Anda di halaman 1dari 35

Capital Budgeting Multinasional, Biaya Modal dan

Struktur Modal
Topik:
(a) Data yang diperlukan dalam Keputusan Capital

Budgeting
(b) Factor-Factor dalam Capital Budgeting Multinasional

(c) Metode perhitungan Present Value


(d) Biaya modal internasional
(e) Struktur modal

KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

A. Dasar Capital Budgeting


Definition: Capital budgeting is proses pengambilan
keputusan sehubungan dengan aktivitas investasi aset-aset
tetap. Misalnya pembelian mobil baru, mesin pabrik
baru dan lain-lain
Variabel-variabel dalam Keputusan Capital Budgeting

Investasi awal (Initial investment)

Permintaan pembeli (Consumer demand)


Harga (Price)
Biaya variabel (Variable cost)
Biaya Tetap (Fixed cost)
Usia Proyek (Project lifetime)
Salvage value (nilai penyelamatan dari risiko)
Perpajakan (Tax-laws)
Tingkat pengembalian yang diharapkan (Required rate of
return) KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

Faktor lain yang perlu dipertimbangkan dalam


Capital Budgeting Multinasional
Fluktuasi nilai tukar
Inflasi
Fasilitas pembiayaan (Financing arrangements subsidies
/penalties)
Pembekuan dana (Blocked funds)
Biaya provisi bank (Remittance provisions)
Ketidakpastian sukses/gagal dalam aktivitas incestasi
(Uncertain salvage values)
Dampak proyek bagi arus kas perusahaan
Insentif pemerintah (Government incentives)
Biaya sosial (Social costs) / Externalities
Risisko politik / risiko negaraPolitical risk /Country risk.
KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

Harga Transfer (Transfer prices)


Penerimaan fee dan royalti.
Menggabungkan arus kas dan menetapkan tingkat
diskonto yang berlaku untuk masing-masing
komponen.

KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

Dasar-dasar Capital Budgeting


Popular Techniques
1. Payback Period: Lama waktu yang diperlukan
kembalinya dana investasi awal. Artinya jumlah kumulatif
penerimaan sama dengan dana awal yang diinvestasikan
Discounted Payback Period adalah modifikasi teknik
Payback Period dengan cara di perhitungkan nilai waktu.
2. Net Present Value: adalah nilai bersih waktu sekarang dari
sebuah proyek investasi.

NPV I 0

t 1

CFt
t
1 k

k = required rate of return on "project."


MODIFIED BY ZAINUL
Cost of KEUANGAN
capital isINTERNASIONAL
the cost of long-term
fundsMUCHLAS
for the firm .

Aturan keputusan:
Jika NPV > 0, proyek diterima
Jika NPV < 0, proyek ditolak.
Jika NPV = 0 ???
Jika ada dua proyek yang bersifat saling melengkapi
maka proyek yang memiliki NPV lebih besar yang
dipilih .
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/NPV

KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

3. Profitability Index (PI): Ratio dari perbandingan


nilai sekarang dari aliran kas masuk dengan dana
awal investasi.
n

P I

t1

C Ft
(1 k )
I0

CFt = cash flow at time t


I0 = initial outlay
k = required rate of return (cost of capital)
Decision Rule: When PI > 1, accept the project.
KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

4. Internal Rate of Return (IRR): adalah pengembalian


yang diharapkan bagi suatu proyek atau investasi.
Mathematically, it is the "discount rate" that equates the
present value of cash flows to the initial outlay, so that

t 1

C Ft
(1 IR R )

Decision Rule:
Jika IRR > required rate of return, Proyek diterima.
Jika IRR < required rate of return, Proyek ditolak.
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/IRR
KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

5. Modified Internal Rate of Return (MIRR):


This is given by:
PV Cost = PV of Terminal Value (TV)
TV
PVCost
(1 MIRR) n
n
COFt
CIFt (1 K ) n t

t
n
(
1

k
)
(
1

MIRR
)
t 0
t 1
j

CIFt (1 k ) n t

TV
PVCost

n
n
(1 MIRR)
(
1

MIRR
)
t 1
I0

I1

I2

Ij

CFt

CFt+1 CFt+2

CFn-t

|--------|--------|----------|----------------|-------|--------|-----------------|
0
1
2
t
t+1
t+2
n
j
INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS
where: IKEUANGAN
t = cash outflows, COF; CFt = cash inflows

Incremental Cash Flows and Factors


Affecting Cash Flows

Tujuan umum pemegang saham adalah


memaksimalkan kesejahteraan.

Pemegang saham sangat tertarik dengan adanya


berapa banyak tambahan lembar-lembar rupiah yang
diterima dimasa yang datang dari kegiatan investasi
yang dilakukan hari ini.

Oleh karena itu bukan inkremental nya, tetapi apa


yang terjadi.
KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

10

Dampak Incremental and


Total Cash Flows bagi Peursahaan
Mempengaruhi

tingkat penjualan yang telah


berjalan selama ini.

Cannibalization: atau kanibalisasi produk baru


terhadap produk lama. Contoh Produk subsitusi di
host country akan mempengaruhi volume ekspor
perusahaan induk.

Sales Creation: Investasi baru akan menciptakan


tambahan volume penjualan bagi produk yang
ada.
KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

11

Transfer Pricing: Harga barang atau jasa yang


berlaku pada proses perdagangan antara
induk perusahaan dengan anak perusahaan
(internalitas).

Kesimpulannya harga yang berlaku di setiap


proyek atau investasi baru baik harga bahan atau
harga jual harus berpedoman pada harga pasar
bukan harga transfer.

KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

12

Factor-Factor lain:

Opportunity Costs: Biaya Proyek harus


meliputi biaya ekonomi senyatanya bagi setiap
sumber daya yang dibutuhkan proyek atau
investasi.

Sunk Costs: Seluruh biaya yang hrus


dikeluarkan walaupun proyek tadi jadi
dijalankan atau dibatalkan, e.g., site analysis,
feasibility studies, etc.
Exclude sunk costs from cost considerations .
KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

13

Fees and Royalties: Fee dan royalti sebagai


biaya dalam proyek tetapi sebagai keuntungan
bagi perusahaan induk. e.g., legal counsel, power,
lighting, heat, rent, R&D, H.Q. cost, and
management costs, etc.

A project should be charged only for additional


expenditures that are attributable to the project.

In general, incremental cash flows associated


with an investment can be found by subtracting
worldwide corporate cash flows without the new
investment from "with" the new investment cash
flows.
KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

14

Foreign Complexities and Opportunities


Capital budgeting analysis for a foreign project is
considerably more complex than domestic case for
a number of reasons including:

Parent Cash Flows Vs. Project Cash Flows:


Cash flows perusahaan induk acapkali tergantung pada
format pembiayaan jadi cash flow nya secara jelas
dipisahkan antara keputusan pembiayaan dengan
keputusan investasi tetapi Capital budgeting bagi anak
perusahaan akan secara jelas bahwa aktivitas nya
berupa investasi.
KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

15

Remittance of funds to parent is compounded by


differences in tax systems and financial markets and
institutions as well as legal and political constraints
on funds movement.

Cash flows from affiliate to parent can be generated


by an array of operational, financial or non-financial
payments, e.g., fees, royalties, transfer pricing, etc.

Different rates of national inflation introduce changes


in competitive position.

KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

16

Unanticipated changes in foreign exchange rates


have direct and indirect effects on costs, prices, and
sales volume.

Transaction across segmented national markets may


create opportunities for financial gains or lead to
additional costs.

Benefits of enhanced global service network.

Diversification of production facilities.

Market diversification.
KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

17

Availability of host government subsidized loans


may complicate capital structure decisions
and the appropriate WACC.
Political risks must be evaluated, and costs may
be involved in the management of political risks .
Terminal value is more difficult to estimate, i.e.,
uncertain salvage value.
Foreign complexities must be quantified as
modifications to either expected cash flows or
the rate of discount.
KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

18

International Capital Budgeting Decision Model


Multinational capital budgeting problems can be
solved by appealing to the principle of value
additivity.
This states that the whole value of a project is equal
to the sum of its parts.
The Adjusted Present Value (APV) rule divides up
the present value terms and focuses on each
component to maximize the development and use
of information.
Each present value term employs an appropriate
discountKEUANGAN
rate forINTERNASIONAL
its levelMODIFIED
of systematic
risk.
BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS
19

Lessard (1981) extends this approach to deal


with foreign investment projects as follows:
APV= -PV of capital outlays
+PV of remittable after tax operating cash flows
+PV of tax savings from depreciation
+PV of financial subsidies
+PV of other tax savings
+PV of extra (indirect) remittances
+PV of projects contribution to corporate debt
capacity
+PV of residual plant and equipment (salvage)

Multinational Capital Budgeting Examples .


(See
sample
problem
set III,
part MUCHLAS
B)
KEUANGAN
INTERNASIONAL
MODIFIED
BY ZAINUL

20

Multinational Cost of Capital & Capital Structure


A firms capital consists of:
Laba ditahan (Retained Earnings)
Penyertaan modal/Equity (existing or newly issued)
Saham istimewa (Preferred Stock)
Utang / Debt (borrowed funds)
The firms cost of retained earnings reflects the
opportunity cost - what existing shareholders could
have earned if they invested the funds themselves .
KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

21

The firms cost of new equity also reflects an


opportunity cost - what the new shareholders could
have earned if they had invested their funds
elsewhere.
The cost of new equity exceeds the cost of retained
earnings by the floatation costs.
The firms cost of debt increases with the level of
debt.
Increases in the level of debt also increases the
probability of default.
KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

22

Tax deductibility of interest payments on debts


enhances the attractiveness of debt financing.

A firm must maintain a proper balance between


the tax advantage of debt and its disadvantage
(greater probability of bankruptcy).

The firms weighted average cost of capital


(WACC) can be computed as:
(Total
Capital = Debt + Equity + Pref. Stock)
WACC = WdKd (1-t) + WpKp + WeKe
KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

23

Asumsi yang berlaku modal di dapat dari


utang dan penyertaan modal, maka rumus
WACC :

D
E
WACC
K d 1 t
Ke
DE
DE

where:
D = Proportion of capital (D+E) made up of debt,
E = The proportion of equity,
Kd = Cost of debt,
Ke = Cost of Equity and
t = tax rate.
KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

24

Factor yang mempengaruhi Cost of


Capital Multinasional

Size of the Firm: Perusahaan besar selalu jumlah pinjamannya


juga besar. Penerbitan saham atau obligasi dengan jumlah yang
besar akan memperkecil tingkat biaya modal (cost of capital).

Access to International Capital Markets: Akses ke Pasar modal


internasional MNE akan memperoleh tingkat biaya modal yang
lebih murah dibanding memanfaatkan sumber pendanaan di negara
lokal (host country)

International Diversification: Keanekaragaman aliran kas dari


berbagai sumber pendanaan menghasilkan stabilisasi aliran kas bagi
MNE dan pada akhirnya akan terhindar dari problem likuiditas.

KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

25

Exposure to Exchange Rate Risk: Perusahaan


harus mampu mengelola valuta asing agar terhindar
dari risiko nilai tukar.

Dengan cara mengelola bermacam-macam valuta


asing akan menghilangkan risiko nilai tukar
Exposure to Country Risks: Oleh karena risiko
negara sulit di diversifikasikan, maka setial kenaikan
volatilitas aliran kas akan menghaailkan biaya modal
meingkat.

KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

26

Cost of Capital Across Countries:


Variasi dalam biaya modal antar negara, membuat MNE mampu
melakukan bisnis internasional dengan memanfaat pendanaan
internasional.
Perbedaan tingkat biaya modal antar negara membuat MNE dapat
memilih tingkat biaya yang efisien di beberapa negara untuk
membiayai struktur modalnya.
Differences in the Risk-Free Interest Rate:
T-bills (Treasury Bills) 3 bulanan adalah sebuah pendanaan yang
bebas risiko (The risk-free rate)
Faktor lain yang menentukan tinggi rendahnya risiko bagi MNE
adalah faktor penawaran-permintaan di masing-masing negara,
undang-undang perpajakan, kebijakan moneter, faktor demografi
dan kondisi perekonomian.
KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

27

Differences in the Risk Premium:


The risk premium is affected by the relationship between borrowers
and creditors (e.g.. Japans Keiretsu
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keiretsu ), and kecenderungan
pemerintah untuk campur tangan dan menyelamatkan perusahaan
yang sakit atau gagal (bandingkan AS untuk Inggris.)
Also firms in some countries have greater borrowing capacity
because creditors are tolerant of higher degrees of financial
leverage (e.g. Japanese and German firms have higher degrees
of financial leverage than US. firms).
Country Differences in the Cost of Equity:
The cost of equity is related to investment opportunities in each
country.
In a country with many investment opportunities, potential returns
may be relatively high resulting in a relatively high opportunity
cost of funds.
KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

28

International Differences in Cost of Equity Capital

Effectiveness of a Countrys Legal Institutions:


Sistem hukum yang berfungsi dengan baik akan melindungi
investor, mengurangi biaya monitoring dan penegakan hukum
untuk investor, mengurangi biaya perusahaan 'modal dengan cara
mempermudah investor dalam segala pengurusan yang berhubunga
dengan perizinan

Differences in Securities Regulation:


Persyaratan yang ketat , dan penegakan, pengungkapan keuangan
tertentu membantu mengurangi asymmetric information antara
perusahaan dengan kalangan investor.

KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

29

Multinational Capital Structure:


Some of the firm specific characteristics that affect
MNCs capital structure include:

Stability of MNCs cash flows.

MNC credit risk - a MNC with assets acceptable


as collateral has greater access to loans.

Tingkat laba ditahan.

KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

30

Influence of Country Characteristics

Entry and cross-border barriers to investing.


Interest rates in host countries are affected by capital
controls, tax rates & country risks.

A MNCs preference for debt or equity may depend


on relative costs in a particular country.

Host country currency innovations.


Country risks.
Relative tax laws.

KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

31

Multinational Target Capital Structure

Target struktur modal MNC dapat berbeda dengan negara


host dengan cara konsolidasi. yaitu, MNC dapat
mengabaikan "lokal" target struktur modal dalam
mendukung target struktur modal "global".

KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

32

Partially Owned Subsidiaries :

When MNCs allow (or are forced to allow) foreign


subsidiaries to issue stocks to local investors, such a
subsidiary becomes partially owned by the parent.
This can affect MNCs capital structure.

In some countries, a MNC will be allowed to establish


a subsidiary only if it meets the minimum percentage
of ownership by local investors.

A minority interest in a subsidiary by local investors


may, however, offer some protection against threats of
any adverse action by the host government.
KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

33

Capital Structure Across Countries

Firms in Japan and Germany tend to use a higher degree of


financial leverage than U.S or U.K firms.

The system of interlocking ownership in Japan may encourage a


greater use of leverage.

Other International Factors


Stock restrictions in host countries
Interests rates in host countries
Strength of host country currencies
Country risk in host countries
Tax laws in host countries

KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

34

Pertanyaan 1: The following are major factors in multinational cost


of capital except:
Size of the firm
Access to international capital markets
International diversification of firm
Exposure to exchange risk
Exposure to country risk
Pertanyaan 2: Which of the following is not a factor accounting for
variations in the cost of capital across countries:
Differences in risk free interest rate
Differences in risk premium
Differences in cost of equity
KEUANGAN INTERNASIONAL MODIFIED BY ZAINUL MUCHLAS

35