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6.

2 Causes of death

Viruses
Consist of a strand of nucleic acid (RNA or
DNA) enclosed within a protein coat (viral DNA
can contain single or double strands)
Some viruses also have an outer envelope
taken from the host cells surface membrane
(this envelope contains lipids and proteins)
The envelopes also have glycoproteins from
the virus itself, these are antigen molecules
that are recognised by the hosts immune
system as not being self

Viruses
The envelope helps the virus attach to a cell
and penetrate the surface membrane
An example of an enveloped virus is HIV
Viruses lack some of the internal structures
required for growth and reproduction. This
means they have to enter the cells of the
organisms they infect (the host) and use the
hosts metabolic systems to make more viruses
Disease causing viruses and bacteria are
called Pathogens

Transmission of TB
The Mycobacterium Tuberculosis is carried in the
droplets of mucus and saliva is released into the
air when an infected person talks, coughs or
sneezes, this is known as droplet infection
Droplets may stay suspended for several hours
in low ventilated areas
Close contact with someone infected with TB
increases risk of being infected, along with poor
health, poor diet and overcrowded living
Tuberculosis bacteria is tough and can survive as
a dust from dried droplets for weeks, this makes
things in contact with an infected person
potentially infectious

Transmission of HIV
This virus is not tough an cannot
survive outside the body for any
significant amount of time
Infection can only occur through
direct transfer from body fluids such
as blood, vaginal secretion and
semen (but not urine or saliva) from
the infected person to the next host

Transmission of HIV
HIV can be spread by
Sharing needles with an infected person
Unprotected sex with an infected person
Direct blood to blood transfer through a
cut or graze coming into contact with
the blood of an infected person
Maternal transmission from a mother to
an unborn child or via breast milk

Maternal transmission of
HIV
The risk is most high during the last few weeks
of pregnancy or actually during the birth when
blood of the infant and mother may mingle
During the last 3 months a mother taking antiHIV drugs combined with giving birth by
caesarean section reduces the risk from 20%
to 5% however this option is only realistically
available in countries with advanced medical
care
Barriers between maternal and foetal blood
protect the infant from being infected for most
of the pregnancy