelihood
per year

Limited
damage

Reversible
damage

Severe
(fatalities)

Catastrophe
(off-site
fatalities)

e-3
e-4

Scenarios for
consequence
analysis
are typically in the
yellow zone

e-5

But dont forget to


manage the
scenarios in the
green zone!

e-6
e-7
e-8
Acceptable
"ALARA", scenarios to be analysed on consequences
Unacceptable

Is there a difference?
Kirchsteiger (1999) concludes:
that there is neither a strictly
deterministic nor a strictly probabilistic
approach to risk analysis. Each probabilistic
approach to risk analysis involves
deterministic arguments, each deterministic
approach includes quantitative arguments
which decide how the likelihood of events is
going to be addressed.

Risk acceptance
For societys acceptance the following factors play a
role:

Risk aversion
Cost/benefit and ALARA principle
The source of the risk: fatality risk in
apartments is a factor 150 less acceptable
than in traffic (Swedish study)
Existing risk criteria are founded on comparison
with general fatality risk (ca. 10-4 per year for young
people) and the costs, society is willing to pay for
saving a human life

Acceptance criteria
For consequence-based method:
Highest likelihood of scenarios that
cause significant consequences,
typically between 10-7 and 10-9 per year
Scheme for the number of safety
barriers depending on likelihood and
severity (force scenario in the green or
yellow part of the risk matrix)
For risk-based method:
Individuel Risk between 10-5 and 10-6
per year
Criterion for societal risk, e.g.
Netherlands: F < 10-3/N2

Risk acceptance final


consideration
Report on the inquiry of the
Flixborough accident states:
for what is or is not acceptable
depends in the end upon current
social tolerance and what is regarded
as tolerable at one time may well be
regarded as intolerable at another.