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Reservoir Mechanisms

and Problem types


Reservoir Problem types
• Reservoir water flow mechanisms
– Displacement efficiency
– Vertical sweep efficiency
– Areal sweep efficiency

• “Good” water, “Bad” water

• Problem types

• Well and facilities

• Scale
2 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Displacement efficiency

• Fraction of oil displaced Sor


from rock swept with water
• Oil available = (1 - Sor -
Swi)
• Total oil = (1- Swi)
• Not target for water control
• Sor can be changed by
surfactant flood Swi

3 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Areal sweep efficiency

• Fraction of horizontal
section swept by water
• Dependent on
– Areal permeability
distribution
– Permeability anisotropy
– Deposition environment
– Flood pattern
– Fluid mobility
• Limited target for water
control

4 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Five Spot Pattern

5 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Effect of Mobility Ratio

Breakthrough WOR = 0.5 WOR = 2

M=1.4 65% 70% 82%

Breakthrough WOR = 0.6 WOR = 4.7

M=0.4 83% 87% 96%

6 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Areal Sweep Efficiency

0.9
Ea at breakthrough

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 1 2 3 5 10
Mobility Ratio

7 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Aerial Sweep Problems

Original oil water contact

Proposed injector

Proposed oil producers

8 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Vertical sweep efficiency

• Fraction of vertical
section swept by water
• Dependent on
– Vertical permeability profile
– Permeability contrast
– Deposition environment
– Gravity segregation
– Fluid mobility
• Prime target for water
control

9 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Homogeneous zone

Producer Producer Injector

10 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Discontinuous Zones
Injector Producer Injector Producer Injector

11 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Sandstone Geology

Vertical stacking Lateral stacking Isolated stacking

12 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Permeability Profile Brent
(9,000)

(9,100)

(9,200)

(9,300)
Depth, ft

(9,400)

(9,500)

(9,600)

(9,700)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Permeability, Darcies

13 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
RFT Pressures
(9,000)

Initial
(9,100)

reserv
(9,200) Upper Jurassic

oir pre
(9,300)
Depth, ft

Tarbut

ssure
(9,400) Ness

(9,500) Etive
(9,600)
Rannoch
(9,700)
5,200 5,600 6,000 6,400
5,400 5,800 6,200
Pressure, psi

14 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Favorable Permeability Profile
Sea level
Coarse
Increasing

it ion
s
po
energy

De

Fine
Gamma Perm

Injector

Oil

Producer

15 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Unfavorable Permeability Profile
ion

Water level
Fine
Eros

p os ition
De
Coarse

Gamma Perm
Injector

Oil

Producer

16 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
"Good" Water
• Needs to be produced with oil
• Cannot be shut-off without shutting off oil

• Down-hole separation may be a solution

Injector Producer

t1
t2
t3
t4
17 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Relative Permeability
1
relative permeability fraction

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Swi Water saturation, fraction pore space

18 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
What Are The Water Problem
Types?
Simple Complex
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Good Water
Produced with hydrocarbon

Cannot be shut-off
without loosing hydrocarbon
19 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Tubing / Casing / Packer Leak
01
 Leak in the wellbore
– Detect with spinner
or temperature log
 Solution case specific
– Shut-off fluids
 Leak
 Matrix
– Mechanical shut-off

20 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Near-Wellbore Flow
 Problem in or near
wellbore 02
– Poor cement
– Cave due to
sanding
– Channel in
formation
 Solution is case
specific
– Cement in channel
– Gel in formation
– Resin
21 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
OWC moving up
 Bottom water uniform
sweep 03
– OWC move up
slowly
– Low vertical
permeability
 Solution
– Abandon
perforations from
the bottom
 Bridge plug
(through tubing)
22 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02  Cement plug
High Perm. Layer - No Crossflow
 Vertical sweep
problem 04
 Edge water
– Water flood or
aquifer
– Thief layer
– High perm streak
 Shut off layer
– Producer or Injector
– Mechanical or fluid
23 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Fissures to an Injector
05

 Areal sweep problem


– Rapid breakthrough
– Test with tracers

 Treat at injector
– Use ‘flowing gel’

24 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Fissures to a Water Layer
 Oil bypassed
06
– Natural fissures
– Hydraulic fracture
– Fault
– Water flow in
fissures
– Oil in matrix
 Treat producer
– Flowing gel
– Over displace
25 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
 Bottom water Water Coning
– Near oil/water
contact 07
 Critical oil rate
– Depends on Kv
– Depends on gel
radius
 Laterals
 Treat with layer of gel
– Near bottom
perforations
– Large volumes
Problems required
26 WC Reservoir and

14-Jun-02

– Long delay times


Poor Areal Sweep
 Areal sweep
problem 08
Aquifer
– Heterogeneous
– Anisotropic
– Sand channel
– Fingering due to
mobility
 Treat at injector
– Polymer flood
– Often not
economic
27 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Gravity
 Vertical sweep
Segregated Layer
problem
09
 Edge water
– Water flood or
Aquifer
– One main zone
– High vertical
permeability
– Local coning
 Laterals
 Modify profile
– Producer
28 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
High Perm. Layer - with
 Vertical sweep Crossflow
problem 10
 Edge water
– Water flood or
aquifer
– Thief layer
– High perm streak
 Shut off layer
– Deep gel
penetration
– Difficult to place
– Often not economic
29 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02
Which Reservoir?

30 WC Reservoir and
Problems
14-Jun-02