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Self Cleaning Concrete

Mohammed Al Sabah M
B130220CE
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Overview

INTRODUCTION

SIGNIFICANCE

CONCEPT

APPLICATIONS

EXAMPLES IN CONSTRUCTION

EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

CONCLUSION
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Introduction

Definition: concrete with ability to reduce


pollutants in air and clean itself

Also knows as Photocatalytic concrete

Serendipitous invention-by Luigi Cassar

Italcementi Group-TxActive

Significance

Reduction of Air pollution

The 5 major
pollutants, their
composition in
atmosphere and
source

Significance (Continued)
Effects of air pollution:

Visible effects on buildings

Health issues on humans

Environmental Concerns:
Global warming
Acid rain and smog
Damage to vegetation
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Significance (Continued)

promote aesthetic endurance

Do not require the use of the solvents now used


to clean buildings, eliminating another source of
pollutants.

clean concrete will reflect more light, reducing the


heat build-up keeping our cities cooler during hot
seasons.

Concept

Photo catalytic effect of Titanium Dioxide(TiO2)

Photocalysis is the acceleration of a photoreaction


in the presence of a catalyst.

Titanium Dioxide

TiO2 occurs in nature as the minerals:


1.

Rutile

2. Anatase
3.

brookite.

Anatase-the best molecular form for breaking


down pollutants due to its higher photocatalytic
reactivity.

Applications : Paints, inks, coatings, plastics,


papers, foods, medicine, and toothpaste.
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Why Titanium Dioxide?

High chemical stability

Nontoxicity

Relatively low cost

High oxidizing power

Reaction Principle

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Strong sunlight or ultraviolet light decomposes


many organic materials in a slow, natural
process.

Photocatalysts speed up this process.

Photocatalytic TiO2 is energized by UV and


accelerates the decomposition of pollutants such
as nitrous oxide (NOx).

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When used on or in a concrete structure, photo


catalysts decompose organic materials that foul
the surface which include:
dirt (soot, grime, oil and particulates)
biological organisms (mold, algae, bacteria and
allergens)
Air-borne pollutants (VOCs, nitrous oxides (NOx) and
sulphur oxides (SOx))
chemicals that cause odours.
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The catalysed compounds break down into


molecules that are either beneficial or are
relatively benign to the environment.

Most inorganic pollutants and stains, including


rust, are not catalysed.

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Mechanism of Depollution

Activation of TiO2 by sunlight generates electronhole pairs

Generation of hydroxyl radicals from water


molecules adsorbed on the surface of the
semiconductor
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Denitrogenation (DeNOx-process): 2 stages

The hydroxyl radicals oxidize NO to in the rst


step and then further to Nitrate ions().

The nitrate ions are washed out by rain. Thus


the entire process of pollutant removal occurs
with natural energy.
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Photocatalytic oxidation of NOx by TiO2

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Factors Influencing Photocatalysis

Wavelength : light with wave length greater


than 300nm produce good results.

Intensity and Temperature: Higher


temperature and intensity light is desirable.

Relative humidity and wind: Increased relative


humidity in the atmosphere reduces the adhesion
of pollutants to the surface of TiO2.

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Self Cleaning Effect

Super-hydrophilicity: Under UV irradiation,


water dropped onto titanium dioxide coated
surface forms negligible contact angle.
water tends to spread out flat instead of beading
up.
When water is sprayed over the surface,
contaminants can be washed away.
adsorption of organic compounds on the lm
surface may lead to a conversion of hydrophilic
surface to hydrophobic

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The photocatalytic decomposition of these organic


pollutants can restore the super -hydrophilic
property.
Thus the self cleaning character of TiO2
incorporated concrete is the combined effect of
photocatalysis and superhydrophilictiy.

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Applications

Numerous patents in the last decade.


Titanium dioxide can be added to white or grey
cement.
No alterations in rheology, mechanical
strength and structural performance of the
concrete products.
The most efficient way to apply TiO2 is in a thin
layer cementitious material placed on the surface.

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Products in which this technology is


used

Ready mix concrete : walls, columns, beams and


pavements.

Precast concrete: Panels, columns, road barriers,


sound-absorbing panels, paving blocks, slabs,
tiles, Glass fibre Reinforced Cement.

Pre-mix coatings: paints, skim coats, fine


coatings and renderings

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Examples in Constructions

THE JUBILEE CHURCH IN ROME, ITALY

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AIR FRANCE HEADQUARTERS IN PARIS, FRANCE

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BORDEAUX POLICE DEPARTMENT IN BORDEAUX,


FRANCE

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GOVERNOR MIFFLIN SCHOOL SHILLINGTON,


PENNSYLVANIA

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LSU BASKETBALL PRACTICE FACILITY BATON


ROUGE, LA

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I-35 GATEWAY ELEMENTS MINNEAPOLIS,


MINNESOTA

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Evaluation Of Performance

Discs made of concrete containing photocatalytic


cement

(a) samples after initial staining with various


contaminants
(b) samples after 6 hours of exposure to sunlight
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DE-POLLUTION TEST: SEGRATE


(MILAN) 2002

Heavy traffic road, 10 m wide


Thin layer of photocatalytic concrete applied to
230M long segment of bituminous road surface
(total surface area of about 7000 m2).
Reduction in NOx
concentration in the
photocatalytic
treated area of the
pavement was
measured between
50%-60%.
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Recent Developments and Problems

Cooling of Buildings: water continuously sprinkled


on building surfaces coated with TiO2. The
building is not cooled by the water itself but by
the latent heat ux when water evaporates.
temperature can be reduced up to 15 Celsius on
window glass and 40-50 Celsius on black roof-tile
surfaces.

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Antimicrobial properties: Using TiO2


incorporated tiles long term effect greater than
disinfectants.

The Nitrates washed away may go in to rivers,


lakes etc. This cause algae blooms and in turn
deplete the water bodys oxygen levels.

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The major problems faced in the use of using


photocatalytic building materials are the high initial
cost, lack of awareness and sometimes limited
market.

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Conclusion

The efficiency of self cleaning and pollutant


degradation has been confirmed by laboratory
tests and field case studies.

Effective choice to provide cleaner environment


and maintain building appearance. Although
further developments are still required.

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In a large cities like Delhi, Mumbai, and Chennai,


covering 15% of visible urban surfaces with
photocatalytic concrete would enable a reduction
in pollution of approximately 50%

Huge potential towards sustainable construction

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Thank you

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