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SS7 and

SIGTRAN
Stephanie Williams

Agenda
Brief Current SS7 Network Overview
Why SS7oIP?
Technologies
Sigtran Protocol
Deployment Strategy/ Interim Architecture
IP Core Requirements
SS7oIP Architecture for full scale Deployment
Q&A
S. Williams

SS7 Network Today


A-Links: Connect SSPs/ SCPs (end office

switches/ databases) to STPs via 56K TDM/DS0


B-Links: Connect STPs to STPs on the SS7
network via 56K TDM/DS0
C-Links: Connect mated STP pairs together for
management messaging and emergency rerouting over 56K TDM/DS0
D-Links: Connect STPs to other carriers STPs
for messaging off-net, 56K TDM/DS0
S. Williams

SS7 Protocol Stack


MTP consist of 3 levels, its purpose is to reliably
transfer messaging across the SS7 network

MTP1-Physical interface (v.35 serial interface


running at 56K or 64K)

MTP2-ensures that messages are delivered in


sequence & error free (CRC-16)

MTP3-provides the message routing & failure

handling (adds DPC/OPC, performs Changeover/


Changeback, tries to restore failed links
S. Williams

SS7 Protocol Stack Cont.


SCCP-provides enhanced

TCAP

T
U
P

ASP

I
S
U
P

features to support circuitrelated (GTT) & non-circuitrelated signaling information


(TCAP queries). SCCP is able
to reach destination in the
network by using SSN/DPC
combos

B
I
S
U
P

TCAP-used for query/retrieval

SCCP

Network

Data Link

Physical

S. Williams

MTP3

MTP

MTP2

MTP1

of information from
databases, uses SCCP
transport, puts in request for
data & waits for result

ISUP-provides call set up


& tear down, identifies
circuits for voice path

Why SS7oIP?

*Cost SavingsPacket networks are less expensive than leased circuit networks
Reduction of infrastructure costs on leased lines & signaling ports

FlexibilityCreates a many-to-many ratio for signaling


Multiple signaling points via one network link

Infrastructure PerformanceTakes advantage of high speed & intelligent routing offered by IP transport networks

ConvergenceOffload or migrate legacy TDM-based signaling traffic to the IP backbone


Access IP or SS7 databases & nodes from same network

New Business OpportunitiesAs SS7 & IP networks converge so do their businesses. SS7/IP is a key enabling technology
for new business opportunities in new markets
S. Williams

SS7oIP Technologies
2 distinctly different technologies:
*Sigtran Protocol
Conversion of SS7 to Sigtran for transport over the IP
network (Sigtran has built-in fail safes to aid the IP
core)
*TDMoIP Circuit Emulation
Encapsulation of TDM circuit for signaling transport
over the IP network without manipulating the SS7
protocol (this technology heavily relies on the stability
of the IP core)
S. Williams

IETF Sigtran

S. Williams

IETF Sigtran Working Group


Group of SS7 and SS7/IP infrastructure
vendors designing SS7 over IP standards

http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/sigtran-ch
arter.html

Tasked to create Transport and Stacks for


reliable SS7oIP protocol suite

SCTP (RFC2960): Protocol for reliable and


sequenced delivery of SS7 MSUs

Adaptation Layers: M2UA,M2PA,M3UA,SUA9

S. Williams

Sigtran Protocols
SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol, RFC2960)transport layer that provides reliable data transfer

M2PA (MTP2-User Peer to Peer Adaptation, draft status)-

provides MTP3 with equivalent transport layer services as


MTP2

M2UA (MTP2-User Adaptation, RFC3331)- client/server

protocol providing a gateway to legacy SS7 network for IPbased applications that interface at the MTP2 layer

M3UA (MTP3-User Adaptation, RFC3332)- client/server

protocol providing a gateway to legacy SS7 network for IPbased applications that interface at the MTP3 layer

SUA (SCCP-User Adaptation, draft status)- client/server

protocol providing a gateway to legacy SS7 network for IPbased applications that interface at the SCCP layer
S. Williams

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SCTP vs TCP
SCTP provides reliable transport, ensuring that data is

transported across a network without error and in sequence, like


TCP
Unlike TCP, the retransmission by SCTP of a lost message in one
stream does not block the delivery of messages in other streams.
The use of multiple streams within SCTP resolves the head of
line blocking you see with the use of TCP
Unlike TCP, SCTP ensures the sequenced delivery of user
messages within a single stream
Unlike TCP, SCTP supports Multi-Homing for added redundancy
and faster retransmission of non-acknowledged packets
Unlike TCP, SCTP supports built-in heartbeat (destination check)
Unlike TCP, SCTP supports a security cookie against SYN flood
attack
SCTP supports Selective Acknowledgements (SACK)
S. Williams

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SCTP Peer-to-Peer SS7 (M2PA)


Protocol Architecture
SSP

STP

SS7oIP Device
S

SS

SS

pp

pp

ll

TT

PP

33

M
M

TT

PP

22

77

AA

pp

pp

ll

M
M

TT

PP

33

M
M

TT

PP

22

M
M

TT

PP

11

L
M

11

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PP

SS

k
P

M
i

TT

SS

M
M

M
M

77

A
A

SS7oIP Device

12

M3UA/SUA Signaling Gateway


IP SS7
End Nodes
MAP

TCAP

GTT

SCCP

SCCP

MTP3

MTP3

MTP2

MAP IS-41 I T
S U
TCAP U P
SCCP P

MAP

SUA

MTP1

IP
Network

IP

SS7

SCTP/IP

SCCP

N
I
F

SCTP
IP

ASP/DB

MAP IS-41 I T
S U
TCAP U P
SCCP P

GTT

MTP3

MTP3

MTP2

MTP2

SCTP

MTP1

MTP1

IP

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TCAP

SUA
SCTP

MTP2

MTP1

SSP/STP

N
I
F

M3UA

M3UA
IP
Network

SCTP
IP
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SS7 Stack Comparison to


Sigtran

SS7 stack compared with Sigtran adaptation layers

Note that the MTP3 layer remains unchanged with transport


M2PA allows TWTC to keep the existing SS7 topology and use IP to
transport SS7 messages i.e. signaling links become virtual
SUA is optimized to carry transactional content signaling (TCAP). M3UA can
also transport SCCP/TCAP, SUA eliminates more of the SS7 stack,makes
better use of IP routing,requires less SS7 network overhead
S. Williams

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M3UA/SUA Standard Features


Flexible Routing configuration

M3UA-DPC,OPC,SIO,ISUP,CIC range,GTT
SUA-DPC,OPC,SI=SCCP,SSN,GTT
Fully compliant traffic mode operation
Fully compliant signaling network management operation
Fully compliant ASP state & traffic maintenance
operation
Fully compliant point-code sharing
Acknowledgement of heartbeat
Signal-Gateway Mate Protocol-used to exchange
necessary state information to act as mated pair
S. Williams

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SS7 over IP

Network Design
MTP
Resilience
SCTP Multi-Homing

Level 1:

IP Routing

IP routing protocols can detect path outages and re-route


Level 2:

IP Routing

Resilience Hierarchy

When SCTP Multi-homing detects unresponsiveness in the current IP path, it


changes the IP path used for the session by changing the source and/or
destination IP address of the session. During this process, the SCTP session
remains active and MTP3 is unaware of the path change.
Level 3:
If SCTP/IP can not correct the issue, MTP3 is notified to initiate standard MTP3
rerouting procedures (standard SS7)
S. Williams

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SCTP Multi-Homing Examples


208.4.2

208.4.4

Redundant Path IP Network

MTP2
Link 0

MTP2
Link 0

M2PA/SCTP link 0
SS7/IP Device

SS7/IP Device

local-peer 5000

local-peer 5000

10.120.122.6

10.120.122.22

10.120.123.6

10.120.123.22

ACTIVE SCTP SRC-DEST Combo


208.4.2

10.120.122.6

10.120.122.22

208.4.4

MTP2
Link 0

MTP2
Link 0
SS7/IP Device

10.120.123.6

10.120.123.22

STANDBY SCTP SRC-DEST Combo


S. Williams

SS7/IP Device

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Deployment Strategy/ Interim


Architecture

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Deployment StrategyCity
5E

SS7
/IP

New IP links
soak period
Sonus

IP Core

SS7
/IP
Each A-link city will have 1 or 2
SS7/IP devices during deployment
with the citys A-links riding over
IP

Migrate links onto


SS7/IP platform
after X months
S. Williams

TDM

IP link soak period & TDM migration


of remaining links-TBD
Savings are realized only after TDM
link(s) are disconnected
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Deployment StrategySTP City


(B-links)
(A-links)
(C-links)

Portland

SS7
/IP

SS7
/IP

STP

Columbus
STP

IP Core
SS7
/IP

SS7
/IP

TDM

TDM

(B and C-links)
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A-Link Strategy

Interim Architecture
Mux
Local
Loop

QOS implemented within


IP Core
SS7oIP Conversion
Device

d
ig
ita
l

TDM

DS1 Circuit

Sonus

IP Core

5ESS

56K Circuit

d
ig
ita
l
SS7oIP Conversion
Device
Mux

d
ig
ita
l
Mux
Local
Loop

S. Williams

TDM

21

T1 ENT. FAC.
$117 MRC

PTLD

Local
Loop

Mux

Sample City with Link Costs


d
ig
ita
l

STP

$117
MRC

$1540.95 MRC

d
ig
ita
l

Mux

d
ig
ita
l
QOS implemented
within IP Core

Mux
SS7oIP Conversion
Device

SS7oIP Conversion
Device

IP Core

DRM

d
ig
ita
l

SS7oIP Conversion
Device

SS7oIP Conversion
Device

d
ig
ita
l
Mux

Mux
Mux

STP

$200
MRC

d
ig
ita
l

PHNX

Local
Loop

$490.78 MRC
T1 ENT. FAC.
$117 MRC

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STP City Interim

Interim Architecture
All links depicted: half of each SS7 location links on IP

TDM Device

A/B/C-Links
SS7 DS0s muxed
down from DS1s

DS0s muxed
up to DS1s
SSP

SS7oIP Devices
TDM Device

A-Links
Dedicated DS0s
TDM Device

SS7oIP Device

SS7oIP Device
IP Backbone
Network
IP Backbone
Network

SS7oIP Devices

SSP

TDM Device

SS7oIP Device

SS7oIP Device

TDM Device

S. Williams

TDM Device

SS7oIP Devices

SSP

TDM Device

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IP Core Requirements
COS implemented throughout IP core to guarantee bandwidth for
SS7 messaging

Physically diverse/ redundant access paths into the core for each
link

Latency from furthest SP on SS7 network to STP-IP core cannot


inject > 50 msecs (WC) of latency on roundtrip

Security
QOS measurements required for signaling traffic
Router outages must meet MTTR on service affecting SS7 outages
Network congestion must give SS7 signaling priority
Dropping MSU packets is unacceptable
Sub-Second reroute in the core must be in place for IP network
failures
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SS7oIP Full Scale Deployment

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Full Scale Deployment


Once all trials and soak periods have completed-the goal
is to migrate all A,B, & C-links to IP network

Savings realization on TDM link costs can happen only


after the TDM links have been disconnected (30-45 day
window for discos)

NOC personnel (SS7 group) must be thoroughly trained on


the new equipment

IP Maintenance/ Transport group must be kept in loop and


available to aid the SS7 support team in the NOC (24X7-if
issue has been isolated to underlying IP transport )
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Key Areas for Testing

SCTP (Sigtran) association management & config


IP vs. SS7 traffic priority & contention
Link & link set failure
Reroute capabilities
Coexistence of SS7 & IP-based links within a common linkset
QoS/ COS capabilities
Troubleshooting & debug capabilities
Vendor interoperability
Latency measurements
*Requires either module in INET/ NeTracker (lab) for monitoring
capability (if TWTC chooses to look at the Sigtran protocol/ SS7
monitoring still valid on TDM end of SS7/IP circuit
S. Williams

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Q&A

S. Williams

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