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Differential Approach

DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF FLUID


Finite control volume
approach is very practical
FLOW

and useful, since it does not generally require a


detailed knowledge of the pressure and velocity
variations within the control volume
Problems could be solved without a detailed
knowledge of the flow field

Unfortunately, there are many situations that


arise in which details of the flow are important and
the finite control volume approach will not yield
the desired information

How the velocity varies over the cross section of a


pipe, how the pressure and shear stress vary along
the surface of an airplane wing
In these circumstances we need to develop
relationships that apply at a point, or2 at least in a
very small region infinitesimal volume within a

DIFFERENTIAL
ANALYSIS
PROVIDES
DETAILED KNOWLEDGE OF A FLOW FIELD
Flow domain

Control
volume
Flow
out

Flow
out

Flow
in

Flow in
Flow
out

Flow
out
ur
F

Control volume
analysis
Interior of the CV is
BLACK BOX

VERY

ur
F

Differential analysis
All the details of the
flow are solved at
every point within the
flow domain
3

LINEAR MOTION AND DEFORMATION


Element at t0

Element at t0+t

=
General
motion

Translation

+
Linear
deformation

+
Rotation

Angular
deformation

TRANSLATION

O
v
O

vt

ut

If all points in the element have the same


velocity which is only true if there are no
velocity gradients, then the element will
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simply TRANSLATE from one position
to

LINEAR DEFORMATION
u
u

x
C
x

B u

y
u

u
O

u
x
x

u
x x t

Because of the presence of velocity gradients, the


element will generally be deformed and rotated
u
as it moves. For example, consider the effect of a
x
single velocity gradient
x , y and z
6
On a small cube having sides

x component of velocity of O and B = u


u
u andC
x =
x component of velocity of A
x

This difference in the velocity causes a


STRETCHING of the volume element by a volume

x y z t
x

Rate at which the volume V is changing per unit


volume due
u

x
the gradient

1 d V
Lim
V dt
t 0

t
x

x
7

v
w
&
If the velocity gradients
y
z
present

are also

1 d V
u
v
w

V dt
x
y
z
This rate of change of volume per unit volume is
called the VOLUMETRIC DILATION RATE
Volume of the fluid may change as the element
moves from one location to another in the flow
field
Incompressible fluid volumetric dilation rate =
zero
Change in volume element = zero; fluid density =
constant
8

(The element mass is conserved)

Variations in the velocity in the direction of


velocity cause LINEAR DEFORMATION

u v
w
,
&
x y
z
Linear deformation of the element does not
change the shape of the element
Cross derivates cause the element to ROTATE
and undergo ANGULAR DEFORMATION

u v
,
y x
Angular deformation of the element changes the
shape of the element
9

ANGULAR MOTION AND DEFORMATION


B

u
y
y

y t

y
v

v
v x
x

u
O

v
x x t

Consider x-y plane. In a short time interval t line


segment OA and OB will rotate through angles
and to the new positions OA and OB
10

Angular velocity of OA, OA

oA

Lim
t 0 t

For small angles

Tan

v x

x t v t
x
x

oA Lim
t 0

t
x
t

v
x

- positive oA
counterclockwise
oB Lim
t 0 t

Tan

yt

t
y

u
oB Lim

t
y
t 0

- positive oB - clockwise

11

Rotation z of the element about the z-axis is


defined as the average of the angular velocities
oA and oB of the two mutually perpendicular
lines OA and OB.
Thus, if counterclockwise
rotation is considered
v
u it follows that
1 positive,
z

2 x

ation x of the element about the x-axis


1 w v

2 y z

Rotation yof the element about


the y-axis
1 u w

2 z
x

x i y j z k

12

1
1
curl V V
2
2
Vorticity is defined as the vector that is twice the
rotation vector

2 V

Fluid element will rotate about the z axis as an


u
v

undeformed block (ie.,


oAx = - oB ) only when
y
Otherwise, the
rotation
v
uwill be associated with an angular

Rotation around the z axis is


deformation
x y zero.
Rotation and vorticity are zero;
V 0
13
FLOW FIELD IS IRROTATIONAL

u v
In addition to rotation associated with
derivatives
&
y

These derivatives can cause the fluid element to


undergo an angular deformation which results in
change of shape

Change in the original right angle formed by the line


OA and
OB is SHEARING STRAIN

= +
is positive if the original right angle is decreasing
Rate of Shearing Strain or Rate of Angular
v
u t
Deformation

y
u v

Lim

Lim

t
y
x

t 0 t
t 0

14

u v

y x
Rate of angular deformation is related to a
corresponding shearing stress which causes the
fluid element to change in shape
u
v

Rate of angular deformation is


zero;
Rotati
on

Element is simply rotating as


an undeformed block

15

Volume = V2=
V1
Time = Incompressible
t2

flow field

Fluid elements may


translate, distort, and
rotate but do not grow or
shrink in volume

Time =
t1

Volume = V1

Compressible flow field

(a
)
Time =
t1
Volume = V1

Fluid elements may grow or


shrink in volume as they
translate, distort or rotate

Time =
t2
(b

Volume = V2

16

CONSERVATION OF MASS OR CONTINUITY


EQUATION
DB sys

Dt

cv

bdV

bV ndA

x1

z1

cs

dV V ndA 0
t cv
cs

y1

y
dz

dx
dy

Time rate of
change of the
mass of the
coincident
system

Time rate of
change of the
mass of the
contents of the
coincident
control volume

Net rate of flow


of mass
through the
control surface

xyz
dV
t cv
t
17

n
dA

v
v x z
x y z
y

cs

w
w x y
x y z
z

u y z

y
K
i z

w x y

j x

u
u y z
x y z
x

v x z
18


dV V ndA 0
t cv
cs

xyz u y z v x z w x y u y z
t

u
v
w
x y z v x z
x y z w x y
x y z 0
x
y
z

u
v
w
xyz
x y z
x y z
x y z 0
t
x
y
z

u v w

0
t
x
y
z
19


u
v
w

0
t
x
z
y

w
u

0
t
x
x
y
y
z
z
u v w

u
v
w

t
x
y
z
x y z

D
.V 0
Dt
20

Determine the form of the z-component, w, required to


satisfy the continuity equation. The velocity components for a
certain incompressible, steady flow field are as follows.

u x2 y2 z2
v xy yz z
w ?

u v w

0
x y z
w
2x x z
0
z
w
3x z
z
2

z
w 3 xz C
2

z2
w 3 xz f x , y
2
21

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

VdV VV ndA Fcontents of


t cv
cs
control volume
RATE AT
RATE OF
INCREASE OF - WHICH xMOMENTUM
x-MOMENTUM ENTERS

RATE AT
+ WHICH xMOMENTU
M LEAVES

u
xyz
VdV
t cv
t

SUM OF
THE XCOMP
FORCES
APPLIED
TO FLUID
IN CV

SURFACE FORCES

BODY FORCES

NORMAL STRESSES

GRAVITY FORCES

SHEAR STRESSES

CORIOLIS FORCES

PRESSURE

22 FORCES
CENTRIFUGAL

VV ndA

cs

u v y z

uv
x y z
y

u w x y

u u y z

u 2
u u y z
x y z
x

y
K
i z

j x

uw
u w x y
x y z u v x z
z

23

u
xyz u u y z u v x z u w x y
t
u 2
uv
u u y z
xy z u v x z
xy z
x
y
uw
u w y z
xy z LHS
z

u u 2 uv uw
LHS

t
x
y
z
xy z
u v w
u u
u
u

u

u v w
x
y
y
x
y
z
t
t

Du
LHS

Dt xy z
24

LHS

xy z

yy

xx

xz
xy

yz

yx
xy
xz

xx

First subscript denotes the direction of the normal


to the plane on which the stress acts
Second subscript denotes the direction of the
stress
25

Outward normal to the area ABCD Positive x direction


Positive normal stress are tensile stresses they stretch the
material
xx, xy, xz are shown in the positive direction
26

P xx yx zx
RHS

g x
x
x
y
z
x y z
yx x z

xy z
xx y z

xx y z

y
K

P y z

yx

i z

j x

P yz

xx
x y z
x

P
x y z
x

yx x z

Du
P xx yx zx

g x CAUCHYS
Dt
x
x
y
z
27
EQN

xx

u
2
x

u v
xy

y x

u w

xz

Du
P
u
u v
u w

Dt
x x
x
y y x
z z x

g x

2u 2 u 2 u
Du
P

2 2 2 g x
Dt
x
y
z
x
2
2
2

Du
P
u u u

2 2 2 g x
Dt
x
y
z
x

2v 2v 2v
Dv
P

2 2 2 g y
Dt
y
y
z
x
28

2u 2u 2u
Du
P

2 2 2 g x
Dt
x
y
z
x

2v 2v 2v
Dv
P

2 2 2 g y
Dt
y
y
z
x
2w 2w 2w
Dw
P

2 g z
2
2
Dt
z
y
z
x

29

VISCOUS INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUID WITH CONSTANT


VISCOSITY

DV

P V g
Dt

INVISCID INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUID WITH CONSTANT


VISCOSITY

DV

P g
Dt

EULERS
EQN

30

u
u
u
u
p

u v w
g
x
y
z
x
t
u
p
z
Along a stream line
u

g
s
s
s

u
p
z
u ds ds g ds
s
s
s

s
gsin

udu dp gdz
u2

P gz C
2
2

p u

gz C
2

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g
z

Continuity
equation
Xmomentum
Ymomentum
Zmomentum

D
.V 0
Dt
2u 2u 2u
Du
P

2 2 2 g x
Dt
x
y
z
x

2v 2v 2v
Dv
P

2 2 2 g y
Dt
y
y
z
x
2w 2w 2w
Dw
P

2 g z
2
2
Dt
z
y
z
x

Navier French mathematician; Stokes English


Mechanician
FOUR EQUATION AND FOUR UNKNOWNS U,V,W
AND P
Mathematically well posed

32

Nonlinear, second order partial differential

Relation between Stress


and Rate of Strain (not
covered)

33

Relation between Stress and Rate of


Strain
In elasticity, the relationship
between the stress and strain
of a solid body within the elastic limit is governed by
Hookes Law.

The generalised Hookes law states that each of the six


stress components may be expressed as a linear function
of the six components of strain and vice versa

The validity of this assumption has been verified by


experiments for continuous,
homogenous and isotropic
materials.

In a fluid, the physical law connection the stress and rate of


strain can also be made by the following simple and
reasonable assumptions:
a. The stress components may be expressed as a linear
function of the rates of strain components
b.

34
The relations between stress components
and rates of
strain components must be invariant to a coordinate

xx A1 xx B1 yy C1 xy D1
(1)

yy A2 xx B2 yy C 2 xy D2
xy A3 xx B3 yy C 3 xy D3

where the As, Bs, Cs and Ds are constants to be


determined. The assumption (b) requires that the
stress-rate of strain relation remains unaltered
with respect to a new coordinate system.
xx A1 xx B1 yy C1 xy D1

yy A2 xx B2 yy C 2 xy D2
xy A3 xx B3 yy C 3 xy D3

35

(2)

Transformation of stress components


y

x
Y1

Y2

xy

x' x'

x' y'

xx
xy

xx

X2

X1

xy

yy

D xy

yy

xx yy xx yy
xx

cos 2 xy sin 2
2
2
xx yy xx yy
yy

cos 2 xy sin 2
2
2
xx yy
xy
sin 2 xy cos 2 36
2

(3)

Substituting equation (1) into equation (3)

xx A1 xx B1 yy C1 xy D1
yy A2 xx B2 yy C 2 xy D2

(1)

xy A3 xx B3 yy C 3 xy D3
xx yy xx yy

cos 2 xy sin 2
2
2
xx yy xx yy

cos 2 xy sin 2
2
2
xx yy

sin 2 xy cos 2
2

xx
yy
xy
xx

A1 xx B1 yy C1 xy D1 A2 xx B2 yy C 2 xy D2

(3)

A1 xx B1 yy C1 xy D1 A2 xx B2 yy C 2 xy D2
2

A3 xx B3 yy C 3 xy D3 sin 2

A1
1 cos 2 A2 1 cos 2 A3 sin 2 yy B1 1 cos 2 B2 1 cos 2 B3 sin 2
2
2
2

xx xx

C1
1 cos 2 C 2 1 cos 2 C 3 sin 2 D1 1 cos 2 D2 37
1 cos 2 D3 sin 2
2
2
2
2

xy

cos 2

A1
1 cos 2 A2 1 cos 2 A3 sin 2 yy B1 1 cos 2 B2 1 cos 2 B3 sin 2
2
2
2

xx xx

C
D
C
D

xy 1 1 cos 2 2 1 cos 2 C 3 sin 2 1 1 cos 2 2 1 cos 2 D3 sin 2


2
2
2
2

(4)

We know that

xx yy xx yy
xx

cos 2 xy sin 2
2
2
xx yy xx yy
yy

cos 2 xy sin 2
2
2
xy
xx yy
xy

sin 2
cos 2
2
2
2

(5)

Substituting eqn (5) in eqn (2)


A1
1 cos 2 B1 1 cos 2 C1 sin 2 yy A1 1 cos 2 B1 1 cos 2 C1 sin 2
2
2
2

xx xx

B
A1

sin 2 1 sin 2 C1 cos 2 D1


2
2

xy

38

(6)

Comparing eqn (4) and eqn (6)


A1
1 cos 2 A2 1 cos 2 A3 sin 2 yy B1 1 cos 2 B2 1 cos 2 B3 sin 2
2
2
2

xx xx

C1
1 cos 2 C 2 1 cos 2 C 3 sin 2 D1 1 cos 2 D2 1 cos 2 D3 sin 2
2
2
2
2

xy

(4)

A1
1 cos 2 B1 1 cos 2 C1 sin 2 yy A1 1 cos 2 B1 1 cos 2 C1 sin 2
2
2
2

xx xx

B
A1

sin 2 1 sin 2 C1 cos 2 D1


2
2

(6)

xy

A1 B2 A
B1 A2 B
C1 A3 B3 C 2 C
D1 D2 D
A1 A2 A B
C3

2
2

D3 0

39

It should be noted that the corresponding


transformation
applied to
yy & xy
xx A xx B yy C xy D

yy B xx A yy C xy D

(7)

A B
xy C xx yy
xy
2
Now let us consider the new coordinate system (x1,
y1) which is related to the original coordinate
system (x, y) by
x1 x and y1 y
Thus, the new coordinate system is a mirror
reflection of the original system with respect to the
y-axis.
With reference to the new coordinate
system, the velocity components are

u1 u

and v1 v

40

Rates of strain and stresses are

x1 y1

x1 x1

u1 u

xx
x1 x

y1 y1

v1 v

yy
y1 y

(8)

v u
v1 u1
xy

x1 y1

x1 x1 xx
y1 y1 yy

(9)

x1 y1 xy
Equations (8) and (9) into equation (7)

41

x1 x1 A x1 x1 B y1 y1 C x1 y1 D
y1 y1 B x1 x1 A y1 y 1 C x1 y 1 D

x1 y1 C x1 x 1 y1 y1

(10)

A B

x1 y1
2

According to assumption (b), the relations between stress


components and rates of strain components must be
invariant to a coordinate transformation consisting of either
a rotation or a mirror reflection of axes, Equation (7) and (10)
independent of the coordinate system . Hence, C = 0

xx A xx B yy C xy D
yy B xx A yy C xy D
xy C xx yy

A B

xy
2

(7)

According to assumption (c), Eqn. (7) gives

D p
A B

The constant (A-B)/2 in the last


equation of equation (10) is the
proportionality
constant
42
connecting the
shearing stress
and rate of shearing strain which

The relations between stress and rate of strain in the two


dimensional case given in equation (7) are reduced to

xx

u v
2 xx B
p
x y

yy

u v
2 yy B
p
x y

xy xy 2 xy
2
B
3
The relations between stress and rate of strain can be
extended to three dimensional flows. They are

43

xx

u v w
p
2 xx B

x y z

yy

u v w
p
2 yy B

x y z

u v w
p
zz 2 zz B

x y z

xy xy 2 xy yx
yz yz 2 yz zy
zx zx 2 zx xz
The sum of the three normal stresses is

xx yy zz 3 p 2 3 B .q
an incompressible fluid, .q 0

u v w
.q

x y z

44

The sum of the three normal stresses is

u v w
.q

xx yy zz 3 p 2 3 B .q

x y z

an incompressible fluid, .q 0

xx yy zz
p
3

45