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Lecture 1

* What is Research?
* Purposes of Research
* Attributes/Sifat-sifat of Research
* Types of Research?
* Research Methods?
* Why Research?
* Motivation
* Elements of Motivation

* How to do research?
* Research Process

Research is finding out what you don't already know.


No one knows everything,
but everybody knows something. (Penyelidikan

adalah mencari apa yang anda tidak tahu.


Tiada siapa yang tahu segala-galanya,
namun setiap insan mengetahui sesuatu. )

However, to complicate matters, often what you


know, or think you know, is incorrect.(Perkaraperkara yang rumit, apa yang kita tahu
dan fikir- tidak betul)

*Research

is a systematic and
organized effort to investigate
specific problem that needs a
solution.

o..systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical

investigation of hypothetical propositions about the


presumed relationships among natural phenomena..
(Kerlinger, 1973, p.ll)

o..the overall scheme of scientific in which scientists


engage in order to produce knowledge
Nachmias, 1981, p.22)

(Nachmias &

oformal, systematic, and intensive process of carrying

out a scientific method of analysis which may lead to


the development of generalizations, principles or
theories which can result in the predictions and control
of events.. (Best, 1977, p.10-12)

There are two basic purposes for


research:

to learn something
to gather evidence.

->>Based on other works


->> Replicable (diulangi)
->> Generalisable (make a general )
Sample Question :
One of research attributes is generalisable. By giving a suitable
example, briefly explain
the concept of generalisable in research.
Answer:
Research finding is genaral enough to be applied other Similar
cases .Eg: findings on how to cure cancer disease in Kedah can
be applied to cure the same cancer disease in Penang.
->> Tied to theory (terikat kepada teori)
->> Generate new questions
->> Incremental (tambahan)
->> Testability(Kebolehujian)
->> Doable (boleh dilakukan)

* Types of Research

*Basic (Fundamental) vs Applied Research


*Scientific vs Naturalistic
*Historical vs Methodological

Research Method
Qualitative

The most popular qualitative research methods


include interviews, case studies, observation,
focus groups and questionnaires with open
ended-questions.

The most popular research methods from


this
category
are
closed-ended
questionnaires, experiments, correlation
and regression analysis methods and
others.

Quantitative

* Attempts to expand the limits of knowledge


the pursuit of new knowledge without any
assumptions about what it might lead to
essentially knowledge for its own sake

* Not directly involved in the solution to a pragmatic


problem

* A model of IT adoption among small-medium


enterprises

* Antecedents of IT-Business alignment


* A Model of ethical usage of cyber cafe

* Conducted when a decision must be made about a specific


real-life problem

* Knowledge which is developed with a specific objective in

mind, particularly the conversion of existing knowledge into


products, processes and technologies

* The secret of success is to know something


nobody else know (Aristotle Onassis)

* With INFORMATION reduces UNCERTAINTY


(ketidakpastian)

* Think?????

* Factors that contribute to user satisfaction of


information systems

* Determinants of UUMs IT students


employability

* Diffusion of innovation in bridging the digital


divide

Educational benefits include:

* Working closely with a faculty mentor


* Learning about issues, methods, and leaders in
students' chosen fields

* Applying concepts learned in coursework to "real


life" situations

* Sharpening problem-solving skills

* Professional benefits include:


* Exploring and preparing for future careers
* Developing marketable skills
* Enhancing professional communication skills
* Collaborating with others and working effectively
as part of a team

Personal benefits include:

* Growing as a critical, analytical, and


independent thinker

* Meeting challenges and demonstrating the ability


to complete a project

* Discovering personal interests

Motivation

* The significance of the study


* The why factor
Elements of Motivation

* Have not been investigated before


* Contribution to the body of knowledge
* Problem solving
* Interest to you, academia & profession
* Lead to another research question!

oDeductive approach

oProceed from the general to specifics.


oTheory -- Data/facts -- Conclusion

oInductive approach

oProceeds from the specifics and combine

them to produce a more general statement


of relationship.
oFacts/data -- Theory -- Conclusion

*Generally, research comprise the process of

developing the conceptual framework and the


hypothesis for testing as well as the design,
which involves the planning of the actual study
dealing with such aspects as the location for
the study, sample selection and data collection
processes and results of the study.

Defining a
problem
Results

Hypothesis
Construct
concepts
operational
definitions

Interpretation
of data
Analysis
of data

Data
Collection

Research
design

Literature Review

Literature Review

Refinement of
theory or
implementation

Theoretical
framework

Exploratory
Research

Descriptive
Research

Causal Research

Degree of
Problem
Definition

Unaware of Problem

Aware of Problem

Problem Clearly
Defined

Possible
Solution

Majority of IT projects
fail and we can only
speculate on the
reasons

70% of IT projects fail


due to ROI failure
within 5 years

IT success factors
such as leadership,
QoS, resources etc
influence IT project
success

Organizations tend to
lose on human capital
development in a
high mobility rate

There is a high rate of


turnover among IT
professionals in the
job market

Younger IT graduates
and males tend to shift
jobs most frequently

What task condition


influence the
leadership process in
our organization

Have the average


merger rate for
saving and loans
increased in the past
decade.

Do buyers prefer our


product in a new
package?