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Chapter 2

the biological perspective

psychology
fourth edition
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12

What are the nervous system, neurons, and nerves, and how do they relate to
one another?
How do neurons use neurotransmitters to communicate with each other and with
the body?
How do the brain and spinal cord interact, and what are some misconceptions
about the brain, and what is neuroplasticity?
How do the somatic and autonomic nervous systems allow people and animals to
interact with their surroundings and control the bodys automatic functions?
How do the hormones released by glands interact with the nervous system and
affect behavior?
How do psychologists study the brain and how it works?
What are the different structures of the hindbrain and what do they do?
What are the structures of the brain that control emotion, learning, memory, and
motivation?
What parts of the cortex control the different senses and the movement of the
body?
What parts of the cortex are responsible for higher forms of thought, such as
language?
How does the left side of the brain differ from the right side?
What are some potential causes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

AP Learning Objectives
IV. Biological Bases
Identify basic processes and systems in the biological bases of
behavior, including parts of the neuron and the process of transmission
of a signal between neurons.
Discuss the influence of drugs on neurotransmitters.
Describe the nervous system and its subdivisions and functions.
Discuss the role of neuroplasticity in traumatic brain injury.
Discuss the effect of the endocrine system on behavior.
Recount historic and contemporary research strategies and
technologies that support research.
Identify key contributors.
Discuss psychologys abiding interest in how heredity, environment and
evolution work together to shape behavior.

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Warm up- Observe- Reflect- Question- Investigate


1. With a partner, discuss what you observe in the picture.
2. Then, discuss what the picture makes you reflect.
3. Next, share what the picture makes you question.
4. Finally, share what you want to investigate about this picture.

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Warm up- See Think Wonder

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Overview of Nervous System


LO 2.1 What Are the Nervous System, Neurons, and Nerves?

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

Nervous system
an extensive network of specialized cells that
carry information to and from all parts of the
body

Neuroscience
deals with the structure and function of
neurons, nerves, and nervous tissue
relationship to behavior and learning

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 2.5 An Overview of the Nervous System

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Central Nervous System


LO 2.3 How the Brain and Spinal Cord Interact

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous


System

Central nervous system (CNS): part of the


nervous system consisting of the brain
and spinal cord
Brain: the core of the nervous system
Spinal cord: a long bundle of neurons that
carries messages to and from the body to the
brain that is responsible for very fast,
lifesaving reflexes

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Reflex Arc: Three Types of Neurons


LO 2.3 How the Brain and Spinal Cord Interact

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous


System

Sensory neuron: a neuron that carries


information from the senses to the central
nervous system
also called an afferent neuron

Motor neuron: a neuron that carries


messages from the central nervous
system to the muscles of the body
also called an efferent neuron
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Reflex Arc: Three Types of Neurons


LO 2.3 How the Brain and Spinal Cord Interact

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous


System

Interneuron: a neuron found in the center


of the spinal cord that receives information
from the sensory neurons and sends
commands to the muscles through the
motor neurons
interneurons also make up the bulk of the
neurons in the brain

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Reflex Arc: Three Types of Neurons


LO 2.3 How the Brain and Spinal Cord Interact

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous


System
The Role of Neuroplasticity in Brain Injury

Neuroplasticity: the ability to constantly


change both the structure and function of
cells in response to experience or trauma

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Peripheral Nervous System


LO 2.4 Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous


System

Peripheral nervous system (PNS): all


nerves and neurons that are not contained
in the brain and spinal cord but that run
through the body itself
divided into the:
somatic nervous system
autonomic nervous system

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 2.7 The Peripheral Nervous System

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Somatic Nervous System


LO 2.4 Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous


System

Soma = body
Somatic nervous system: division of the
PNS consisting of nerves that carry
information from the senses to the CNS
and from the CNS to the voluntary
muscles of the body
sensory pathway: nerves coming from the
sensory organs to the CNS consisting of
sensory neurons
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Somatic Nervous System


LO 2.4 Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous


System

Somatic nervous system (contd)


motor pathway: nerves coming from the CNS
to the voluntary muscles, consisting of motor
neurons

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Autonomic Nervous System


LO 2.4 Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous


System

Autonomic nervous system (ANS)


division of the PNS consisting of nerves that
control all of the involuntary muscles, organs,
and glands; sensory pathway nerves coming
from the sensory organs to the CNS
consisting of sensory neurons

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Autonomic Nervous System


LO 2.4 Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous


System

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)


(contd)
sympathetic division (fight-or-flight system):
part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting
to stressful events and bodily arousal
parasympathetic division: part of the ANS that
restores the body to normal functioning after
arousal and is responsible for the day-to-day
functioning of the organs and glands
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Structure of the Neuron


LO 2.1 What Are the Nervous System, Neurons, and Nerves?

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

Neuron
the basic cell that makes up the nervous
system and receives and sends messages
within that system

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Structure of the Neuron


LO 2.1 What Are the Nervous System, Neurons, and Nerves?

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

Structure of the Neuron


LO 2.1 What Are the Nervous System, Neurons, and Nerves?

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

Parts of a neuron
dendrites: branch-like structures that receive
messages from other neurons
soma: the cell body of the neuron, responsible
for maintaining the life of the cell
Receptor sites- specific locations off dendrites
that receive incoming neurotransmitter chemicals
axon: long, tube-like structure that carries the
neural message to other cells
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Structure of the Neuron


LO 2.1 What Are the Nervous System, Neurons, and Nerves?

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

Parts of a neuron
Terminals- branching structures at the ends of
axons that have bulbs at the tips
Bulbs- at the tips of axon terminals & have sacs,
AKA vesicles
Sacs/vesicles- a container, like a pouch, that
manufactures & releases neurotransmitter
chemical

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Other Types of Brain Cells


LO 2.1 What Are the Nervous System, Neurons, and Nerves?

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

Myelin sheath: a white, fatty substances


produced by certain glial cells that coat the
axons of neurons to insulate, protect, and
speed up the neural impulse
clean up waste products and dead neurons
Nodes of ranvier: space between myelin
sheath

Nerves: bundles of axons in the peripheral


nervous system
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Sending the neural impulse


Synapse- space between
sending/receiving neurons
Extracellular environment (outside neuron)
Intracellular environment (within neuron)
Synapse
1) Presynaptic neuron
2) cleft (space between neurons)
3) postsynaptic neuron
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Generating the Message: Neural Impulse


LO 2.1 What Are the Nervous System, Neurons, and Nerves?

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

Ions: charged particles


inside neuron: negatively charged
outside neuron: positively charged
K+= potassium
Na+= sodium
Cl-= chloride
Diffusion: the process of moving ions from areas of
high concentration to areas of low concentration
(sending a neural impulse, 2-240 MPH down axons)
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Generating the Message: Neural Impulse


LO 2.1 What Are the Nervous System, Neurons, and Nerves?

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

1. Resting potential period (state/stage): the


state of the neuron when not firing a neural
impulse
Impermeable membrane
Polarized (negative in, positive out)
High internal negative charge

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Generating the Message: Neural Impulse


LO 2.1 What Are the Nervous System, Neurons, and Nerves?

2. Permeability state
Permeable membrane
Soma end
Ion-mixing

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

Generating the Message: Neural Impulse


LO 2.1 What Are the Nervous System, Neurons, and Nerves?

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

3. Action potential: the release of the neural


impulse consisting of a reversal of the
electrical charge within the axon
allows positive sodium ions to enter the cell
Depolarized
Electrical impulse/charge moves from soma to
terminal (domino fashion)

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Generating the Message: Neural Impulse


LO 2.1 What Are the Nervous System, Neurons, and Nerves?

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

3. Action Potential
All-or-none: a neuron either fires completely
or does not fire at all

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Generating the Message: Neural Impulse


LO 2.1 What Are the Nervous System, Neurons, and Nerves?

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

4. Refractory Period
-sodium, potassium pump action (leave
neuron after action potential)
-impermeable membrane returning
Return to resting potential
Neurons only fire impulse when a stimuli is
strong or frequent
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 2.2 The Neural Impulse Action Potential


In the graph below, voltage readings are shown at a given place on the neuron over a period of 20 or 30 milliseconds
(thousandths of a second). At first the cell is resting; it then reaches threshold and an action potential is triggered. After
a brief hyperpolarization period, the cell returns to its resting potential.

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 2.2 (continued) The Neural Impulse Action Potential


In the graph below, voltage readings are shown at a given place on the neuron over a period of 20 or 30 milliseconds
(thousandths of a second). At first the cell is resting; it then reaches threshold and an action potential is triggered. After
a brief hyperpolarization period, the cell returns to its resting potential.

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Communication Between Neurons


LO 2.2 How Neurons Use Neurotransmitters to Communicate

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

Sending the message to other cells


Axon terminals: rounded areas at the end
of the branches at the end of the axon
responsible for communicating with other
nerve cells

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Neuron Communication
LO 2.2 How Neurons Use Neurotransmitters to Communicate

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

Synaptic vesicles: sack-like structures


found inside the axon terminal containing
chemicals
neurotransmitter: chemical found in the
synaptic vesicles which, when released, has
an effect on the next cell

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Neuron Communication
LO 2.2 How Neurons Use Neurotransmitters to Communicate

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

Synapse/synaptic gap: microscopic fluid-filled


space between the rounded areas on the end of
the axon terminals of one cell and the dendrites
or surface of the next cell
Receptor sites: holes in the surface of the
dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and
glands, which are shaped to fit only certain
neurotransmitters
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Neuron Communication
LO 2.2 How Neurons Use Neurotransmitters to Communicate

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

Neuron Communication
LO 2.2 How Neurons Use Neurotransmitters to Communicate

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

Neurons must be turned ON and OFF


excitatory synapse: neurotransmitter that
causes the receiving cell to fire
inhibitory synapse: neurotransmitter that
causes the receiving cell to stop firing

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Quiz
Review your Neuron Diagram
Bonus- the direction of a neural impulse

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Neuron Communication
LO 2.2 How Neurons Use Neurotransmitters to Communicate

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

Chemical substances can affect neuronal


communication
agonists: mimic or enhance the effects of a
neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the
next cell, increasing or decreasing the activity
of that cell
antagonists: block or reduce a cells response
to the action of other chemicals or
neurotransmitters
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Neuron Communication
LO 2.2 How Neurons Use Neurotransmitters to Communicate

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

Cleaning up the Synapse


LO 2.2 How Neurons Use Neurotransmitters to Communicate

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

Reuptake: process by which


neurotransmitters are taken back into the
synaptic vesicles
Enzyme: complex protein that is
manufactured by cells
one enzyme specifically breaks up
acetylcholine because muscle activity needs
to happen rapidly; reuptake would be too slow
Enzymatic degradation
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 2.4 Reuptake of Dopamine


Dopamine is removed from the synapse by reuptake sites. Cocaine acts by blocking dopamine reuptake sites, allowing
dopamine to remain active in the synapse longer.

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Other Types of Brain Cells


LO 2.1 What Are the Nervous System, Neurons, and Nerves?

AP: Basic Processes and Systems

Glial cells are grey fatty cells that:


provide support for the neurons to grow on
and around
deliver nutrients to neurons
produce myelin to coat axons

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

What happens during flight or fight?


During flight or fight, your nervous and
endocrine systems work hand in hand.

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 2.8 Functions of the Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Divisions of the Nervous System

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Endocrine Glands


LO 2.5 How Hormones Interact with the Nervous System and Affect Behavior

AP: How the Endocrine System Affects Behavior

Endocrine glands: glands that secrete


chemicals called hormones directly into
the bloodstream
hormones: chemicals released into the
bloodstream by endocrine glands

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 2.9 The Endocrine Glands

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Endocrine Glands


LO 2.5 How Hormones Interact with the Nervous System and Affect Behavior

AP: How the Endocrine System Affects Behavior

pituitary gland: located in the brain that secretes


human growth hormone and influences all other
hormone-secreting glands (also known as the
master gland)
pineal gland: located near the base of the
cerebrum that secretes melatonin
thyroid gland: located in the neck that regulates
metabolism
pancreas: controls the levels of sugar in the
blood
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Endocrine Glands


LO 2.5 How Hormones Interact with the Nervous System and Affect Behavior

AP: How the Endocrine System Affects Behavior

gonads: the sex glands; secrete hormones that


regulate sexual development and behavior as well
as reproduction
ovaries: the female gonads
testes: the male gonads

adrenal glands: located on top of each kidney


secrete over thirty different hormones to deal with
stress, regulate salt intake
provide a secondary source of sex hormones affecting
the sexual changes that occur during adolescence
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Brain!
3-2-1 Bridge
3- Write down 3 words or phrases that you
think of when you think of the brain.
2- Write down 2 questions you have about
the brain.
1 Create an analogy, metaphor, or simile for
the brain.
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 2.12 Major Structures of the Human Brain

8
11

6
4
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Hindbrain
LO 2.7 Structures and Functions of the Hindbrain

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous


System

The Hindbrain
medulla: first large swelling at the top of the
spinal cord, forming the lowest part of the
brain
responsible for life-sustaining functions such as
breathing, swallowing, and heart rate

pons: larger swelling above the medulla that


connects the top of the brain to the bottom
plays a part in sleep, dreaming, leftright body
coordination, and arousal
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Hindbrain
LO 2.7 Structures and Functions of the Hindbrain

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous


System

cerebellum: part of the lower brain located


behind the pons
controls and coordinates involuntary, rapid, fine
motor movement, coordination, posture, balance,
1st brain tissue affected by alcohol
Inside cerebellum- Arbor Vitae: white matter
(myelin on neurons axon)
Gray matter: unmyelinated parts of neurons

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Midbrain
reticular formation/body (RF): area of neurons
running through the middle of the medulla and
the pons and slightly beyond
responsible for selective attention
startle center
When damaged it can lead to coma

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

STRUCTURES UNDER THE


CORTEX

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 2.13 The Limbic System

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Structures under the Cortex


LO 2.8 Structures that Control Emotion, Learning, Memory, and Motivation
AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous System

Limbic system: a group of several brain


structures located under the cortex and
involved in learning, emotion, memory,
and motivation
thalamus: part of the limbic system located in
the center of the brain (grand central station)
relays sensory information from the lower part of
the brain to the proper areas of the cortex (afferent)
processes some sensory information before
sending it to its proper area (efferent)
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Structures under the Cortex


LO 2.8 Structures that Control Emotion, Learning, Memory, and Motivation
AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous System

Limbic System (contd)


hypothalamus: small structure in the brain
located below the thalamus and directly
above the pituitary gland
responsible for motivational behavior such as sleep,
hunger, thirst, and sex

hippocampus: curved structure located within


each temporal lobe
responsible for the formation of long-term memories
and the storage of memory for location of objects
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Structures under the Cortex


LO 2.8 Structures that Control Emotion, Learning, Memory, and Motivation
AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous System

Limbic System (contd)


amygdala: brain structure located near the
hippocampus
responsible for fear responses and the memory of
fear, primitive center of aggression and life surival

cingulate cortex: the limbic structure actually


found in the cortex
plays important roles in cognitive and emotional
processing

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cortex
LO 2.9 Parts of Cortex Controlling Senses and Movement

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous System

Cortex: outermost covering of the brain


consisting of densely packed neurons
responsible for higher thought processes and
interpretation of sensory input

Corticalization: wrinkling of the cortex


allows a much larger area of cortical cells to
exist in the small space inside the skull

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cerebral Hemispheres
LO 2.9 Parts of Cortex Controlling Senses and Movement

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous System

Cerebral hemispheres: the two sections of


the cortex on the left and right sides of the
brain
Corpus callosum: thick band of neurons
that connects the right and left cerebral
hemispheres

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 2.14 The Lobes of the Brain

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Four Lobes of the Brain


LO 2.9 Parts of Cortex Controlling Senses and Movement

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous System

Occipital lobe: section of the brain located


at the rear and bottom of each cerebral
hemisphere containing the visual centers
of the brain
primary visual cortex: processes visual
information from the eyes
visual association cortex: identifies and
makes sense of visual information

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 2.15 The Motor and Somatosensory Cortex

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Four Lobes of the Brain


LO 2.9 Parts of Cortex Controlling Senses and Movement

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous System

Parietal lobes
sections of the brain located at the top and
back of each cerebral hemisphere containing
the centers for touch, taste, and temperature
sensations
somatosensory cortex: area of neurons
running down the front of the parietal lobes
responsible for processing information from the
skin and internal body receptors for touch,
temperature, body position, and possibly taste
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Four Lobes of the Brain


LO 2.9 Parts of Cortex Controlling Senses and Movement

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous System

Temporal lobes: areas of the cortex


located just behind the temples containing
the neurons responsible for the sense of
hearing and meaningful speech
primary auditory cortex: processes auditory
information from the ears
auditory association cortex: identifies and
makes sense of auditory information

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Four Lobes of the Brain


LO 2.9 Parts of Cortex Controlling Senses and Movement

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous System

Frontal lobes: areas of the cortex located in


the front and top of the brain; responsible
for higher mental processes and decision
making as well as the production of fluent
speech
motor cortex: section of the frontal lobe located
at the back; responsible for sending motor
commands to the muscles of the somatic
nervous system
mirror neurons
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Association Areas of Cortex


LO 2.10 Parts of Cortex Responsible for Higher Thought

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous System

Association areas: areas within each lobe


of the cortex responsible for the
coordination and interpretation of
information, as well as higher mental
processing

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Association Areas of Cortex


LO 2.10 Parts of Cortex Responsible for Higher Thought

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous System


Identify Key Contributors

Brocas Area- area in left frontal lobe,


responsible for producing fluent,
understandable speech
Brocas aphasia: condition resulting from
damage to Brocas area
causes the affected person to be unable to
speak fluently, words will be halting and
pronounced incorrectly.
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Brocas Aphasia

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Association Areas of Cortex


LO 2.10 Parts of Cortex Responsible for Higher Thought

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous System


Identify Key Contributors

Wernickes area- area in the left temporal


lobe is responsible for the understanding
of language.
Wernickes aphasia: condition resulting
from damage to Wernickes area
causes the affected person to be unable to
understand and produce meaningful language
speech is fluent but nonsensical. The wrong
words are used.
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Wernickes Aphasia

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Association Areas of Cortex


LO 2.10 Parts of Cortex Responsible for Higher Thought

AP: The Subdivisions and Functions of the Nervous System


Identify Key Contributors

Angular Gyrus- (at the junction of the left


temporal and parietal lobes) damage to the area
disrupts the ability to read aloud
- angular gyrus is responsible for transforming
words processed by the visual area of the cortex
into an auditory code

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Association Areas of Cortex


LO 2.10 Parts of Cortex Responsible for Higher Thought

AP: Research Strategies and Technologies

Spatial neglect: condition produced by


damage to the association areas of the
right hemisphere
results in an inability to recognize objects or
body parts in the left visual field

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Split-Brain Research
LO 2.11 Differences between the Left and Right Sides of the Brain

Cerebrum: the upper part of the brain


consisting of the two hemispheres and the
structures that connect them

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Split-Brain Research
LO 2.11 Differences between the Left and Right Sides of the Brain

AP: Identify Key Contributors


Research Strategies and Technologies

Split-Brain Research
Prominent psychologists- Mike
Gazzaniga & Roger Sperry
study of patients with severed corpus
callosum
involves sending messages to only one
side of the brain
demonstrates right and left brain
specialization
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZM
LzP1VCANo
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Results of Split-Brain Research


LO 2.11 Differences between the Left and Right Sides of the Brain

AP: Identify Key Contributors


Research Strategies and Technologies

left side of the brain


seems to control language, writing, logical thought,
analysis, and mathematical abilities
processes information sequentially, and enables one to
speak

right side of the brain


controls emotional expression, spatial perception,
recognition of faces, patterns, melodies, and emotions
it processes information globally and cannot influence
speech
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Think-Pair-Share
In the following actions, think about what parts of the body
and brain are needed to elicit a response. Identify the
structures and what role they would play:
A- punting a football
B- hearing your stepdad call home from playing outside
C- a cat arching its back and hissing at a potential predator
D- learning a new set of geometry theorems

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Warm Up: See- Think- Wonder

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Looking Inside the Living Brain

In 1861, a patient named Leborgne in France had a 21-year


progressive loss of speech and paralysis but not a loss of
comprehension nor mental function. He was nicknamed "Tan" due to his
inability to clearly speak any words other than "tan".

When Leborgne died, Paul Broca performed an autopsy. He determined


Leborgne had a lesion in the frontal lobe of the left cerebral hemisphere.
From a comparative progression of Leborgne's loss of speech and
motor movement, the area of the brain important for speech production
was determined to lie within the third fold of the left frontal lobe. For the
next two years, Broca went on to find autopsy evidence from 12 more
cases in support of the localization of articulated language

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Looking Inside the Living Brain


LO 2.6 Study of the Brain and How It Works

AP: Research Strategies and Technologies


Identify Key Contributors

Clinical Studies
Broca 1861
lesioning: insertion of a thin, insulated wire
into the brain through which an electrical
current is sent that destroys the brain cells at
the tip of the wire
electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB):
milder electrical current that causes neurons
to react as if they had received a message
human brain damage
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Looking Inside the Living Brain


LO 2.6 Study of the Brain and How It Works

AP: Research Strategies and Technologies

Clinical Studies
deep brain stimulation (DBS)
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS),
magnetic pulses are applied to the cortex
using special copper wire coils that are
positioned over the head
repetitive TMS (rTMS)
transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Mapping Structure
LO 2.6 Study of the Brain and How It Works

AP: Research Strategies and Technologies

computed tomography (CT): brain-imaging


method using computer-controlled X-rays
of the brain
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): brainimaging method using radio waves and
magnetic fields of the body to produce
detailed images of the brain

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Mapping Structure
LO 2.6 Study of the Brain and How It Works

AP: Research Strategies and Technologies

Mapping Function
electroencephalogram (EEG): records electric
activity of the brain below specific areas of the
skull
magnetoencephalography (MEG)
positron emission tomography (PET):
radioactive glucose (sugar) is injected into the
subject and a computer compiles a colorcoded image of brain activity of the brain;
lighter colors indicate more activity
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Mapping Structure
LO 2.6 Study of the Brain and How It Works

AP: Research Strategies and Technologies

Mapping Function (contd)


single photon emission computed tomography
(SPECT): similar to PET, but uses different
radioactive tracers
functional MRI (fMRI): a computer makes a
sort of movie of changes in the activity of the
brain using images from different time periods

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Modern Ways

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
LO 2.12 Some Potential Causes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
AP: How Heredity, Environment, and Evolution Shape Behavior

Causes of ADHD have highlighted the


likelihood of more than one cause and
more than one brain route to ADHD
Current research is looking at a variety of
areas including environmental factors
such as low-level lead exposure, genetic
influences, the role of heredity and familial
factors, and personality factors
Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White
2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

1. Brain Video Refresher


2. Study your brain notes for 5 minutes.

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

AP Psych
15 Minutes to Study and Complete
yesterdays worksheet
Take out your play-do!

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Brain Structures and Lobes


On your maps of the brain, label the following structures
and lobes and describe their functions:
Lobes:
Frontal, Occipital, Parietal, Temporal, Motor cortex,
Somatosensory cortex, Brocas area, Wernickes area
Structures:
Medulla, Cerebellum, Pituitary Gland, Cerebral Cortex,
Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Pons, Reticular Formation,
Corpus Callosum, Hippocampus (skip 10)

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Endocrine System
On your map of the body, label the
following parts of the Endocrine System

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Activity
Brain Damage

Complete the graphic


organizer using your
handout and your notes.

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

CTE Extension Activity


Write a paragraph (6-8 sentences) summarizing
CTE in the NFL: The Tragedy of Fred McNeill.

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Identify the role of each of the following in listening to and taking


notes during a psychology lecture:
Hippocampus
Cerebellum
Cerebral cortex

FRQ

Psychology, Fourth Edition, AP Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White


2015, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.