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Lecture(2): Modes of Mass Transfer

Nihad Omer Hassan

Nihad Omer Hassan

Modes of Mass Transfer


Mass transfer could occur by the following three ways:
Diffusion is the net transport of substances in a stationary solid or fluid
under a concentration gradient.
Examples:
Distribution of perfume where it is sprayed in one part of a room, yet soon you can
smell it everywhere.
Movement of a drop of food coloring in a glass of water, where eventually the
entire glass will be colored.
Making tea, where molecules from the tea cross the tea bag and spread out into the
cup of water

Modes of Mass Transfer


Advection is the net transport of substances by the moving fluid.
It cannot therefore happen in solids.
example:
If the wind is blowing toward the east, advection will carry any
pollutants present in the atmosphere toward the east.
Similarly, if a bag of dye is emptied into the center of a river, advection
will carry the resulting spot of dye downstream.

Modes of Mass Transfer


Convection is the net transport of substances caused
by both advective transport and diffusive transport in
fluids.

Modes of Mass Transfer


Stirring the
water with a
spoon creates
forced
convection.
That helps the
sugar molecules
to transfer to
the bulk water
much faster.

Mathematical Modeling Of Steady-state


One Dimensional Diffusive Mass Transfer

Ficks First Law of Diffusion

Flux
The mass (or molar) flux of a given species
is a vector quantity denoting the amount
of the particular species, in either mass or
molar units, that passes per given
increment of time through a unit area
normal to the vector.

Ficks First Law of Diffusion

CA

JA

Unit and Scale of Diffusivity

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Diffusion in Gases
Special Case: Equimolar counter-diffusion
in gases A
B

(2
)
(3
)

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(4
)

(5
)

3
(6
a)
(6
b)
12

7
8

13

Ficks law in terms of pressure

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8
9

10

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Summary: Modelling diffusion


in z-direction

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Example:

Solution:

JA = 5.63 x 10-6 kmol/m2.s


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1.Diffusion in Gases
General Case: Diffusion Plus Bulk Flow
Diffusion is the net transport of substances in a
stationary solid or fluid under a concentration
gradient.
Advection is the net transport of substances by the
moving fluid, and so cannot happen in solids. It does
not include transport of substances by simple diffusion.

JA is the diffusive flux described by Ficks law, and


we have already studied about it.
Let us use NA to denote the net flux which is
diffusion plus advection ( bulk transfer).

1.Diffusion in Gases
General Case: Diffusion Plus Bulk Flow

t the general law for NA we have to know The relation betwee


s and velocities:
JA (mol/m2.s)
(2.1)
vA,diffusion (m/s) =
CA (mol/m3)
velocity of the net flux of A in B can be given by
vA,net (m/s) =

NA (mol/m2.s)
CA (mol/m3)

(2.2)

e velocity of the bulk motion can be given by


vbulk

(NA + NB) (mol/m2.s)


(m/s) =
(CT) (mol/m3)
Total concentration

(2.3)

vA,net =

vA,diffusion + vbulk

(2.4)

Multiplying the above by CA, we get


CA vA,net =

(2.5)

CA vA,diffusion + CA vbulk

ng equations (2.1) to (2.3) in the above, we get

NA = JA + CA (NA + NB)
(2.6)
CT
uting JA from equation (2.6), we get the
General Law of diffusion in terms of concentration :
NA = -DAB dCA
dz
Prof. R. Shanthini
21
Feb 2013

(NA + NB)
+ CA
CT

(2.7)
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The General law in terms of pressure


g the ideal gas law, let us introduce partial pressure of A (p
ws:
nA
pA
(2.8 a)
CA
=
V
RT
=
nT
P
(2.8 b)
CT =
=
V
RT
Total number of moles

Total pressure

g (2.8 a) and (2.8 b), equation (2.7) can be written as


NA = -

DAB
RT

dpA
dz

pA (N + N )
+
A
B
P

(2.9)

The General law in terms of molar fraction

us introduce molar fractions xA into (2.7) as follows


CA
xA =
CT

(2.10)

ing (2.10), equation (2.7) can be written as


NA = -CT DAB dxA
dz

Prof. R. Shanthini
21
Feb 2013

+ xA(NA + NB)

(2.11)

Th
a

Nihad Omer Hassan

nk
Y

OU

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