Anda di halaman 1dari 14

Submitted By

Submitted To
Ms. Vimmi Satija Manik
Definitions of Climate
Climate can be define as under

The composite or generally prevailing weather conditions of

a region, as temperature, air pressure, humidity,
precipitation, sunshine, cloudiness, and winds, throughout
the year, averaged over a series of years.

Climate encompasses the statistics of atmospheric

particle count and temperature, humidity, atmospheric
pressure, wind, rainfall, numerous other meteorological
elements in a given region over long periods of time.
Factors Affecting Climate
There are many different factors that affect climate around the world.

The most important factors are:-

1. Direction of Prevailing Winds

2. Proximity To The Equator
3. The El Nino Phenomenon
4. Distance From The Sea
5. Ocean Currents
6. Recently, it has been accepted that human activity is also affecting
Direction of Prevailing Winds
Winds that blow from the sea often bring rain to the coast and dry weather to inland
areas. Winds that blow to Britain from warm inland areas such as Africa will be
warm and dry. Winds that blow to Britain from inland areas such as the Netherlands
will be cold and dry in winter. Britains prevailing winds come from a south westerly
direction over the Atlantic. The winds are cool in the summer and mild in the winter.

Proximity To The Equator

The proximity to the equator affects the climate of a
place. The equator receives the more sunlight than
anywhere else on earth. This is due to its position in
relation to the sun (see right). The diagram shows
that the equator is hotter because the sun has less
area to heat. It is cooler at the north and south poles
as the sun has more area to heat up. It is cooler as
the heat is spread over a wider area.
El Nino
El Nino, which affects wind and rainfall patterns, has been blamed for droughts and
floods in countries around the Pacific Rim. El Nino refers to the irregular warming of
surface water in the Pacific. The warmer water pumps energy and moisture into the
atmosphere, altering global wind and rainfall patterns. The phenomenon has caused
tornadoes in Florida, smog in Indonesia, and forest fires in Brazil (see below)
Devastation Caused by a El Nino-

El Nino Causes Forest Fires in Brazil

generated tornado in Florida
Distance From The Sea
The sea affects the climate of a place. Coastal areas are cooler and wetter than inlan
areas. Clouds form when warm air from inland areas meets cool air from the sea.

The centre of continents are subject to a large range of temperatures. In the summe
temperatures can be very hot and dry as moisture from the sea evaporates before
reaches the centre of the continent.

Ocean Currents
Ocean currents can increase or reduce
temperatures. The diagram to the left shows the
ocean currents of the world. The main ocean
current that affects the UK is the Gulf Stream.
Human Influence
The factors above affect the climate naturally. However, we cannot forget the
influence of humans on our climate. We have been affecting the climate
since we appeared on this earth millions of years ago. In those times, the
affect on the climate was small. Trees were cut down to provide wood for
fires. Trees take in carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. A reduction in trees
will therefore have increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the

The Industrial Revolution, starting at the end of the 19th Century, has
had a huge effect on climate. The invention of the motor engine and the
increased burning of fossil fuels have increased the amount of carbon dioxide
in the atmosphere. The number of trees being cut down has also increased,
meaning that the extra carbon dioxide produced cannot be changed into

Evidence is gathering that human activities are changing the climate. This
climate change' could have a huge impact on our lives.
Global Warming
Global warming refers to a rise in the temperature of the surface of the
earth. Global temperatures have risen by 0.6 degrees Celsius in the last
130 years. This rise in global temperatures leads to huge impacts on a
wide range of climate related factors. The graph below shows the rise
of global temperatures since 1860.

Global Air Temperature Since

Some More Evidence
Explanation of the causes of global warming
What we can do to stop the process of global warming
Carbon dioxide has an effective lifetime of
about 100 years. This means that any
changes in the atmosphere will take along
time to develop. If we cut down on the
amount of carbon dioxide we use, the rate of
climate change will slow down.

One way we can cut down on the amount of carbon dioxide we use is by making less
car journeys. How often do you get a lift to school when you could easily have
walked? Could you share a lift with a friend so only one car would need to be used?
These small differences count.

We could also use less carbon dioxide by using better insulation in our homes. This
would lessen the need to burn fossil fuels such as coal and oil that give off carbon
dioxide. We could also switch to using renewable sources of energy such as wind or
solar power.

1. A rise in global sea levels

2. A change in vegetation zones
3. An increase in disease levels
4. A change in ecosystems