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2.

1 day 2: Step Functions

Miraculous Staircase
Loretto Chapel, Santa Fe, NM
Two 360o turns without support!

Photo by Vickie Kelly, 2003


Greg Kelly, Hanford High School, Richland, Washington

Step functions are sometimes used to describe real-life


situations.
Our book refers to one such function:

y int( x)

This is the Greatest Integer Function.


The TI-89 contains the command int( x) , but it is
important that you understand the function rather
than just entering it in your calculator.

Greatest Integer Function:

y greatest integer that is x

0
0.5
0.75
1

0
0
0
1

Greatest Integer Function:

y greatest integer that is x

0
0.5
0.75
1
1.5
2

0
0
0
1
1
2

Greatest Integer Function:

y greatest integer that is x

0
0.5
0.75
1
1.5
2

0
0
0
1
1
2

Greatest Integer Function:

y greatest integer that is x

0
0.5
0.75
1
1.5
2

0
0
0
1
1
2

Greatest Integer Function:

y greatest integer that is x


The greatest integer function is
also called the floor function.
The notation for the floor function
is:

y x

y introduced
x or y in x .
Some
usewas
Thisbooks
notation
1962
bynot
Kenneth
E. Iverson.
We will
use these
notations.
Recent by math standards!

The TI-89 command for the floor function is floor (x).


Graph the floor function for 8 x 8 and 4 y 4 .
Y=

floor x
CATALOG

floor(

The older TI-89 calculator connects the dots which covers up


the discontinuities. (The Titanium Edition does not do this.)

The TI-89 command for the floor function is floor (x).


Graph the floor function for 8 x 8 and 4 y 4 .
If you have the older TI-89 you could try this:
Go to

Y=

Highlight the function.


2nd

F6

Style

2:Dot

ENTER

The open and closed circles do not


show, but weGRAPH
can see the
discontinuities.

Least Integer Function:

y least integer that is x

0
0.5
0.75
1

0
1
1
1

Least Integer Function:

y least integer that is x

0
0.5
0.75
1
1.5
2

0
1
1
1
2
2

Least Integer Function:

y least integer that is x

0
0.5
0.75
1
1.5
2

0
1
1
1
2
2

Least Integer Function:

y least integer that is x

0
0.5
0.75
1
1.5
2

0
1
1
1
2
2

Least Integer Function:

y least integer that is x

The least integer function is also


called the ceiling function.
The notation for the ceiling
function is:

y x

Dont worry, there are


not wall functions, front
door functions, fireplace
functions!

The TI-89 command for the


ceiling function is ceiling (x).

sin x
Using the Sandwich theorem to find lim
x 0
x

sin x
sin x
1
If we graph y
, it appears that lim
x 0
x
x

sin x
sin x
1
If we graph y
, it appears that lim
x 0
x
x
We might try to prove this using the sandwich theorem
as follows:

sin x 1 and sin x 1

1
sin x
1
lim lim
lim
x 0 x
x 0
x 0 x
x

Unfortunately, neither of these new limits are defined,


since the left and right hand limits do not match.
We will have to be more creative. Just see if you can
follow this proof. Dont worry that you wouldnt have
thought of it.

Note: The following proof assumes positive values of .


You could do a similar proof for negative values.

P(x,y)
1

sin

cos

Unit Circle

(1,0)

T 1, tan
P(x,y)

AT
tan
1

sin

cos

AT tan
A

(1,0)

Unit Circle

T 1, tan
P(x,y)
1

Unit Circle

sin

cos

(1,0)

T 1, tan
P(x,y)
1

Area VAOP
Unit Circle

sin

cos

(1,0)

T 1, tan
P(x,y)
1

sin

cos

Area VAOP Area sector AOP


Unit Circle

(1,0)

T 1, tan
P(x,y)
1

sin

cos

(1,0)

Area VAOP Area sector AOP Area VOAT


Unit Circle

T 1, tan
P(x,y)
1

sin

cos

(1,0)

Area VAOP Area sector AOP Area VOAT


1
1 sin
Unit2 Circle

T 1, tan

Area sector AOP

P(x,y)
1

sin

cos

(1,0)

r 2
2

Area VAOP Area sector AOP Area VOAT


1
1 sin
Unit2 Circle

T 1, tan
P(x,y)
1

sin

cos

(1,0)

Area VAOP Area sector AOP Area VOAT


1
1 sin
Unit2 Circle

1
1 tan
2

1 sin
2
2

1
1 tan
2

sin tan

multiply by two

sin
sin
cos

1
1

sin cos
sin
1
cos

sin
cos
1

divide by

sin

Take the reciprocals, which


reverses the inequalities.
Switch ends.

1 sin
2
2

1
1 tan
2

sin tan
sin
sin
cos

1
1

sin cos
sin
1
cos

sin
cos
1

sin
lim cos lim
lim1
0
0
0
sin
1 lim
1
0
By the sandwich theorem:

sin
lim
1
0