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SPACE VECTOR CONTROL FOR VSC

PORAS KHETARPAL
2011EEP2408

Among the most employed high-power electronic

apparatus are voltage-sourced converters (VSCs),


which are able to operate as controlled voltagesources that convert an essentially constant dcvoltage to an ac voltage of controllable magnitude,
frequency, and phase.
In PWM methods switching instants are chosen so
that the desired fundamental component is obtained
while acceptable harmonic performance is achieved.

PWM CONTROL

Va*

Pulse width
modulator
Vb*

Pulse width
modulator
Vc*

Pulse width
modulator

Objective of PWM
Control of inverter output voltage
Reduction of harmonics

Disadvantages of PWM
Increase of switching losses due to high PWM frequency
Reduction of available voltage
EMI problems due to high-order harmonics

What IS SVPWM
An alternative method to PWM, space-vector

modulation (SVM), places the converter in a number of


states (that correspond to the so-called space-vectors),
which are determined by the ON/OFF state of its
controlled switch.
The SVM method features a higher level of dc-bus
voltage utilization compared to the conventional PWM.
Offers flexibility in its digital implementation by
providing several optimization parameters such as
enabling different approaches to place space-vectors

Space Vector PWM

Output voltages of three-phase inverter


S1 through S6 are the six power transistors that shape the ouput voltage
When an upper switch is turned on (i.e., a, b or c is 1), the corresponding lower
switch is turned off (i.e., a', b' or c' is 0)

Eight possible combinations of on and off patterns for the three upper transistors (S 1, S3, S5)

Line to line voltage vector [Vab Vbc Vca]t

Vab
1 1 0

V
0
1

1
bc
dc

Vca
1 0 1

a

b , where switching variable vector [a
c

Line to neutral (phase) voltage vector [Van Vbn Vcn]t

Van
2 1 1
1

1
2

1
bn
dc

Vcn
1 1 2

a

b
c

b c]t

Output voltages of three-phase inverter (3)


The eight inverter voltage vectors (V0 to V7)

Output voltages of three-phase inverter (4)


The eight combinations, phase voltages and output line to line voltages

Principle of Space Vector PWM


Treats the sinusoidal voltage as a constant amplitude vector rotating
at constant frequency
This PWM technique approximates the reference voltage Vref by a combination
of the eight switching patterns (V0 to V7)
CoordinateTransformation (abc reference frame to the stationary d-q
frame) A three-phase voltage vector is transformed into a vector in the stationary d-q
coordinate frame which represents the spatial vector sum of the three-phase voltage

The vectors (V1 to V6) divide the plane into six sectors (each sector: 60 degrees)
Vref is generated by two adjacent non-zero vectors and two zero vectors

Basic switching vectors and Sectors


6 active vectors (V1,V2, V3, V4, V5, V6)
Axes of a hexagonal
DC link voltage is supplied to the load
Each sector (1 to 6): 60 degrees

2 zero vectors (V0, V7)


At origin
No voltage is supplied to the load

Realization of Space Vector PWM


Step 1. Determine Vd, Vq, Vref, and angle ()

Step 2. Determine time duration T1, T2, T0

Step 3. Determine the switching time of each transistor (S1 to S6)

Step 1. Determine Vd, Vq, Vref, and angle ()


Coordinate transformation
: abc to dq

Vd Van Vbn cos60 Vcn cos60


Van

1
1
Vbn Vcn
2
2

Vq 0 Vbn cos30 Vcn cos30


3
3
Vbn
Vcn
2
2

Van

1
1
1
Van

Vd 2
2
2


Vbn

3
3
Vq 3
Vcn
0
2
2

V ref Vd 2 Vq 2
tan 1 (

Vq
Vd

) s t 2s t

(where, fs fundamental frequency)

Voltage Space Vector and its components in (d, q).

Step 2. Determine time duration T1, T2, T0 (1)

Reference vector as a combination of adjacent vectors at sector 1.

Step 2. Determine time duration T1, T2, T0 (2)


Switching time duration at Sector 1
Tz

V
0

ref

Tz

V dt V dt V
1

sin ( / 3 )
sin T
( / 3)V

ref
z
sin ( )
T2 Tz a
sin ( / 3)
T1 Tz a

T1 T2

T1

T1

T1 T2

(T1 V1 T2 V 2 )
cos ( )
1
cos ( / 3)
2
2

1
dc
2
dc

3
V ref 3
sin
0
sin ( / 3)
1 ( )

Tz V ref

T0 Tz (T1 T2 ), where, Tz
and a
2

fs
V)dc
(where, 0 60
3

II. PWM METHODS


C. Space Vector PWM (13)
Step 2. Determine time duration T1, T2, T0 (3)
Switching time duration at any Sector
T1

3 Tz V ref
n 1

sin

Vdc
3
3

3 Tz V ref
n

sin
Vdc
3

3 Tz V ref
n
n

sin cos cos sin


Vdc
3
3

T2

3 Tz V ref
n 1

sin

Vdc
3

3 Tz V ref
n 1
n 1
sin cos

cos sin
Vdc
3
3

where, n 1 through 6 (that is, Sector1 to 6)

0 60

T0 Tz T1 T2 ,

Some of the possible switching sequences shown for the first


sector.(a), (b): conventional SVM, (c), (d): 120 bus-clamped
SVM, and (e), (f): 60bus-clamped SVM.

For pwm

CONCLUSION

* SVPWM easy to implement in digital systems


* States could be manipulated as compared to pwm
* Higher level of DC bus voltage utilization as compared to pwm
* Lower harmonics as compared

REFRENCES
Harmonic and Loss Analysis of Space-Vector Modulated
Converters
A. Mehrizi-Sani, S. Filizadeh, and P. L. Wilson