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Fermentation Industries

Industrial Alcohol
Absolute Alcohol
Beers, Wines, and Liquors
Butyl Alcohol and Acetone
Vinegar and Acetic Acid
Citric Acid
Lactic Acid
Miscellaneous Compounds
Enzymes

Franzford Jaio Sacro


Kim Jasper Paller

History

Uses and Economics

Many fermentation processes are in direct


competition with strictly chemical synthesis.

Almost all the major antibiotics (Dextran)

Microbiological production of vitamins (Chap. 6


Antibiotics, Hormones and vitamins)

Uses and Economics

Fermentation under controlled conditions


involves chemical conversions.
Oxidation
Alcohol to Acetic Acid
Sucrose to Citric Acid
Dextrose to Gluconic Acid

Reduction
Aldehydes to Alcohols
Sulfur to Hydrogen Sulfide

Hydrolysis
Starch to Glucose
Sucrose to Glucose and Fructose

Esterification
Hexose Phospate from Hexose and Phosphoric Acid

Uses and Economics

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Herbert E.Silcox

Sylvan B. Lee

Uses and Economics


5 Basic Prerequisites of a Good Fermentation
Process

- Silcox and Lee


1. Microorganism forms a desired end product (readily
propagated, biologically uniform) thereby giving
predictable yields.
2. Economical raw materials for the substrate (e.g., starch)
3. Acceptable yields.
4. Rapid fermentation.
5. Product is readily recovered and purified.

Uses and Economics


Factors
-Microorganism, Equipment and Fermentation

Critical Factors of Fermentation


- pH, Temperature, Aeration-agitation, Pure-culture
fermentation and Uniformity of Yields

Uses and Economics

More than 23,000 t/year of Antibiotics are


produced worldwide

Fermentation Products produced in large quantities


Enzymes
Organic Acids
Solvents
Vitamins
Amino acids

Largest volume materials


Monosodium Glutamate
Citric Acid

Industrial Alcohol
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Industrial Alcohol

Absolute Alcohol
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Absolute Alcohol

Practically 100% ethyl alcohol

Made by absorbing the 4 to 5% water present in 95 to 96%


industrial alcohol using quicklime with subsequent
distillation
- expensive but produces very high quality

Ethyl alcohol & water form an azeotrope (95% by volume


alcohol)

Various methods are in use / have been suggested to


remove 5% of water to produce 100% alcohol.

Absolute Alcohol

(Method of Separation)

Oldest method is distillation of the


95% azeotrope using third component
which forms a minimum constantboiling mixture boiling at lower
temperature than the 95% alcohol or
the water.

Absolute Alcohol

(Method of Separation)

One of the newer proposal is to use cellulose or


cornmeal to adsorb the water.

Aluminum oxide and silicon oxide adsorbent have


also been used.

Another method is to use liquid CO2 to extract the


ethanol and then depressurizing to flash off CO2.

Other solvents, such as dibutyl phthalate, are


under investigation.

Absolute Alcohol

Interest in cutting energy demand for production


of 100% alcohol is very great because of the
proposed use of gasohol.

The energy liberated by burning 1L of absolute


alcohol is about 23MJ which is less than to the
present processes to produce it which consume
up to 42MJ/L .

The average total energy consumption for the


new processes is 11 to 12.5 MJ/L; several of the
processes claim much lower energy demands.

Beers, Wines and Liquors


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Beers, Wines and Liquors


History

Discovered by primitive humans and has been


prac-ticed as an art for thousand of years

A good brewer has to be an engineer, a chemist,


and a bacteriologist.
Factors (Taste, Odor, Individual Preference)
exist to force manufacturer to exert the greatest
skill and experience in producing palatable
beverages of great variety.

Alcoholic Beverages divided into 3 groups:


Malt Liquors, Fermented Wines and Distilled
Liquors

Beers, Wines and Liquors

Uses and Economics

In 1981, the consumption of malt beverages was


95.8 L, wine and brandy, 8.7 L, and distilled
spirits, 11 L, all per capita (adult).

Beers, Wines and Liquors

Raw Materials

Grains and fruits supplying carbohydrates


are the basic raw materials.

Russia ferments potatoes and by


distillation obtains vodka

Similar treatment of the sap of the Maguey


in Mexico yields pulque

Worlds chief raw materials for


fermentations are the cereals, corn, barley,
and rice, and grapes.

Beer
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Beer

Beverages of low alcoholic content (2 to 7%) made


by brewing various cereals with hops, usually
added to impart a more-or-less bitter taste and to
control the fermentation that follows.

Cereals employed:
Barley
Malt Adjuncts (flaked rice, oats and corn)
Wheat (used in Germany)
Rice and Millet ( China)

Brewing sugars and syrups (corn sugar or glucose)


and yeast complete the raw materials.

Beer

Flowchart for beer manufacture may be divided


into three groups of procedures:

1. Brewing of mash through to the cooled hopped


wort
2. Fermentation
3. Storage, finishing and packaging for market

Beer

Beer
Make beer thing

Beer

Beer making has not changed much over the


years, however, some new plants have installed
automatic wort-production using hop pellets and
using a whirlpool to separate out the hops and
sludge.

Another innovation which is claimed not to


change the final product is high-density brewing
wherein the wort is produced with much less
water than usual.

A universal refrigerant-cooled tank to ferment,


age and finish beer in a single tank was also been
developed.

Beer

Beer contains about 90% water and can be


concentrated (dehydrated) to about of
its original volume.

Ice crystals (below freezing point of water)


can be separated from the beer
concentrate.

To reconstitute the beer, water and carbon


dioxide are added.

Wine
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Wine

Been made for several thousand years by


fermentation of the juice of the grape.

Many primitive procedures have been supplanted


by improved science and engineering to reduce
costs and to make more uniform products.

As always, the quality of the product is largely


related to grape, soil and sun resulting in a
variation in flavor, bouquet, and aroma.

Wine
Characteristics

Color depends largely upon the nature of the


grapes and whether the skins are pressed out
before fermentation.

Classified as natural (alcohol 7 to 14%), fortified


(alcohol 14 to 30%), sweet or dry, still or sparkling.

Fortified wines have alcohol or brandy added.

Some of the sugars remains unfermented for


sweet wines.

Wine
Process

For the manufacture of dry red wine, red or black


grapes are necessary.

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Liqours
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Liqours
Various fermented products,
upon distillation and aging, yield
distilled liquors.

Whiskey ( Bourbon, Rye, Scotch Whisky)


Brandy
Rum
Gin
Vodka
Spirits

Liqours
Statistics

Liqours

Flowchart for Whiskey and Gin

Liqours
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Skill and scientific knowledge aid in the


production.

Butyl Alcohol and


Acetone
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Butyl Alcohol and Acetone

History

All the acetone produced was made by dry


distillation of calcium acetate from pyroligneous
acid. (Until WWI)

Wartime demand for acetone (smokeless Powder),


Weizmann developed a process utilizing the
fermen-tation of starch-containing grains to yield
acetone and butyl alcohol.

Butyl Alcohol and Acetone

History

Commercial Solvents Corp. was organized, built


and operated 2 plants to ferment corn using
Clostridium Acetobutylicum bacteria.

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Butyl Alcohol and Acetone

History

The fermentation gave 2 parts butyl alcohol to 1


part acetone.

No market for the butyl alcohol produced.

During the development of fast-drying


nitrocellulose lacquers, conditions became
reversed.

New cultures feeding on molasses were


developed, which gave a more desirable solvent
ratio (3 Butyl Alcohol:1 Acetone)

Butyl Alcohol and Acetone

Today

Acetone is coproduced with phenol by the


oxidation of cumene or dehydrogenation of
isopropyl alcohol.

Several greatly improved biological processes


have been dominated by the lower-cost synthetic
presently used.

Used as a solvent and in fabricating plastics.

Butyl Alcohol and Acetone

Uses