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A

TECHNICAL SEMINAR
ON

SOIL IMPROVEMENT USING ADDITIVES


By
K.MANISH KUMAR
(13B81A0139)

Under The Guidance Of


Mr. M. ASHOK KUMAR
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Civil Engineering

CVR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

CONTENTS
Introduction
Techniques of soil improvement
Additives
Advantages and of soil improvement
Literature Review
Methodology
Conclusions
References

Introduction
Soil improvement- alteration of properties of soil to improve its
engineering performance
Types of soils
Cohesive soils
i.e, silt and clay
.

Cohesion less soils


i.e, sand and gravels

Techniques of Soil Improvement


Soil Compaction
Drainage Methods (Dewatering by Electro-osmosis, etc.)
Vibration Methods
Grouting and Injection
Chemical Stabilization
Soil Reinforcement (papyrus fibre)
Geotextiles and Geomembranes
Other methods(thermal methods, replacing and removal
of soil, etc.)

Soil compaction using roller

VIBROFLOTATION METHOD

GROUTING AND INJECTING

GEOMEMBRANES AND GEOTEXTILES

SOIL REINFORCEMENT

ADDITIVE
1. Additive- a complementary substance added to enhance the
properties of a main substance
2. Types of additives

Cement
Lime
Fly ash
Bituminous
Combination

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES


1. Advantages
i.

improves durability, strength and stiffness

ii.

reduce or eliminate the need for expensive

iii. excellent fatigue strength


iv. good exposure on performance of freez-thaw cycle
2. Disadvantages
v.

raw materials costs are increased as cement is relatively


expensive

vi. stabilized material in not available in all countries and may


be
expensive to transport

LITERATURE REVIEW
Study on the Geotechnical Properties of Cement based Composite
Fine-grained Soil
it state the effect of cement on the performance of soil
show that the soil can be made lighter which leads to decrease in dry density and
increase in moisture content and reduced compressibility due to the addition of
cement with the soil. They optimized the cement content as 7.5%.

Study of black cotton soil characteristics with cement waste dust


and lime
7% cement dust , 8% combination of cement dust and lime and 9% lime

METHODOLOGY
Materials used
soil
cement
Soil Classification, FSI, Atterbergs Limits of Untreated soil
Grain size distribution

Gravel

Sand(%)

(%)
Inorganic clay
soil

3.56

Silt/Clay

Atterbergs Limit

FSI

L.L(%)

P.L(%)

P.I(%) (%)

30.40

19.43

10.97

(%)
37.64

58.80

17.50

COMPACTION RESULT FOR UNTREATED SOIL

MDD Vs OMC Graph for soil

CBR test was performed for 100% inorganic clayey soil with low plasticity
remolded at OMC (10.10%) and MDD (2.052gm/cc) and the test result were

Load penetration curve for untreated soil

CBR values from graph obtained were as follow :


Standard

Load*100/Std.

CBR (%)

penetration
2.5 mm

load
(78*100)/1370

5.69

5 mm

(136.5*100)/2055

6.64

As the value of CBR at 5 mm is more, tests were


repeated and values again obtained were more than
CBR at 2.5 mm hence CBR at 5 mm is considered

TEST RESULT FOR SOIL TREATED WITH 2% CEMENT


Atterbergs Limit
L.L(%)

P.L(%)

P.I(%)

26

16.5

9.95

COMPACTION RESULT FOR SOIL TREATED WITH 2% CEMENT

MDD vs OMC for soil + 2% Cement

CBR test performed soil treated with 2% cement

CBR Graph for soil + 2% Cement


Standard

Load*100/Std. load

CBR (%)

penetration
2.5 mm

(257.40*100)/1370

18.79

5 mm

(448.50*100)/2055

21.82

CONCLUSIONS
the strength of subgrade soil is improved thereby increasing the load carrying
capacity of soil.
By doing stabilization total pavement construction cost is reduced up to 15%.
Enhancement of engg. properties of clayey soils

References
BS 1377-4 1990, Method of Test for Soils for Civil Engineering purposes, part
4.Compaction-related Test BSI,1990
IS: 2720 (Part II) 1973, Determination of Water Content.
IS: 2720 (Part IV) 1985, Determination of Grain Size Analysis.
IS: 2720 (Part V) 1985, Determination of Liquid and Plastic Limit.
IS: 2720 (Part VIII) 1987, Determination of Water Content Dry Density Relation
Using Light Compaction.
IS: 2720 (Part XVI) 1997, Laboratory Determination of CBR
IS: 1498 1987, Classification and Identification of Soils for General Engineering
Purposes.

THANK YOU