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Photo: Tulalip Bay by Diane L.

Wilson-Simon

BASIC ERGONOMICS
Instructor: David Ellsworth
Edmonds Community College
This course is being supported under grant number
SH16637SH7 from the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not
necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S.
Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names,
commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by
the U.S. Government.
With Thanks to & Cooperation of the Tulalip Occupational
Safety & Health Administration (TOSHA)

INTRODUCTION

ERGONOMICS
WHAT IS ERGONOMICS??
Ergos
=
work
Nomos

Ergonomics =

laws
the laws of
work

ERGONOMICS
What Does Ergonomics Mean?
Designing jobs, equipment, and work tasks to
fit human physical characteristics and energy
limitations
It considers body dimensions, mobility, and the
bodys stress behavior
Make the work fit the person, not the person
fit the work

ERGONOMICS
Benefits of Ergonomics Include:

safer jobs with fewer injuries


increased efficiency and productivity
improved quality and fewer errors
improved morale

ERGONOMICS
Ergonomic Goals:
Finding ways to make strenuous, often
repetitive work, less likely to cause muscle and
joint injuries -- and still get the job done.
Keeping young bodies from wearing out
prematurely, and mature bodies from giving out
early.

ERGONOMICS
Work-Related Musculoskeletal
Disorders (WMSD) accounted for an
average total of $410.3 million of
workers compensation claims in the
years 1995-1997

ERGONOMICS
This type of injury affects nearly 50,000 Washington
workers each year

Enough People to Fill Safeco


Field!!
It is estimated that the actual
cost including lost taxes, wages,
fringe benefits, administrative
costs, etc. is close to $1.5 billion per year.

ERGONOMICS
State Fund Claims - Statewide 1990-98*
Number of Claims
WMSDs

All
26%
other
claims

74%

Cost of Claims
All
WMSDs
other 40%
claims

60%

* Note: This data does not include lower extremity WMSDs.


Source: SHARP Report No. 40-4a-2000

ERGONOMICS
Nationally, almost 60% of all
work-related illnesses are
MSDs

The Problem is Widespread


The Top 12 Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC)

SIC
805
421
541
152
174
836
242
175
078
451
176
177

Industry
Nursing, Personal Care Facilities
Trucking and Courier Services (non-air)
Grocery Stores
General Bldg Contractors, Residential
Masonry, Tile, Plaster
Residential Care
Sawmills, Planing Mills
Carpentry, Floor Work
Landscape, Horticultural
Air Transportation, Air Courier
Roofing, Siding, Sheet Metal
Concrete Work

WMSDs per year


2,177
1,591
1,486
1,361
703
445
432
429
420
411
388
287

Total
10,130
These 12 SICs alone account for 20% of WMSDs
Source: SHARP Report No. 40-4a-2000

Burns
Conveyors
Electrical Apparatus
Head & Brain Injury
Motor Vehicle
Ladders
Fractures
Falls
Compensable WMSDs
All WMSDs
0

50

100

150

200

250

Rate per 10,000 FTEs

300

350

400

The Cost-Benefit Ratio


Is Substantial
Statewide
Statewide
estimated
annual costs
to comply
with the
rule:

estimated
annual costs
saved by
ergonomics
prevention

$80
Million

$340
Million

The Estimated Savings to


Business Is $4 for Every $1
Invested

REGULATIONS

ERGONOMICS
Current Federal Law
OSHA:

The federal law (OSHA


Ergonomics Standard) was
issued on November 14, 2000
and was scheduled to be
effective on January 16, 2001

REGULATIONS
Congress utilized the little known
Congressional Review Act (CRA) to pass a
joint resolution of disapproval of the new
OSHA Ergonomics Standard with the Senate
voting 56 to 44 on March 7 and the House
voting 223 to 203 on March 8, 2001
President Bush signed the joint resolution on
March 20, 2001

REGULATIONS
The effect is that the OSHA Ergonomics
Standard is REPEALED There is no
Federal Law!!
NOTE:

OSHA still has some regulatory


bite in this area by virtue of
the infamous General Duty
Clause (OSHA Sec. 5(a)(1))

REGULATIONS
OSHA General Duty Clause
Each employer shall furnish to each of
his employees employment and a place of
employment which are free from
recognized hazards that are causing or
are likely to cause death or serious
physical harm to his employees

REGULATIONS
Whats Next ?
Several interested parties including Labor Unions,
Business and associations such as ASSE have been
meeting with Secretary of Labor, Elaine Chao to
formulate a new standard that will be acceptable to
all stake-holders
The federal ergonomics regulations are being
proposed on an industry by industry basis

WORK-RELATED
MUSCULOSKELETAL
DISORDERS

ERGONOMICS
Work-Related
Musculoskeletal
Disorders
(WMSDs) are
occupational
disorders that
involve soft
tissues such as
muscles,
tendons,
ligaments, joints,
blood vessels

ERGONOMICS
WMSDs are:
Daily stress to anatomical structures that may occur when
a person is exposed to certain high risk activities
If the accumulating stress exceeds the bodys normal
recuperative ability, inflammation of the tissue can follow
Chronic inflammation may lead to the development of
WMSDs
May require weeks, months or years for development and for recovery

ERGONOMICS
What is The Musculoskeletal System?
The Musculoskeletal System includes the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Bones The load-bearing structure of the body


Muscles- Tissue that contract to create movement
Tendons Tissues that connect muscles to bones
Ligaments Tissues that connect bones to bones
Cartilage Tissue that provides cushioning and reduces friction
between bones
Nerves Communication system that links muscles, tendons and other
tissue with the brain
Blood Vessels Tubes that circulate nutrients throughout the body

ERGONOMICS
What Are Examples of WMSDs?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Sprain Overstretching or overexertion of a


ligament that results in a tear or rupture of the
ligament
Strain Overstretching or overexertion of a muscle
or tendon
Tendonitis Inflammation of the tendon inside the
sheath
Tenosynovitis Inflammation of the sheath around
the tendon
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Compression of the
median nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel
in the heel of the hand

ERGONOMICS
What are Examples of WMSDs?
6.

Tennis elbow or Golfers elbow Medical term is


Epicondylitis inflammation of the tendons at the elbow.
7. Trigger Finger Common term for tendonitis or
tenosynovitis that causes painful locking of the finger(s)
while flexing
8. Pitchers Shoulder Rotator cuff tendonitis inflammation
of one or more tendons at the shoulder
9. White Finger Medical term is Reynauds Phenomenon
constriction of the blood vessels in the hands and fingers
10. Digital Neuritis Compression of the nerves along the sides
of the fingers or thumbs

Injury in the making...

Ditto...

Anatomy of a Tendon

Tendonitis
Tendon function:
Transmit force from muscle to bone

Micro tears of tendon occur daily


Typically repair themselves
With repeated loading repair is not
adequate
Pain / Inflammation

Anatomy of DeQuervains
Tendonitis

What Causes DeQuervains?

Wringing washcloths, clothes


Typing on the computer keyboard
Cutting with scissors
Sewing or pinching
Stirring food for a long period of time
Opening jars

Carpal Tunnel

Carpal Tunnel
Best known MSD
Compression of the
median nerve at the
wrist
Tunnel made up of
nine flexor tendons
and one peripheral
nerve
Numbness and
tingling on the thumb
side of the hand

Surgical Release of Tunnel

Tennis Elbow Syndrome

Micro-tearing at the Elbow

Overhead Lifting

Anatomy of the Shoulder

Reynauds Phenomenon or
White Finger
Caused by
operating
vibrating
machinery
especially in cold,
damp weather

ERGONOMICS
WMSDs are sometimes referred to
using other unfamiliar terms such as :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Cumulative Trauma Disorders CTD


Repetitive Trauma Disorders RTD
Repetitive Strain Injuries RSI
Repeated Motion Disorders RMD
Overuse Syndromes

ERGONOMICS
Signs or Symptoms of WMSDs

Painful joints
Pain in wrists, shoulders, forearms, knees, etc.
Pain, tingling or numbness in hands or feet
Fingers or toes turning white
Shooting or stabbing pains in arms or legs
Back or neck pain
Swelling or inflammation
Stiffness
Burning sensations
Weakness or clumsiness in hands; dropping things

INCREASED RISK
FACTORS

Caution
Zone

What is a
Caution Zone
job?

Look for These


Indicators:
Caution
Zone

Awkward Postures
High Hand Force
Highly Repetitive Motion
Repeated Impact
Heavy, Frequent or Awkward
Lifting
Moderate to High Hand-Arm
Vibration

Awkward Postures
Being in these work positions for
more than 2 hours total per day

Hands above head


Elbows above shoulder
Back bent forward more than 30 degrees
Neck bent more than 30 degrees
Squatting
Kneeling

Working with the Hands


Above Head
For more than 2 hours per day

Working with the Elbows


Above Shoulders
For more than 2 hours per day

Neck or Back Bent Forward


More than 30
For more than 2 hours per day

Neck or Back Bent Forward


More than 30
For more than 2 hours per day

Neck or Back Bent Forward


More than 30
For more than 2 hours per day

Squatting
For more than 2 hours per day

Kneeling
For more than 2 hours per day

High Hand Force


More than 2 hours per day of:
Pinching 2
or more
pounds
weight or 4
or more
pounds
force

High Hand Force


More than 2 hours per day of:
Gripping 10
or more
pounds
weight or
force

Highly Repetitive Motion


Workers repeat same motion
every few seconds for more than 2
hours per day with:

neck
shoulders
elbows
wrists
hands

Highly Repetitive Motion


Intensive keying
for more than 4 hours
per day

Repeated Impact
Using hands or knees as a
hammer
more than 10 times per hour
more than 2 hours per day

Repeated Impact
Using hands or knees as a
hammer
more than 10 times per hour
more than 2 hours per day

Heavy, Frequent, or
Awkward Lifting
Lifting objects more than:
75 lbs. once/day
55 lbs. more than ten
times/day
10 lbs. more than
twice/minute
for more
than 2 hours per day
25 lbs. above shoulders,
below knees, or at arms length
for more than 25 times/day

Heavy, Frequent, or
Awkward Lifting

Heavy, Frequent, or
Awkward Lifting

Moderate to High
Hand-Arm Vibration
Moderate Level
more than
2 hours/day

Moderate to High
Hand-Arm Vibration
High Level
More than
30 Min/day

If the Employer Has


Caution Zone Jobs, They Should:
Begin an employee
awareness
education
program
Analyze the workplace for
hazards
Reduce any hazards they
find

Ergonomics Awareness
Education Should:
Show the types, symptoms and
impacts of WMSDs
Show the importance of early
reporting of symptoms
Provide information on all
caution zone risk factors
Identify the hazards and
measures to reduce them

Analyzing Caution Zone


Jobs for Hazards
Use a systematic method to
look at:
-physical demands
-layout of work area
-size, shape, and weight of objects
handled

The results will help to


determine controls

Hazard Zone
Risk factors become hazardous
when:
-there is a longer duration of
-there
is greater intensity
exposure
-there is a combination of risk
factors

The ERGONOMIC TRIANGLE

FREQUENCY

FORCE

THE GOAL IS
TO ELIMINATE
AT LEAST ONE

POSTURE

FROM EVERY
TASK

Awkward Postures
Shoulders:

Hands above Head


Elbows above shoulders

For More Than 4 hrs/day

Awkward Postures
Shoulders

Repetitive : raising >once/minute

For More Than 4 hrs/day

Awkward Positions
Neck
Bent >45 without support
or ability to vary posture

More than 4 hrs/day

Awkward Positions
Back
Bent forward >30
Without support or
ability to vary posture

More than 4 hrs/day


Bent forward >45
Without support or
ability to vary posture
More than 2 hrs/day

Awkward Positions
Knees - Squatting
More than 4 hrs/day

Awkward Positions
Knees -kneeling
More than 4 hrs/day

High Hand Force


Arms, Wrists, Hands
Pinching unsupported
object 2 or more
pounds/hand
Or
Pinching with force of 4 or
more pounds/hand (1/2 ream
of paper)

+
Highly repetitive motion
More than 3 hrs/day

High Hand Force


Arms, Wrists, Hands
Pinching unsupported object
2 or more pounds/hand
Or
Pinching with force of 4 or
more pounds/hand (1/2 ream
of paper)

+
Wrists bent in flexion 30 or
more, or in extension 45 or
more, or in ulnar deviation 30
or more
More than 3 hrs/day

High Hand Force


Arms, Wrists, Hands
Pinching unsupported
object 2 or more
pounds/hand
Or
Pinching with force of 4 or
more pounds/hand (1/2 ream
of paper)

+
No other risk factors
More than 4 hrs/day

Arms, Wrists, Hands

High Hand Force

Gripping an unsupported object 10


lbs or > per hand
Or
Gripping with force of 10 lbs or >
per hand (clamping light duty jumper
cables onto battery)

+
Highly repetitive motion

More than 3 hrs/day

High Hand Force

Arms, Wrists, Hands


Gripping an unsupported
object 10 lbs or > per hand
Or
Gripping with force of 10
lbs or > per hand (clamping
light duty jumper cables
onto battery)

+
Wrists bent in flexion 30
or more, or in extension 45
or more, or in ulnar
deviation 30 or more

More than 3 hrs/day

High Hand Force

Arms, Wrists, Hands


Gripping an unsupported
object 10 lbs or > per hand
Or
Gripping with force of 10
lbs or > per hand (clamping
light duty jumper cables
onto battery)

+
No other Risk Factors

More than 4 hrs/day

Wrists Bent
Extension
Ulnar Deviation

Flexion

Tendonitis Risk Factors


Repetition
Forceful exertion
Awkward / sustained
postures
Mechanical Stress

Awkward / Sustained Postures


Neutral posture is
the goal
Built-up handles
Avoid wrist deviation
flexion / extension
radial/ulnar deviation

Mechanical Stress

Highly Repetitive Motion


Neck, Shoulders,
Elbows, Wrists, Hands
Same motion every few
seconds with little
variation
(Except Keying)

+
-No Other Risk Factors
More than 6 hrs/day

Highly Repetitive Motion


Neck, Shoulders, Elbows,
Wrists, Hands
Same motion every few seconds
with little variation
(Except Keying)

+
-Wrists bent in flexion 30 or more,
or in extension 45 or more, or in
ulnar deviation 30 or more AND
High, forceful exertions with the
hands

More than 2 hrs/day

Highly Repetitive Motion


Intensive Keying
Awkward posture,
including wrists bent
in flexion 30 or more,
or in extenson 45 or
more, or in ulnar
deviation 30 or more
More than 4 hrs/day

Highly Repetitive Motion


Intensive Keying
No Other Factors
More than 7 hrs/day

Repeated Impact
Hands
Using Hand (heel/base of
palm) as a Hammer more
than once per minute

More than 2 hrs /day

Repeated Impact
Knees
Using Knee as Hammer
more than once per minute

More than 2 hrs /day

Heavy, Frequent, Awkward

Lifting

Heavy, Frequent or Awkward


Lifting

How many lifts


per minute?

For how many hours per day?

1 hr. or less

1 hr. to 2 hrs.

2 hrs. or more

1 lift every 2-5 mins.

1.0

0.95

0.85

1 lift every min.

0.95

0.9

0.75

2-3 lifts every min.

0.9

0.85

0.65

4-5 lifts every min.

0.85

0.7

0.45

6-7 lifts every min.

0.75

0.5

0.25

8-9 lifts every min.

0.6

0.35

0.15

10+ lifts every min.

0.3

0.2

0.0

Manual Handling
Manual handling is
transporting or
supporting a load by
hands or bodily force
- This includes:

Lifting
Carrying
Putting down
Pushing
Pulling
Moving
Supporting

Hand-Arm Vibration

Hand-Arm Vibration
Step 1: Find the vibration value for the tool.
(manufacturer or web site:
http://umetech.niwl.se/vibration/HAVHome.
html or measure it yourself. The vibration
value will be in units of meters per second
squared (m/s) - Using a hand-arm
vibration graph find the point on the left
side that is equal to the vibration value

Hand-Arm Vibration
Step 2: Find out how many total hours per
day the employee is using the tool and
find that point on the bottom of the
graph
Step 3: Trace a line in from each of these
two points until they cross

Hand-Arm Vibration
2
V ibra tion va lue (in m
) /s

50
40
30
20
10
0
0
Example:
An impact wrench
with a vibration value
of 12 m/s2 is used for
2 hours total per
day.

Time (in hours)

Note: The caution limit curve (bottom) is based on


an 8-hour vibration value of 2.5 m/s. The hazard limit
curve (top) is based on an 8-hour vibration value of 5 m/s

Hand-Arm Vibration
Step 4: If that point lies in the crosshatched
Hazard area above the upper curve, then the
vibration hazard should be reduced below the
hazard level or to the degree technologically
and economically feasible
If the point lies between the two curves in the
Caution area, then the job remains a
Caution Job
If it falls in the OK area below the bottom
curve, then no further steps are necessary

Reducing Identified Hazards


Employers should reduce hazards to below
hazard level, or to a degree technologically and
economically feasible through:
Engineering and administrative controls (preferred)
and/or
Individual work practices and PPE

Employers might also consider reducing


employee hours performing a particular task to
lower the hazard of the job

General

ERGONOMIC
SOLUTIONS

Illustrations from Ergonomic


Checkpoints by the International
Labour Organization (ILO), and
Practical Ergonomics by the
UAW-GM Ergonomics Task Force

ERGONOMICS
Ergonomic hazards are prevented primarily by
the effective design of a job or job-site and the
tools or equipment used in that job
Based on information gathered in the work-site
analysis, procedures can be established to
correct or control ergonomic hazards using
either engineering controls or work practice
controls

ERGONOMICS
Thoughtful arrangements reduce stress and eliminate
many potential injuries and disorders associated with
the overuse of muscles, with bad posture, and with
repetitive motion
Some jobs expose workers to excessive vibration and
noise, eyestrain, repetitive motion, and heavy lifting
Machines, tools, and the work environment may be
poorly designed, placing stress on workers' tendons,
muscles, and nerves and in addition, workplace
temperature extremes may aggravate or increase
stress

ERGONOMICS
Engineering Controls
Work stations should be ergonomically designed to
accommodate the full range of required movements of a
worker
Sufficient space should be provided for the knees and
feet
Machine controls should be reachable and equally
accessible by both right and left-handed operators
Other factors to look at include hard or sharp edges,
contact with thermally conducting work surfaces,
proper seating, work piece orientation, and lay-out of
the workstation

ERGONOMICS
Engineering Controls
Attention must be given to the selection and designs of
the tools used in the workplace to prevent the tools
from having a negative effect
Workers should be permitted to test tools in the actual
work environment before purchasing new tools
A variety of tool sizes should be available with
consideration to handle sizes, right and left-handed
workers, weight, center of gravity, and adequacy for
gloved hands
Engineering adaptations may be made to tools and tool
handles

ERGONOMICS
Work Practice Controls
Key elements of a good work practice program include
instruction in proper work techniques, employee
training and conditioning, regular monitoring,
feedback, adjustments, modification, and maintenance
After workers are trained in a particular work
activity, such as proper lifting, they should be
monitored to ensure that they continue to use the
proper techniques
Improper practices should be corrected to prevent
injury

STAY FIT FOR THE JOB...

Cmon! Keep those stomachs


over the handle! Let the fat do
the work! Thats it!

Stretching
Prepares muscles to do
work
Flexible muscles not
easily injured
Tight muscles easily
injured
Morning/After Lunch
Stress
Previous strain/sprain

Stretching

Stretching

90-degree" posture:
Sit upright with your elbows,
hips and knees bent at right
angles and your feet flat on the
floor or on a footrest
This position is biomechanically
correct, but it can fatigue your
back muscles over time
Fatigue can lead to slouching,
even on a chair with lumbar
support

Forward tilt posture:


Raise the height of your chair's seat
a few inches and tilt the front of it
downward about 8o
This will open up your hip angle and
allow you to support some of your
weight using your legs rather than
having it all rest on your hips and the
backs of your thighs
You may not find this posture
comfortable if you have knee or foot
problems, or if you feel like you are
sliding off the front of the seat - A
contoured chair seat can help to hold
you in place

Reclining posture:
Lean back 10o - 20o into the
chair's backrest and put your
feet out in front of you to open
up the angle at your hips and
knees
This helps relax your back
muscles and promotes blood
circulation
Leaning back too far however,
can result in an awkward neck
posture when trying to keep
your head upright

Standing posture:
Standing provides the biggest
change in posture, and is a
good alternative to prolonged
sitting, which can aggravate low
back injuries
It can be fatiguing, however, so
have a counter-height chair
available at standing
workstations, or use a height
adjustable sit/stand workstation
Also, prop one foot up on a low
footrest occasionally to help
shift your weight

ERGONOMIC INJURY FACTORS


Lesions to tendons of the
neck, back, shoulders,
arms, wrists or hands
Primary causes:
Repetitive movements
over long periods of
time
Awkward postures
Use of excessive forces

ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS: POSTURE


NEUTRAL &
COMFORTABLE:
Wrists straight
Shoulders relaxed with
elbows close to body
Head / shoulders &
back in vertical
alignment
Frequent breaks when
bent postures cant be
avoided

ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS:
REPETITION
Use automatic tools for repetitive tasks
(screw and bolt tightening)
Eliminate unnecessary tasks / movements
by redesigning maintenance procedures
and workstations
Take short, frequent breaks
Alternate tasks and processes to use
different muscle groups

ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS: HIGH


REPETITION

ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS: HIGH


REPETITION

Job Enlargement
Reduce Speeds
Mechanical Assists / Positioning
Jigs/vices to hold parts
Move work to worker
Voice-recognition software
Macros
Mini-Breaks

ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS:
PROPER ALIGNMENT

Tools: Orientation to Work Surface

Tools: Orientation to Work Surface

JOB ANALYSIS

ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS:
HIGH HAND FORCE

Use clamps and fasteners


Reduce weight of tool or object
Redesign tool/user interface
Look at Material Handling Alternatives
Use Two Hands /Alternate Hands
Sharp, well-maintained tools
Alternate Positions/Tasks

Tool Handle Design

ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS
Shoulder harness for landscaping tool
to reduce hand forces

ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS:
REPEATED IMPACT
Use rubber mallets & padded tools
Use levers
Mechanical devices

ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS: HEAVY,


FREQUENT, AWKWARD LIFTING

Reduce or Increase load weight, capacity


Handholds, rigid containers
Store objects 30 or more above floor
Slides, gravity chutes
Hoists, lifts, forklifts, Conveyors
Reduce horizontal distance
Handle items once
Mobile racks, storage
Arrange to avoid twist

ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS

Wallboard lifting system for installing dryw

ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS
Lift assist device to eliminate heavy,
awkward lifts in nursing homes and home
health care

Repetitive Awkward
Motion
Lifting

Back
Angle

Smarter,
Not Harder:
Bend &
Brace

Gripping

JOB ANALYSIS

Manual Handling - Work Smarter


Not Harder

Choose the Right Tools

Harder, Not Smarter!


Wrong Tool

Choose the Right Tools

Choose the Right Tools

ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS
Using a carpet stretcher
to
eliminate knee impacts

ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS
Redesign hand-tool
Reduce weight of tool
Rotate jobs
Use clamps or vises

ERGONOMIC SOLUTIONS:
HAND TOOLS
The design of grips for hand tools can be crucial:
Grip shape and size appropriate to the task and
user
Isolate cold temperature
Keep wrist and elbow in a "neutral" position
Eliminate sharp edges or pressure points
Use two-handed grips (where possible)
Attenuate vibration

Redesign the Work Station

Courtesy of UCDavis

Bring the load down or lift yourself

Awkward Postures

Awkward Postures

Awkward Postures

Awkward Postures - Improvements

Awkward postures - Improvements

HAND-ARM VIBRATIONS
(HAVS)
A disorder which affects the blood
vessels, nerves and muscles of the hand,
wrist and forearm
Can be severely disabling
Is better known as Vibration White
Finger

HAND-ARM VIBRATIONS
Regular Maintenance
Balancers, isolators, damping material
Tool Selection

low-vibration tools
Battery rather than pneumatic operated tools
High power to weight ratio
Low torque w/cutoff rather than slip-clutch
Non-slip surface
Contoured handles

Why talk about HAVS?


1 Million workers are exposed to high
levels of vibration, of those 460,000 are
estimated to be working in construction
242,000 cases of HAVS are reported
every year

What are the Symptoms?


Tingling and numbness in the fingers
In the cold and wet, fingers go blue then red
and are painful
You cant feel things with your fingers
Pain or tingling in your forearms at night
which stop you from sleeping
Loss of strength in your arms and hands

What are the Symptoms?

Who is at Risk?
Users of breakers
and pokers, sanders
and angle grinders
Users of scabblers (to
clean concrete) and
needle guns
Users of drills and
jigsaws

Who is at Risk?
Those with a
disease that
reduces blood
flow
Workers in cold
and damp
conditions

Who is at Risk?
Workers using
vibrating tools
Workers in contact
with cold tools

How Can I Prevent it?


Ask for low vibration
tools
Try a different
approach to your job
Use the right tool for
the job
Keep blades and
cutting edges sharp

How can I Prevent it?


Check to ensure that
the tool has been
properly maintained
Reduce the amount
of time you use the
tool
Keep the handles
warm

How can I Prevent it?


Improve your blood circulation by:
Keeping warm, wearing gloves etc.
Giving up smoking - Smoking drastically
impairs blood flow through the body
Massaging and exercising fingers during
work breaks

Prevention
Low vibration tools
Use the right tool for the job
Tool maintenance
Reduce amount of time using the tool
Keep hands & handles warm
New approach to your job
Anti-vibration gloves

What Else Can I Do?


Learn to Recognize the signs of HAVS
Stop work and report any symptoms to
your supervisor immediately
Use any control measures provided, i.e.
gloves etc., that your employer has
provided
Ask for advice from your safety
department or safety rep

Remember
Once you have had an attack of HAVS,
you will always be at risk (it is a chronic
condition)
Tell your supervisor as soon as you
suspect any symptoms

JOB ANALYSIS

JOB ANALYSIS

CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME


Occurs with repetitive motion of hands &
wrists--especially with high force levels
Incidence up to 15% in certain industries
A natural keyboard and good wrist support
can help most PC users avoid problems
GOOD NEWS: Have dropped about 30% since
1990--which most attribute to strong workplace
ergonomics programs

Computer Ergonomics
Routine PC user defined as spending 20 hours
or more per week working at a computer
Studies of PC users have not shown a risk of
eye damage...although fatigue very possible
NIOSH studies have not indicated a radiation
hazard nor pregnancy risk from PC usage
Workers using bi/tri-focal glasses before
beginning PC use may need special purpose
glasses for computer work

NATURAL

KEYBOARDS

Three types:
1. Fixed split
2. Adjustable split
3. Sculptured
Awkward wrist postures minimized
with 15 to 25 horizontal degree key
split AND 8 to 66 degree vertical
incline

NATURAL

KEYBOARDS

NATURAL

KEYBOARDS

NATURAL

KEYBOARDS

Key Layout Design Changes Have:


- increased comfort (81% of users)
improved postures
reduced muscle activity
lowered carpal tunnel pressure in lab
settings
Obtained primarily to alleviate an injury

WRIST RESTS
No medical evidence that they reduce Repetitive Strain
Injuries...As they work for some, but not for others
Usage Guidelines:
Buy a rest that is even with top of keyboard
Material should be medium-soft (foam--gel mix) so foam
doesnt break down - AVOID hard plastic types
DONT leave wrists on rest...which compresses carpal tunnel Palm rest instead
Changing typing habits more critical than wrist support
MOST APPROPRIATELY USED TO REST HANDS DURING
PAUSE IN TYPING

LEARN TO TYPE CORRECTLY WITH FLOATING


WRISTS FIRST!!!

Ergonomic chairs
Adjustable back height
Adjustable arm rest
**Chair on left NOT
ergonomically designed

Alternative Pointing Devices


Track-balls
Scrolling Mouse

Other Ergonomic PC Accessories

Height-adjustable articulating keyboard tray

Standard Layout

Wrist and Hand Issues

Posture: Orientation to Work


Elbows at 90 to
105
Whenever
possible, unload
your upper
extremity

From the Top


Position keyboard relative to major functions
Minimize wrist deviation

Compression
Avoid reaching up
and over
Consider the wristrest as a transitional
landing pad; not as
the bus stop for
your wrists

Wrist Positioning for Mousing

Mouse What it Does


In order to operate the mouse while typing, the
operator is frequently forced to reach forward or
sideways, or even both at the same time

Mouse Common Complaints

Mouse Platform

Mouse Platform
Notice that reaching forwards and sideways is
substantially reduced.

Keyboard with a Touch Pad


A keyboard with a touch pad for those applications
that dont require frequent and precise placement of
the cursor

Short Keyboard
A narrower keyboard (14) allows one to
operate the mouse without side movements

Where Else Can You Keep the Mouse?


Placing the mouse between the operator and the
keyboard requires using cordless mouse

Proof-Reading

Targeting the Work


Targeting of large objects
can be performed at a
distance > 15 inches
Targeting of small objects
need to be performed at
6-10 inches, ie., needle
and thread

Targeting Your Computer

Targeting Your Computer

Glare

Lighting Options

Proper Seating

Upper Extremity Unloading

JOB ANALYSIS

JOB ANALYSIS

JOB ANALYSIS

JOB ANALYSIS

JOB ANALYSIS

JOB ANALYSIS

JOB ANALYSIS

MODEL COMPUTER WORKSTATION


Keyboard trays WITH
wrist support
Split "Natural"
keyboards to facilitate
neutral wrist angle
Fully adjustable
ergonomic chair
Document holder to
minimize head / eye &
neck movements

MODEL COMPUTER WORKSTATION


Corner desk units to
position monitor directly
in front of employee
Foot rest where requested
Re-organization of
working materials within
employee arm reach
Alternative pointing
devices (e.g., scrolling
mouse or trackball
devices

BACK SAFETY &


LIFTING

Lifting Safely
Back Injuries are the Nations

#1
Workplace Safety Problem

Normal Curves of the Spine

Columns of Support
Posterior column of support
made up of the facet column
very stable
reflects an upright posture

Anterior column of support


made up of body of vertebra and the disc
less stable
reflects a flexed posture

The Disc & Nerve Root


The disc is the
shock absorber of
the spine
85% water at the
age of 15
25% water at the
age of 75

A Close-up Look

Forward Bending
Too much spinal
flexion
loads the anterior
column of support
places the posterior
wall of the disc at
risk
has the potential for
nerve root
compromise

Balance the Curves

Cervical Spine Anatomy

The Process of Degeneration

Weight of the Head = 10-12 lbs.

Muscular support of the Neck

Up-right Neutral Posture

Forward Head Postures

Consider Elevation of Product

A back injury costs an average


of $11,645 in medical claims
and lost time wages.
National Safety Council

Most back injuries can be


prevented

The Forces Involved


The amount of force
you place on your back
in lifting may surprise
you!
Think of your back as a
lever - with the
fulcrum in the center,
it only takes ten
pounds of pressure to
lift a ten pound object.

The Forces Involved


If you shift the fulcrum
to one side, it takes
much more force to lift
the same object. Your
waist acts like the
fulcrum in a lever
system, on a 10:1 ratio
Lifting a ten pound
object puts 100 pounds
of pressure on your
lower back

The Forces Involved


When you add in the
105 pounds of the
average human upper
torso, you see that
lifting a ten pound
object actually puts
1,150 pounds of
pressure on the
lower back!

The Forces Involved


If you were 25 pounds
overweight, it would add
an additional 250 pounds
of pressure on your back
every time you bend over!

Common Causes of Back Injuries


Anytime you find yourself doing
one of these things, you should
think:
DANGER! My back is at risk!
Try to avoid heavy lifting
. . Especially repetitive lifting
over a long period of time

Common Causes of Back Injuries


Twisting at the
waist while
lifting or
holding a heavy
load . . . this
frequently happens
when using a shovel.

Common Causes of Back


Injuries
Reaching and lifting . . .
over your head, across
a table, or out the back
of a truck . . . .

Common Causes of Back Injuries


Lifting or carrying
objects with awkward
or odd shapes . . . .

Common Causes of Back Injuries


Working in awkward,
uncomfortable positions . . .

Common Causes of Back Injuries


Sitting or standing
too long in one
position . . . sitting
can be very hard
on the lower back . . . .

Common Causes of Back Injuries


It is also possible
to injure your
back slipping on
a wet floor or ice . . .

Prevent Back Injuries

Avoid lifting and bending whenever you can


Place objects up off the floor
Raise/lower shelves.
Use carts and dollies
Use cranes, hoists, lift tables, and other liftassist devices whenever you can
Test the weight of an object before lifting by
picking up a corner
Get help if its too heavy for you to lift it alone

Prevent Back Injuries


Use proper lift procedures
Follow these steps when lifting . . .

STEP ONE
Stand close to the load
with your feet spread
apart about shoulder
width, with one foot
slightly in front of the
other for balance

STEP TWO

Squat down bending at


the knees (not your
waist). Tuck your chin
while keeping your
back as vertical as
possible

STEP THREE
Get a firm
grasp of the
object before
beginning the
lift

STEP FOUR
Begin slowly lifting
with your LEGS by
straightening them Never twist your
body during this
step.

STEP FIVE
Once the lift is
complete, keep the
object as close to the
body as possible. As
the load's center of
gravity moves away
from the body, there is
a dramatic increase in
stress to the lumbar
region of the back

For those Awkward


If you must lift or lower from a high place:
Moments...
1. Stand on a platform instead of a ladder
2. Lift the load in smaller pieces if possible
3. Push the load to see how heavy and stable it
is
4. Slide the load as close to yourself as
possible before lifting up or down
5. Get help when needed to avoid an injury

From hard-to-get-at
places...
Get as close to the load as possible
Keep back straight, stomach muscles tight
Push buttocks out behind you
Bend your knees
Use leg, stomach, and buttock muscles to
lift -- not your back

Team lifting
All participants should be of similar
height, build and gender
One person should take control of the lift,
command attention, inform others and
co-ordinate the lift
Double the people DOES NOT MEAN
double the capacity

If one person can lift 100


pounds:
How much can two people lift?
Only 70 % or 140 pounds
How much can three people lift?
Only 50 % or 150 pounds

Q. Will wearing
a back support
belt increase my
maximum lifting
potential?
A. No. Manufacturers of back
support belts do not claim they
increase maximum lifting potential.

Job Analysis

Things You Can Do


Minimize problems with your back
by exercises that tone the muscles in
your back, hips and thighs
Before beginning any exercise
program, you should check with
your doctor

Exercise!
Exercise regularly, every other day
Warm up slowly . . . A brisk walk is a
good way to warm up
Inhale deeply before each repetition of
an exercise and exhale when performing
each repetition

Exercises To Help Your Back


Wall slides to strengthen
your muscles . . . .
Stand with your back
against a wall, feet
shoulder-width apart.
Slide down into a crouch
with knees bent to 90 degrees
Count to 5 and slide back up
the wall - Repeat 5 times

Exercises To Help Your Back


Leg raises to strengthen back and hip
muscles . . .
Lie on your stomach
Tighten muscles in one leg and raise leg from floor
Hold for count of 10, and return leg to floor
Do the same with your other leg
Repeat five times with each leg

Exercises To Help Your Back


Leg raises to strengthen
back and hip muscles . . .
Lie on back, arms at your sides
Lift one leg off the floor and
hold for count of ten
Do the same with the other leg
Repeat 5 times with each leg
If this is too difficult keep
one knee bent and the foot flat
on the floor while raising the
other leg

Exercises To Help Your Back


Leg raises while seated ...
Sit upright, legs straight and
extended at an angle to floor
Lift one leg waist high
Slowly return to floor
Do the same with the other
leg
Repeat 5 times with each leg

Exercises To Help Your Back


Partial sit-up to strengthen stomach muscles . .
Lie on back, knees bent and feet flat on floor Slowly
raise head and shoulders off floor and reach both
hands toward your knees
Count to 10
Repeat 5 times

Exercises To Help Your Back


Back leg swing to strengthen
hip and back muscles . . . .
Stand behind chair, hands on chair
Lift one leg back and up, keeping
the knee straight
Return slowly
Raise other leg and return
Repeat 5 times with each leg

Exercises To Decrease the


Strain on Your Back
Lie on back, knees bent, feet flat
on floor
Raise knees toward chest
Place hands under knees & pull
knees to chest
Do not raise head
Do not straighten legs as you
lower them
Start with 5 repetitions, several
times a day

Exercises To Decrease the Strain on


Your Back
Lie on stomach, hands
under shoulders, elbows
bent and push up
Raise top half of body
as high as possible
Keep hips and legs on
floor
Hold for one or two
seconds
Repeat 10 times, several
times a day

Exercises To Decrease the


Strain on Your Back
Stand with feet apart
Place hands in small of back
Keep knees straight
Bend backwards at waist as far as
possible and hold for one or two
seconds
Repeat as needed

A FEW SOLUTIONS...
Reduce manual material handling
Pre-Plan material drops
Utilize material handling equipment
Keep materials in neutral zone

Equipment

Use the right tool for the job


Evaluate new tools for ergonomics
Keep sharp & in good repair
Use vibration dampening tools / gloves

Reduce Duration
Mini-breaks
Multi-task
Employee rotation/job share

PRODUCTS
SCISSORS LIFT TABLE 550 LB

Ergonomics at Work

Risk of injury - Heavy lifting Cart reduces risk of injury

Ergonomics at Work

Safe Lifting
Up-right neutral
posture
Posterior column of
support
Stable -- less risk of
injury

Avoid Twisting

Awkward Positions

Adjustability
Raise Worker or Raise Work
Extending or Articulating Tools
Tilt Tables
Magnifiers
Mirrors/Video for difficult access viewing
Chest, Head, Arm supports
Locate Objects w/in arms reach
Alternate Positions/Tasks

It Costs Less to Be Safe


Average Cost of
Common WMSDs:
1. Low back: $6,000

Average Cost of
Common Controls:
1. Hydraulic lift: $600

2. Shoulder: $7,000

2. Adjustable height
workstation: $800

3. Elbow: $4,000

3. Powered screwdriver:
$100

4. Wrist: $5,500

4. Assembly work
positioner: $75

CREATING A COMPANY
ERGONOMICS PROGRAM

WE ARE HERE TO SHARE IDEAS!

Okay! Ill talk! Ill talk. Take two sticks of approximately equal
size and weight -- rub them together at opposing angles using short,
brisk strokes

START WITH A
STEERING COMMITTEE
Designated Safety Coordinators
Field Supervision
Who must be involved-- to make a
positive impact in your company?

STEP ONE:
THE CAUTION ZONE INVENTORY

Awkward Work Postures


High Hand Force
Highly Repetitive Motion
Repeated Impact
Heavy, Frequent or Awkward lifting
Moderate to High Vibration

STEP TWO:
EMPLOYEE AWARENESS

Education for affected employees


Causes of musculoskeletal disorders
Caution Zone Jobs of concern
How to identify and prevent WMSDs
Non-work related physical activities
Promote physical fitness...

STEP THREE: ANALYSIS OF


CAUTION ZONE JOBS

By the steering committee?


By all field employees?
By selected crafts or professions?
Checklists or Pocket Cards?
General or Specific Performance?

STEP FOUR:
SET REASONABLE OBJECTIVES

If we pull this off, well eat like kings!

STEP FIVE:
GET EMPLOYEE INPUT & IDEAS

Changes in tools or equipment


Use of ergonomic PPE
Reducing the size & weight of loads
Ideas for task variety or job rotation
Remember the impact of peer pressure

Primitive Peer Pressure

STEP SIX:
PRIORITIZE HAZARD REDUCTION

Senior management support is needed


Consider cost/benefits of changes
Assign trial teams and a trial schedule
Reduce exposures below hazardous levels, or
to the extent technologically and
economically feasible

STEP SEVEN:
COMPANY-WIDE APPLICATION

Discuss experiments at safety meetings


Assign new equipment or procedures
Encourage continuing suggestions
Keep ergonomic awareness high at safety
meetings, and during new employee
orientation

WHAT ARE OTHER


COMPANIES DOING?

TOOLS & RESOURCES

WorkSafe Institute of Washington


OSHA Website
Dept. of Labor & Industries
The Internet general information
search
Ergonomic Equipment Suppliers
Training Materials & Consultants
Other?

Discrimination & Retaliation are Illegal !


Employees have a legal right to report injuries
and raise safety and health concerns without fear
of retaliation or discrimination
If an employee becomes disabled, an employer
must still comply with the Americans with
Disabilities Act (ADA)
For ADA information, contact the federal
Department Of Labor at 1-800-949-4232 or the
Northwest Disability Business Technical
Assistance Center at 1-800-HELP-ADA