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Estimation of the carbon

footprint of a beverage
packaging
Group 5:
Tasnia Ahsan, Sahib Ahmed, Emmanuel Asomaning,
Marianna Gonzalez, Alice Duneau, Fatima Matamoros Marin,
Neal Allard, Zayd Asmal
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Contents
Goal and scope definition
Results
Possible Improvements and
disadvantages
Raw Materials
Recycling
Process efficiency
Fuel for energy
Transport and logistics
Waste Management

Goal and scope definition


Functional unit: 1000L of drink
System boundary:

Results

Life cycle stage

Carbon footprint
(kg CO2-eq./f.u.)

Contribution to
total carbon
footprint (%)

Raw materials

115.00

49.1

Bottle manufacture
and filling

114.00

48.7

Storage

0.00

0.0

Retail and use

3.82

1.6

Transport

1.41

0.6

Waste

0.00

0.0

Total

234.23

100.0

Raw materials
Carbon footprint (kg CO2-eq./f.u.)

PET
PP
Pap
er

8% 1%

91%

Raw
material

Carbon footprint (kg


CO2-eq./f.u.)

PET

105

PP

9.6

Paper

0.813

TOTAL

115.413

Why?
PET large
composition of raw
materials
Why PET high
contributor to CO2
emissions
production of 1 kg
of PET requires an
equivalent of 2 kg
of oil for energy and
raw material
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Production
Why
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Production Energy
Energy Source

kg CO2 eq/ f.u.

Heat from Natural


Gas

23.1

Electricity

52.0

Steam from Natural 38.9

Use and Transport

Life cycle
stage

Carbon
footprint
(kg CO2eq./f.u.)

Contribution
to total
carbon
footprint (%)

Retail and
use

3.82

1.6

Transport

1.41

0.6

All goes to waste in


landfill assuming
none is recycled
Usage gives more
CO2 emissions than
transport
Transport of raw
materials to site and
from site to usage
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Possible Improvements and


Disadvantages

Raw Materials
Raw
material

Carbon
footprint
(kg CO2eq./f.u.)

Total
Carbon
footprint
(kg CO2eq./f.u.)

PET resin

115.00

234.23

Glass-bottle
(100%
recycled)

37.60

157.00

Glass-bottle
(35.5%
recycled)

48.80

168.00

Glass-bottle
(virgin)

54.90

174.00

Solid
bleached
board

63.20

182.00

Tetra Pak

161.00

Goals
Keep the product
unchanged
Be attractive
and functional
Be
environmentally
friendly
10

280.00

Raw Materials

Bottle moulding equipment: Minimise


energy loss during operation and
downtime

Advantages

Econ:
Environmental:
Society:

Disadvantages
Econ:
Environmental:
Society:

Recycling
Carbon footprint of raw materials : about
50% of total carbon footprint
Recover and recycle used bottles

Environmental impacts :
reduce waste and raw materials
carbon footprint

reduce total

Positive impact on society


Economy:
Reduce the price of raw materials
BUT potential cost of setting up a recycling
station

Process Efficiency

Bottle moulding equipment: Minimise


energy loss during operation and
downtime
Advantages
Disadvantages
Econ: Reduce energy
bills
Environmental:
Less energy = less
CO2 emitted
Society: More
complicated process
= more jobs/training
needed

Econ: Lower
production rate
Environmental:
Society:
Decrease in longterm job security

Fuel for Energy


Process
Stage

Fuel Type for Energy

CO2 Equivalent (kg/f.u.)

Heat, Natural Gas

38.9

Electricity, at grid

52.0

Steam, Natural Gas

23.1

Fuel Type for


Energy

Coal, industrial
(burned)
Coal, industrial
(burned)

Production

CO2 Equivalent
(kg/f.u.)

56.3
56.3

Naphtha (burned)

39.7

Naphtha (burned)
Heat, biogas

39.7
12.3

Heat, biogas

12.3

Electricity,
nuclear, UK

0.867

Production

Electricity,

Advantanges

Affordable stable price


High energy upon
combustion
Reliable energy source
Highest energy density
Readily available
Easy to produce and
refine
Highest energy
density
Renewable
source
Readily available
Non-polluting
Easy to produce
Reduces
Landfillsand
refine
technology
Cheaper
Reduces greenhouse
Renewable source
effects
Non-polluting
Reduces Landfills
Cheaper technology
Reduces greenhouse
effects
No emissions
Most concentrated form
of energy
Reliable

Disadvantages

Contributes to global
warming due to excessive
release of
Non-renewable source of
energy
Coal mines endanger
peoples lives, especially
workers
Releases impurities
into atmosphere
Contains
Pollution of water and
Unstable
Earth
Harmful emissions (sulfur
dioxide)
Contains impurities
Unstable
Disposal of nuclear waste
very expensive (although
small)
Decommissioning also
expensive
Disposal
case of of
accident
nuclearthe
waste
In
very expensive
safety
of the surrounding
(although
small)
area
is huge concern
Decommissioning also

Fuel for Energy

Using Natural Gas in bottle manufacture

24% reduction in carbon release!!

Using biogas in
bottle
manufacture

Transport and Logistics

Work with partner companies nearby to


re-use trucks on return journeys so that
they are not empty on return
Advantages

Econ: Share transport


costs with partner
companies -> reduced
cost
Society: Less CO2
emitted for bottle since
return journey used to
transport other
products

Disadvantages
Econ: Less flexible
transporting for
bottle company
may lead to higher
costs elsewhere (ie
labour in
warehouse)

Transport
andfacility
Logistics
Relocate Storage
closer to
manufacturing site in order to reduce
inefficiencies of transport network
routes
Advantages
Disadvantages
Econ: Reduced
mileage for trucks
due to more efficient
route -> lower fuel
costs
Society: Lower fuel
usage -> lower CO2
emissions

Econ: Relocating
storage facility may
increase cost of rent
and labour
Society: New
Storage facility may
be built on
greenspace

Questions?

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