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Keperluan Psikologi

Teori Penentuan Diri/


Self-Determination Theory

Motivasi :Pendekatan Organismik

Dua(2) andaian
Person-Environment Dialectic
In dialectic, the relationship between person and environment is reciprocal (two-way); the environment acts on
the person and the person acts on the environment. Both the person and the environment constantly change.
Teori-Determinasi Diri

Tiga faktor

Autonomi
Kecekapan Perhubungan
(autonomy)
(competence) (relatedness)
Tingkah laku adalah autonomi apabila
1.Ind ada keupayaan utk menentukan t/lakunya
sendiri(autonomi) tanpa paksaan drp org lain
2.Minat, kesukaan, kepercayaan menjadi panduan kpd apa jua
aktiviti yg dilakukan dan keputusan ygdiambil)
3 Faktor Ke arah Pembentukan
Autonomi/Determinasi Diri

Tiga faktor

PLOC Pembuatan Kerelaan


Perceived locus of
causality Pilihan yang Bukan
Fleksibal Paksaan
Persoalannya “Tidak semua pilihan menggalakkan
autonomi”

Mengapa “ persekitaran vs, pengalaman personel”

Persekitaran Namun begitu s/manakah


menawarkan pilihan pengalaman personel yang ada
pada seseorang itu dapat membuat
‘pilihan yang tepat’
Autonomi-menyokong

Tingkahlaku dan Sentimen interpersonel yang bersifat


memupuk, dan membangunkan sumber-sumber motivasi
dalaman yang lain

Autonomi -mengawal

Tingkahlaku dan sentimen interpersonel yang bersifat


“menekan” orang lain (pematuhan dengan menetapkan cara
berfikir, berperasaan dan bertingkahlaku )
 Adalah keperluan psikologi
organismik yg menyediakan
sumber kepada motivasi utk
mendapatkan cabaran yg optimal

 Komponennya(perkembangan diri
di dalam setiap bidang yg diceburi)

 Ia juga merupakan keperluan utk


berinteraksi dgn persekitaran
1. Kecekapan sebagai kesan
motivasi
 (semakin tinggi kecekapan yg
dimiliki oleh ind semakin
bermotivasi ind itu b/t/laku dgn
persekitaran)
2. Kecekapan sbg keperluan
 (jika dianggap sbg keperluan
maka bermotivasilah ind itu)
 Adl keperluan utk jalin hubungan
perasaan rapat dan akrab dengan
org lain
 Apb ada hubungan manusia akan
berfungsi dgn lebih baik dan tabah
menghadapi tekanan drp
persekitaran
 Tanpa hubungan (kesedihan,
tertekan, cemburu, dan kesunyian)
 ORGANISMIK  ACQUIRED
 Determinasi diri  Pencapaian
 Kecekapan  Afiliasi
 Perhubungan  Intimasi
 Kecenderungan  Kuasa
menuju
kesempurnaan  QUASI
 Memperoleh, mencapai,
mendapat
 Diperolihi drp pengalaman
kehidupan dan sejarah sosial
masayarakat
 Keperluan sosial
 Keperluan quasi
 Pencapaian affiliasi
 Kemesraan
 Kuasa

Keperluan Quasi
Keperluan terhadap wang
Jaminan kerja
Perancangan kerjaya
 Satu bentuk dorongan yg wujud
di dalam diri untuk melakukan
sesuatu yang baik (piawai)

 Ach Motivation> orientasi emosi


yg mendekati(+ve)
 Keperluan untuk membina,
mengekalkan, dan menyimpan
perasaan positif terhadap
seseorang ataupun org lain
(emotional attac)

 Karektor nya berbeza dgn type


B personaliti atau pun
ektraversi
 Motif sosial yg bertujuan utk
mengekalkan kemesraan,
keakraban, hubungan
interpersonel yg positif > hasil
emosi +ve

 Karektor libatkan diri dlm hub


sosial, masa yg byk interaksi, hub
long lasting dan stabil
 Dorongan untuk mengawal
dan mempengaruhi t/laku
org lain

 Berhubungn dengan agresif


dan asertif
 KEPUASAN MELALUI
 Kepimpinan

 Keagresifan

 Pekerjaan yg berpengaruh

 Kedudukan yg berprestij

(maruah,
martabat,pengaruh)
Psychological Need
Self-Determination Theory
Organismic Approach to Motivation

Two Assumptions
Person-Environment Dialectic
In dialectic, the relationship between person and environment is reciprocal (two-way); the environment acts on
the person and the person acts on the environment. Both the person and the environment constantly change.
Self-Determination Theory

Three
Psychological Needs

Autonomy Competence Relatedness


Behavior is autonomous (or self-determined) when our interests,
preferences, and wants guide our decision-making process to
engage or not to engage in a particular activity.
Three Subjective Qualities Within
The Experience Of Autonomy

Perceived Autonomy

Internal Perceived Choice


Volition
Perceived Locus of over One’s
(Feeling Free)
Causality Actions

an individual’s an unpressured sense of choice we


understanding of willingness to experience when we
the causal source engage in an are in environments
of his or her activity that provide us with
motivated actions decision-making
flexibility that
Not all choices promote autonomy.

“either-or” choice offerings


Choice among options offered by others

• True choice over people’s actions


• Meaningful choice that reflects people’s values & interests

Enhance a sense of need- Enhance intrinsic motivation,


satisfying autonomy effort, creativity, preference for
challenge, and performance
Autonomy Support

Interpersonal sentiment and behavior to identify, nurture,


and develop another’s inner motivational resources

Control
Interpersonal sentiment and behavior to pressure another
toward compliance with a prescribed way of thinking, feeling,
or behaving
ENABLEING CONDITION

Autonomy Support

 Takes the other person’s perspective


 Values personal growth opportunities

Control

 Pressures the other person toward a prescribed outcome


 Targets a prescribed outcome
INSTRUCTIONAL BEHAVIORS

Autonomy Support

• Nurtures Inner Motivational Resources


• Relies on Informational Language
• Promoting Valuing
• Acknowledges and Accepts Negative Affect

Control

• Relies on outer sources of motivation


• Relies on pressuring language
• Neglects explanatory rationales
• Asserts power to silence negative affect and to resolve conflict
Four Essential Ways of Supporting Autonomy

1. Nurtures Inner Motivational Resources

Autonomy-Supportive Motivators
Encourage initiative on others by identifying their interests,
preferences, and competences.
 Find ways to allow others to behave in ways that express those
interests, preferences, and competences.

Controlling Motivators
 Forgo inner motivational resources.
 Rely on extrinsic motivators (e.g., incentives, directives,
consequences, and deadlines).
Four Essential Ways of Supporting Autonomy

Autonomy-Supportive Motivators
Treat listlessness, poor performance, and inappropriate behavior as
motivational problems to be solved
Address the motivational problem with flexible and informational
language
- Diagnose the cause of the motivational problems
- Communicate feedback to identify points of improvement and progress

Controlling Motivators
Use a pressuring, rigid, and “no nonsense” communication style
Four Essential Ways of Supporting Autonomy

Autonomy-Supportive Motivators
 Communicate the value, worth, meaning, utility, or importance of
engaging in uninteresting tasks
- Using a “because” phrase to explain why the uninteresting activity is worth
the other’s time and effort

Controlling Motivators
 Do not take the time to explain the use of importance in engaging in
these sorts of activities
-Saying “Just get it done” or “Do it because I told you to do it”
Four Essential Ways of Supporting Autonomy

Autonomy-Supportive Motivators
 Listen carefully to the expressions of negative affect and resistance
and accept them as valid reactions
Work collaboratively with the other person to solve the underlying a
cause of the negative affect and resistance

Controlling Motivators
 Ignore the other’s expressions of negative affect and resistance
 Try to change the negative affect into something more
acceptable
What Autonomy-Supportive and Controlling People Say and Do to Motivate Others

Table 6.2
Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness

 Intrinsic Motivation

Motivation  Mastery Motivation & Perceived Control


 Curiosity
 Internalized Values
 Engagement
 Positive Emotion
 Less Negative Emotion
Engagement  Class Attendance
 Persistence
 School Retention vs. Dropping Out
 Self-Worth
Development  Creativity
 Preference for Optimal Challenge
 Conceptual Understanding
 Deep Processing
Learning  Active Information Processing
 Self-Regulation Strategies

Grades

Performance  Task Performance



Standardized Test Scores

Psychological  Psychological Well-Being



Vitality
Well-Being  School/ Life Satisfaction
Study 1

Figure 6.4 Motivational Model of High-School Dropouts, p. 154


Study 2

Table 6.3 Children’s Motivational Benefits from


Autonomy-Supportive (Rather Than Controlling) Rules
Key Environmental Conditions
Flow

Figure 6.5 Flow Model


Positive Feedback

Four Sources
 Task itself
 Comparisons of one’s current performance with one’s own past
performance
 Comparisons of one’s current performance with the performance of others
 Evaluations of others

Pleasure of Optimal Challenge and Positive Feedback

 Harter’s anagram study (1974, 1978b)


Children experience the greatest pleasure following success
in the context of moderate challenge
Table 6.4 Environmental Factors that Involve and Satisfy the
Psychological Needs
The Engagement Model Based on Psychological Need Satisfaction
Daily
Autonomy

Psychological
Nutriments
for Good
Daily Days Daily
Competence Relatedness

Psychological Nutriments necessary for


Good Days, Positive Well-Being, and Vitality

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