Anda di halaman 1dari 45

# Differential Approach

## DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF FLUID

Finite control volume
approach is very practical
FLOW

## and useful, since it does not generally require a

detailed knowledge of the pressure and velocity
variations within the control volume
Problems could be solved without a detailed
knowledge of the flow field

## Unfortunately, there are many situations that

arise in which details of the flow are important and
the finite control volume approach will not yield
the desired information

## How the velocity varies over the cross section of a

pipe, how the pressure and shear stress vary along
the surface of an airplane wing
In these circumstances we need to develop
relationships that apply at a point, or2 at least in a
very small region infinitesimal volume within a

DIFFERENTIAL
ANALYSIS
PROVIDES
DETAILED KNOWLEDGE OF A FLOW FIELD
Flow domain

Control
volume
Flow
out

Flow
out

Flow
in

Flow in
Flow
out

Flow
out
ur
F

Control volume
analysis
Interior of the CV is
BLACK BOX

VERY

ur
F

Differential analysis
All the details of the
flow are solved at
every point within the
flow domain
3

Element at t0

Element at t0+t

=
General
motion

Translation

+
Linear
deformation

+
Rotation

Angular
deformation

TRANSLATION

O
v
O

vt

ut

## If all points in the element have the same

velocity which is only true if there are no
velocity gradients, then the element will
5
simply TRANSLATE from one position
to

LINEAR DEFORMATION
u
u

x
C
x

B u

y
u

u
O

u
x
x

u
x x t

## Because of the presence of velocity gradients, the

element will generally be deformed and rotated
u
as it moves. For example, consider the effect of a
x
x , y and z
6
On a small cube having sides

## x component of velocity of O and B = u

u
u andC
x =
x component of velocity of A
x

## This difference in the velocity causes a

STRETCHING of the volume element by a volume

x y z t
x

## Rate at which the volume V is changing per unit

volume due
u

x

1 d V
Lim
V dt
t 0

t
x

x
7

v
w
&
y
z
present

are also

1 d V
u
v
w

V dt
x
y
z
This rate of change of volume per unit volume is
called the VOLUMETRIC DILATION RATE
Volume of the fluid may change as the element
moves from one location to another in the flow
field
Incompressible fluid volumetric dilation rate =
zero
Change in volume element = zero; fluid density =
constant
8

## Variations in the velocity in the direction of

velocity cause LINEAR DEFORMATION

u v
w
,
&
x y
z
Linear deformation of the element does not
change the shape of the element
Cross derivates cause the element to ROTATE
and undergo ANGULAR DEFORMATION

u v
,
y x
Angular deformation of the element changes the
shape of the element
9

B

u
y
y

y t

y
v

v
v x
x

u
O

v
x x t

## Consider x-y plane. In a short time interval t line

segment OA and OB will rotate through angles
and to the new positions OA and OB
10

oA

Lim
t 0 t

## For small angles

Tan

v x

x t v t
x
x

oA Lim
t 0

t
x
t

v
x

- positive oA
counterclockwise
oB Lim
t 0 t

Tan

yt

t
y

u
oB Lim

t
y
t 0

- positive oB - clockwise

11

## Rotation z of the element about the z-axis is

defined as the average of the angular velocities
oA and oB of the two mutually perpendicular
lines OA and OB.
Thus, if counterclockwise
rotation is considered
v
u it follows that
1 positive,
z

2 x

1 w v

2 y z

## Rotation yof the element about

the y-axis
1 u w

2 z
x

x i y j z k

12

1
1
curl V V
2
2
Vorticity is defined as the vector that is twice the
rotation vector

2 V

u
v

## undeformed block (ie.,

oAx = - oB ) only when
y
Otherwise, the
rotation
v
uwill be associated with an angular

## Rotation around the z axis is

deformation
x y zero.
Rotation and vorticity are zero;
V 0
13
FLOW FIELD IS IRROTATIONAL

u v
In addition to rotation associated with
derivatives
&
y

## These derivatives can cause the fluid element to

undergo an angular deformation which results in
change of shape

## Change in the original right angle formed by the line

OA and
OB is SHEARING STRAIN

= +
is positive if the original right angle is decreasing
Rate of Shearing Strain or Rate of Angular
v
u t
Deformation

y
u v

Lim

Lim

t
y
x

t 0 t
t 0

14

u v

y x
Rate of angular deformation is related to a
corresponding shearing stress which causes the
fluid element to change in shape
u
v

zero;
Rotati
on

## Element is simply rotating as

an undeformed block

15

Volume = V2=
V1
Time = Incompressible
t2

flow field

## Fluid elements may

translate, distort, and
rotate but do not grow or
shrink in volume

Time =
t1

Volume = V1

(a
)
Time =
t1
Volume = V1

## Fluid elements may grow or

shrink in volume as they
translate, distort or rotate

Time =
t2
(b

Volume = V2

16

EQUATION
DB sys

Dt

cv

bdV

bV ndA

x1

z1

cs

dV V ndA 0
t cv
cs

y1

y
dz

dx
dy

Time rate of
change of the
mass of the
coincident
system

Time rate of
change of the
mass of the
contents of the
coincident
control volume

## Net rate of flow

of mass
through the
control surface

xyz
dV
t cv
t
17

n
dA

v
v x z
x y z
y

cs

w
w x y
x y z
z

u y z

y
K
i z

w x y

j x

u
u y z
x y z
x

v x z
18

dV V ndA 0
t cv
cs

xyz u y z v x z w x y u y z
t

u
v
w
x y z v x z
x y z w x y
x y z 0
x
y
z

u
v
w
xyz
x y z
x y z
x y z 0
t
x
y
z

u v w

0
t
x
y
z
19

u
v
w

0
t
x
z
y

w
u

0
t
x
x
y
y
z
z
u v w

u
v
w

t
x
y
z
x y z

D
.V 0
Dt
20

## Determine the form of the z-component, w, required to

satisfy the continuity equation. The velocity components for a
certain incompressible, steady flow field are as follows.

u x2 y2 z2
v xy yz z
w ?

u v w

0
x y z
w
2x x z
0
z
w
3x z
z
2

z
w 3 xz C
2

z2
w 3 xz f x , y
2
21

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

## VdV VV ndA Fcontents of

t cv
cs
control volume
RATE AT
RATE OF
INCREASE OF - WHICH xMOMENTUM
x-MOMENTUM ENTERS

RATE AT
+ WHICH xMOMENTU
M LEAVES

u
xyz
VdV
t cv
t

SUM OF
THE XCOMP
FORCES
APPLIED
TO FLUID
IN CV

SURFACE FORCES

BODY FORCES

NORMAL STRESSES

GRAVITY FORCES

SHEAR STRESSES

CORIOLIS FORCES

PRESSURE

22 FORCES
CENTRIFUGAL

VV ndA

cs

u v y z

uv
x y z
y

u w x y

u u y z

u 2
u u y z
x y z
x

y
K
i z

j x

uw
u w x y
x y z u v x z
z

23

u
xyz u u y z u v x z u w x y
t
u 2
uv
u u y z
xy z u v x z
xy z
x
y
uw
u w y z
xy z LHS
z

u u 2 uv uw
LHS

t
x
y
z
xy z
u v w
u u
u
u

u

u v w
x
y
y
x
y
z
t
t

Du
LHS

Dt xy z
24

LHS

xy z

yy

xx

xz
xy

yz

yx
xy
xz

xx

## First subscript denotes the direction of the normal

to the plane on which the stress acts
Second subscript denotes the direction of the
stress
25

## Outward normal to the area ABCD Positive x direction

Positive normal stress are tensile stresses they stretch the
material
xx, xy, xz are shown in the positive direction
26

P xx yx zx
RHS

g x
x
x
y
z
x y z
yx x z

xy z
xx y z

xx y z

y
K

P y z

yx

i z

j x

P yz

xx
x y z
x

P
x y z
x

yx x z

Du
P xx yx zx

g x CAUCHYS
Dt
x
x
y
z
27
EQN

xx

u
2
x

u v
xy

y x

u w

xz

Du
P
u
u v
u w

Dt
x x
x
y y x
z z x

g x

2u 2 u 2 u
Du
P

2 2 2 g x
Dt
x
y
z
x
2
2
2

Du
P
u u u

2 2 2 g x
Dt
x
y
z
x

2v 2v 2v
Dv
P

2 2 2 g y
Dt
y
y
z
x
28

2u 2u 2u
Du
P

2 2 2 g x
Dt
x
y
z
x

2v 2v 2v
Dv
P

2 2 2 g y
Dt
y
y
z
x
2w 2w 2w
Dw
P

2 g z
2
2
Dt
z
y
z
x

29

VISCOSITY

DV

P V g
Dt

## INVISCID INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUID WITH CONSTANT

VISCOSITY

DV

P g
Dt

EULERS
EQN

30

u
u
u
u
p

u v w
g
x
y
z
x
t
u
p
z
Along a stream line
u

g
s
s
s

u
p
z
u ds ds g ds
s
s
s

s
gsin

udu dp gdz
u2

P gz C
2
2

p u

gz C
2

31

g
z

Continuity
equation
Xmomentum
Ymomentum
Zmomentum

D
.V 0
Dt
2u 2u 2u
Du
P

2 2 2 g x
Dt
x
y
z
x

2v 2v 2v
Dv
P

2 2 2 g y
Dt
y
y
z
x
2w 2w 2w
Dw
P

2 g z
2
2
Dt
z
y
z
x

## Navier French mathematician; Stokes English

Mechanician
FOUR EQUATION AND FOUR UNKNOWNS U,V,W
AND P
Mathematically well posed

32

## Relation between Stress

and Rate of Strain (not
covered)

33

## Relation between Stress and Rate of

Strain
In elasticity, the relationship
between the stress and strain
of a solid body within the elastic limit is governed by
Hookes Law.

## The generalised Hookes law states that each of the six

stress components may be expressed as a linear function
of the six components of strain and vice versa

## The validity of this assumption has been verified by

experiments for continuous,
homogenous and isotropic
materials.

## In a fluid, the physical law connection the stress and rate of

strain can also be made by the following simple and
reasonable assumptions:
a. The stress components may be expressed as a linear
function of the rates of strain components
b.

34
The relations between stress components
and rates of
strain components must be invariant to a coordinate

xx A1 xx B1 yy C1 xy D1
(1)

yy A2 xx B2 yy C 2 xy D2
xy A3 xx B3 yy C 3 xy D3

## where the As, Bs, Cs and Ds are constants to be

determined. The assumption (b) requires that the
stress-rate of strain relation remains unaltered
with respect to a new coordinate system.
xx A1 xx B1 yy C1 xy D1

yy A2 xx B2 yy C 2 xy D2
xy A3 xx B3 yy C 3 xy D3

35

(2)

## Transformation of stress components

y

x
Y1

Y2

xy

x' x'

x' y'

xx
xy

xx

X2

X1

xy

yy

D xy

yy

xx yy xx yy
xx

cos 2 xy sin 2
2
2
xx yy xx yy
yy

cos 2 xy sin 2
2
2
xx yy
xy
sin 2 xy cos 2 36
2

(3)

## Substituting equation (1) into equation (3)

xx A1 xx B1 yy C1 xy D1
yy A2 xx B2 yy C 2 xy D2

(1)

xy A3 xx B3 yy C 3 xy D3
xx yy xx yy

cos 2 xy sin 2
2
2
xx yy xx yy

cos 2 xy sin 2
2
2
xx yy

sin 2 xy cos 2
2

xx
yy
xy
xx

A1 xx B1 yy C1 xy D1 A2 xx B2 yy C 2 xy D2

(3)

A1 xx B1 yy C1 xy D1 A2 xx B2 yy C 2 xy D2
2

A3 xx B3 yy C 3 xy D3 sin 2

A1
1 cos 2 A2 1 cos 2 A3 sin 2 yy B1 1 cos 2 B2 1 cos 2 B3 sin 2
2
2
2

xx xx

C1
1 cos 2 C 2 1 cos 2 C 3 sin 2 D1 1 cos 2 D2 37
1 cos 2 D3 sin 2
2
2
2
2

xy

cos 2

A1
1 cos 2 A2 1 cos 2 A3 sin 2 yy B1 1 cos 2 B2 1 cos 2 B3 sin 2
2
2
2

xx xx

C
D
C
D

2
2
2
2

(4)

We know that

xx yy xx yy
xx

cos 2 xy sin 2
2
2
xx yy xx yy
yy

cos 2 xy sin 2
2
2
xy
xx yy
xy

sin 2
cos 2
2
2
2

(5)

## Substituting eqn (5) in eqn (2)

A1
1 cos 2 B1 1 cos 2 C1 sin 2 yy A1 1 cos 2 B1 1 cos 2 C1 sin 2
2
2
2

xx xx

B
A1

2
2

xy

38

(6)

## Comparing eqn (4) and eqn (6)

A1
1 cos 2 A2 1 cos 2 A3 sin 2 yy B1 1 cos 2 B2 1 cos 2 B3 sin 2
2
2
2

xx xx

C1
1 cos 2 C 2 1 cos 2 C 3 sin 2 D1 1 cos 2 D2 1 cos 2 D3 sin 2
2
2
2
2

xy

(4)

A1
1 cos 2 B1 1 cos 2 C1 sin 2 yy A1 1 cos 2 B1 1 cos 2 C1 sin 2
2
2
2

xx xx

B
A1

2
2

(6)

xy

A1 B2 A
B1 A2 B
C1 A3 B3 C 2 C
D1 D2 D
A1 A2 A B
C3

2
2

D3 0

39

## It should be noted that the corresponding

transformation
applied to
yy & xy
xx A xx B yy C xy D

yy B xx A yy C xy D

(7)

A B
xy C xx yy
xy
2
Now let us consider the new coordinate system (x1,
y1) which is related to the original coordinate
system (x, y) by
x1 x and y1 y
Thus, the new coordinate system is a mirror
reflection of the original system with respect to the
y-axis.
With reference to the new coordinate
system, the velocity components are

u1 u

and v1 v

40

## Rates of strain and stresses are

x1 y1

x1 x1

u1 u

xx
x1 x

y1 y1

v1 v

yy
y1 y

(8)

v u
v1 u1
xy

x1 y1

x1 x1 xx
y1 y1 yy

(9)

x1 y1 xy
Equations (8) and (9) into equation (7)

41

x1 x1 A x1 x1 B y1 y1 C x1 y1 D
y1 y1 B x1 x1 A y1 y 1 C x1 y 1 D

x1 y1 C x1 x 1 y1 y1

(10)

A B

x1 y1
2

## According to assumption (b), the relations between stress

components and rates of strain components must be
invariant to a coordinate transformation consisting of either
a rotation or a mirror reflection of axes, Equation (7) and (10)
independent of the coordinate system . Hence, C = 0

xx A xx B yy C xy D
yy B xx A yy C xy D
xy C xx yy

A B

xy
2

(7)

D p
A B

## The constant (A-B)/2 in the last

equation of equation (10) is the
proportionality
constant
42
connecting the
shearing stress
and rate of shearing strain which

## The relations between stress and rate of strain in the two

dimensional case given in equation (7) are reduced to

xx

u v
2 xx B
p
x y

yy

u v
2 yy B
p
x y

xy xy 2 xy
2
B
3
The relations between stress and rate of strain can be
extended to three dimensional flows. They are

43

xx

u v w
p
2 xx B

x y z

yy

u v w
p
2 yy B

x y z

u v w
p
zz 2 zz B

x y z

xy xy 2 xy yx
yz yz 2 yz zy
zx zx 2 zx xz
The sum of the three normal stresses is

xx yy zz 3 p 2 3 B .q
an incompressible fluid, .q 0

u v w
.q

x y z

44

## The sum of the three normal stresses is

u v w
.q

xx yy zz 3 p 2 3 B .q

x y z

an incompressible fluid, .q 0

xx yy zz
p
3

45