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Swine Flu

By Sabiyal Sagheer (Batch A1)

Scenario
Q:A 25 year old man presented in OPD with
fever,cough,sore throat, body aches and other flu-like
symptoms from last 5-6 days. He gave history of
contact with a pig farmer.
A:What is the Diagnosis?
B:What Treatment Options are available?

Introduction
Swine Flu also known as H1N1 Influenza is a
Respiratory Infection in humans caused by a subtype
of Influenza A Virus known as H1N1 Strain. It was first
reported in 2009 and declared a global pandemic by
WHO.

The Virus Strain is a


result of Genetic
Reassortment of viruses
from Human ,Avian and
Swine flu sources.
It is distinct from swine
flu infection that occurs
normally in pigs and
does not spread from
pig to human contact.
H1N1 influenza virus, taken
in the CDC Influenza
Laboratory.

History
The first outbreak was reported in January 2009 in
Mexico and United States, followed by spread to 208
Countries worldwide by December 2009.There were
reported to be 0.6 Million cases in 2009 and more
than 9500 deaths worldwide.

It was declared as a Level 6 Pandemic by WHO in


2009 and was declared over in 2010.It is currently in
Post-Pandemic Period with Seasonal outbreaks
occurring from time to time.

Clinical Features
Signs and symptoms are similar to other flu strains
and typically arise 4-6 days after infection. They
include:

Fever
Cough
Sore throat
Runny nose
Body aches
Headache
Fatigue

Less Commonly:
Diarrhea
Nausea and vomiting

Complications
Pneuomonia
Acute Respiratory Disease
Neurologic Complications in Children

Risk Groups

People over 65 years


Children
Pregnant Women
Underlying Medical Conditions (Asthma,Diabetes,Heart Disease)

Mode of Transmission
Similar to other types of
flu.
Person to Person spread via
Respiratory droplets due
to:
Coughing
Sneezing
Touching Contaminated
Surfaces
Does not spread by eating
pork, because cooking at
160*F kills swine flu virus.

Reservoir
Humans and pigs are main reservoirs.
Humans can transmit virus upto 6-10 days.

Incubation
After exposure, infected person shows signs
Period:
and symptoms within 4-6 Days. It has longer
incubation period than Seasonal Flu(1-3 Days).
Person is Contagious from 5-12 Days after
exposure.

Investigations
Diagnosis is based on signs
and symptoms with history
of:
Contact with infected
person
Travel history to known
areas of outbreak
Severe cases are
confirmed by Real-Time
PCR Test approved by
FDA in 2010.

Treatment
Antivirals:
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or
Zanamivir (Relenza)
Resistant to
Amantadine,
Rimantadine
Symptomatic Treatment:
Antipyretics and
Analgesics
Bed rest and Increased
Fluid Consumption
Cough Suppressants
Antibiotics to Prevent
Secondary Infections

Prevention
Vaccine:
H1N1 "Killed Vaccine" is available in injectable form by the
name of "Pandemrix",recommended by Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention,US.

Other Measures
Frequently Washing
Hands with Soap
Use of Alcohol Based
Hand Sanitizers
Avoiding contact with
infected persons
Disinfection of
Household Surfaces
Covering mouth and
nose while sneezing

Scenario
Q:A 25 year old man presented in OPD with
fever,cough,sore throat,body aches and other flu-like
symptoms from last 5-6 days.He gave history of
contact with a pig farmer.
A:What is the Diagnosis?
B:What Treatment Options are available?

Answers:

A: Swine Flu H1N1 Influenza Virus


B: Antivirals: Oseltamivir or Zanamivir
Symptomatic Treatment:
Antipyretics and Analgesics
Bed rest and Increased Fluid Consumption
Cough Suppressants
Antibiotics to Prevent Secondary Infections
Vaccine

Thank You!